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Title

Hiswelókë's Sindarin dictionary

Compiled, edited and annotated by Didier Willis

Edition

Edition 1.9.1

Lexicon 0.9952

1584 entries.

Publication

1999-2008, Didier Willis and The Sindarin Dictionary Project

Availability

Status: free.

License: This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share-Alike License, version 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/).

Additional limitation of scope: Sindarin, as one of the languages invented by J.R.R. Tolkien, is his artistic and intellectual property. The editor does not claim any intellectual property on the Sindarin language itself and, as a whole, on this dictionary, beyond the editorial annotations, the arrangement of entries and the encyclopaedic discussions or interpretations appended to these entries. The above-mentioned license applies to such elements only.

J.R.R. Tolkien's texts and books are copyrighted by the Tolkien Estate and/or Tolkien's publishers. As of yet, this material is not approved by the Tolkien Estate or Tolkien's publishers, and is henceforth an unauthorized Sindarin dictionary. This material is however provided under the editor's assumption that compiling, arranging, analyzing, normalizing and annotating entries in order to produce a dictionary for a language, even if it is an invented one, does not violate the copyright of the inventor.

Shall any third party include this material in a derived work, under the above-mentioned license or under any other applicable license, the editor will not be liable for possible infringement of copyright on the derived work. Every derived use of this material is left under the sole responsability of the third party.

Notwithstanding, this material is neither a verbatim reproduction of information from Tolkien's published works, nor a simple rearrangement of such information in a different order. Many entries are deduced from indirect evidences (such as compounds, inflected forms, etc.) or are normalized according to our current knowledge of the Sindarin phonology and morphology. As a consequence, some deductions, as presented by the editor or by other contributors to the dictionary, might actually prove incorrect or inaccurate when new information is published.

Any violation of copyright regarding yet unpublished texts by J.R.R. Tolkien is unintended. The compiler does not have any access to hitherto unpublished texts. Would it be the case, such texts would not be used in the dictionary. Therefore, this dictionary only contains entries based on published texts, either from direct attestations or based on deductions and conclusions drawn from these texts by careful comparisons.

Notes

The editor would like to thank all the persons who made this work possible. This dictionary would not have existed without the efforts of many other peoples. Lisa Star (editor of Tyalië Tyelelliéva) and Helge Kåre Fauskanger (webmaster of Ardalambion) gave me precious advices and encouragements at the very beginning of the project. David Salo sent me his own lexicons and kindly answered some of my questions about them. Cédric Fockeu (webmaster of J.R.R. Tolkien en Version Française) offered his technical skill in scripting languages, as well as disk space to host the original on-line search engine. My thanks are also addressed to Ryszard Derdzinski, Dorothea Salo, B. Philip Jonsson, Sébastien Mallet and the members of the ELFLING mailing-list, for their support during the early phases of this long project; and later to Jim Allan (editor and co-author of An Introduction to Elvish), Bertrand Bellet, Carl Hostetter (editor of Vinyar Tengwar), Per Lindberg (from Mellonath Daeron), Elena Liria, Emanuele Vicentini, Patrick Wynne and all the other members of the Sindarin dictionary discussion group for their contributions and continual feedback, with a special mention for Javier Lorenzo for all the corrections he sent to the mailing-list.

The Dragon Flame application would not have existed without Benjamin Babut. Likewise, this revised edition of the dictionary would not have seen the light without Benjamin's work and enthousiasm for Dragon Flame and its set of related tools. I am also indebt to Sylvain Veyrié and Thomas Deniau for having ported Dragon Flame to other operating systems.

The German translation of this dictionary is based on the initial work of Christian Buzek, with further help and lots of improvements by Florian Dombach (Das Sindarin Lexikon) and other readers. Benjamin Babut and David Giraudeau contributed to the French translation. We also thank Stéphane Landais for all his corrections.

Last but not least, this work is dedicated to Christopher Tolkien and to the Vinyar Tengwar & Parma Eldalamberon editorial staffs, whose efforts to publish J.R.R. Tolkien's linguistic papers have made such a dictionary possible.

Source

This dictionary is based on J.R.R. Tolkien's works, extended with etymological notes, phonetics and other information.

Sindarin is the language of the Grey Elves, invented by J.R.R. Tolkien and exemplified in his masterful epic story The Lord of the Rings.

This work aims at being a complete Sindarin and Noldorin dictionary, addressing not only Tolkien's fans wishing to understand the elvish sentences from The Lord of the Rings or to build simple sentences in Sindarin, but also scholars wanting to study Sindarin for what it is: the complex linguistic invention of a philology professor, and also a beautiful piece of art.

The Sindarin dictionary project began on October 23, 1999, and is still under development. By no mean shall this version be regarded as definitive. The editor is all too well aware that the dictionary is not as perfect or complete as it might be. Nevertheless, it seems better to encourage the study of Sindarin by the provision of a working dictionary rather than delay the publication perhaps for years, until the editor's ideals are satisfied — a condition which might never be attained.

Encoding
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Dictionary compiled and adapted from various sources.

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Sampling

Phonetics are transcribed using the X-SAMPA scheme for representing the IPA in 7-bit ASCII encoding.

Hypothetical words, either interpreted, reconstructed or deduced from mutated forms, are all marked as deduced.

Phonetics and special delimiters are rendered in Unicode (UTF-8) in the XHTML version. The Lucida Sans Unicode font is assumed, for the document to display correctly, as well a browser supporting Unicode.

Phonetics are rendered in IPA in the PDF version. Some symbols used as delimiters are rendered with glyphs available to the typesetter, and might differ from the XHTML version.

Correction

Status: high.

This document has been extensively checked, although a few casual errors or typos may still remain.

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XHTML version validated with Richard Tobin's RXP software, for compliance with XHTML 1.0 Transitional.

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Interpretation

Probable errors in the sources have been corrected and marked with the <corr> tag.

In the XHTML version, corrections are rendered using a specific markup (misreadings, etc.).


A

abandonawartha- N. [ɑwˈɑrθɑ] v. to forsake, abandon ◇ Ety/397

abandonmentawarth N. [ˈɑwɑrθ] n. abandonment ◇ Ety/397

abhor*fuia- N. [fˈuj.ɑ] inf. fuio N. [fˈuj.ɔ] v. to feel disgust at, abhor ◇ Ety/381

abhorrencedelos N. [dˈɛlɔs] (deloth N.) n. abhorrence, detestation, loathing ◇ Ety/355

abhorrentthaur S. [θˈɑur] adj. abominable, abhorrent ◇ S/438

abidinghim I N. [hˈim] adj. 1. steadfast, abiding ○ 2. as an adverb, continually ◇ Ety/364thand II N. [θˈɑnd] (thann N.) adj. firm, true, abiding ◇ Ety/388, VT/46:16Misreading thenid, thenin rectified according to VT/46:16

abominabledeleb N. [dˈɛlɛb] adj. horrible, abominable, loathsome ◇ Ety/355thaur S. [θˈɑur] adj. abominable, abhorrent ◇ S/438

abound*ovra- N. [ˈɔvrɑ] inf. ovro N. [ˈɔvrɔ] v. to abound ◇ Ety/396

abouto II N. [ɔ] prep. about, concerning ◇ Ety/378The Etymologies state that h- is prefixed to the word following this preposition, when it begins with a vowel: o Hedhil "concerning the Elves". Some scholars consider that this rule is not valid in Sindarin, but that the preposition would perhaps become oh in such a case (hence oh Edhil, to be compared with ah in Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth)os- N. [ɔs] pref. about, around ◇ Ety/379

aboveor N. [ɔr] prep. above, over ◇ Ety/379or- N. [ɔr] pref. above, over ◇ Ety/379

abroadpalan- S. [pˈɑlɑn] adv. afar, abroad, far and wide ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74

abundantovor N. [ˈɔvr̩] (ovr N., ofr N.) adj. abundant ◇ Ety/396

abyssdath N. [dˈɑθ] n. hole, pit, steep fall, abyss ◇ Ety/354, VT/45:8 S. [jˈɑː] (ia N.) n. 1. gulf ○ 2. abyss, void ◇ Ety/400, S/432, Letters/383

accountpennas N. [pˈɛnnɑs] n. abst. of pent II, history, historical account ◇ Ety/366, WJ/192, WJ/206trenarn N. [trˈɛnɑrn] n. account, tale ◇ Ety/374

acrerîdh N. [rˈiːð] n. sown field, acre ◇ Ety/383, VT/46:11

acrossath- N. [ɑθ] pref. on both sides, across ◇ Ety/349athra- S. [ɑθrɑ] pref. across ← Athrabeth MR/329thar- S., N. [θɑr] pref. across, athwart, over, beyond ◇ Ety/388, S/438

acutelhaeg N. (lhoeg N.) adj. keen, sharp, acute ◇ Ety/367, VT/45:25, X/OE, X/LH

afarpalan- S. [pˈɑlɑn] adv. afar, abroad, far and wide ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74

affect*presta- N. [prˈɛstɑ] inf. presto N. [prˈɛstɔ] v. to affect, trouble, disturb ◇ Ety/380

affectedprestannen N. [prɛstˈɑnnɛn] pp. of presta-, 1. affected ○ 2. Ling. mutated (of a mutated vowel) ◇ Ety/380

affectionmîl N. [mˈiːl] n. love, affection ◇ Ety/372prestanneth N. [prɛstˈɑnnɛθ] n. Ling. affection of vowels, mutation ◇ Ety/380

afflictioncaul S. [kˈɑul] n. great burden, affliction ◇ VT/39:10

afterab- S. [ɑb] pref. after, later ← Abonnen WJ/387

againad- N. [ɑd] pref. back, again, re- ◇ Ety/349, VT/45:6

againstdan S. [dɑn] prep. 1. against ○ 2. etym. back ◇ LotR/II:IV

ageanrand N. n. cycle, age (100 Valian Years) ◇ Ety/382, X/ND4Helge Fauskanger noted that the element and "long" would normally be preserved before r-, but the -d is lost because there is another d in the word (VT/41:9); however, this second d later disappeared in the change from -nd to -nn, and it is unclear whether or not an- would then revert to and-

agedifant N. adj. aged, having lived long, old (with no connotation of weakness) ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, VT/46:23, X/PH

agileceleg S., N. [kˈɛlɛg] adj. swift, agile, hasty ◇ Ety/366, PM/353, VT/41:10

agoio N. [jɔ] (ia N.) adv. ago ◇ Ety/399

ahai I S. [ˈɑj] interj. ah! ◇ LotR/I:XIIThough attested in LotR, this word might relate to ae, with the regular change from ai to ae between Noldorin and Sindarin

airgwelw N. n. air (as substance) ◇ Ety/398, X/Wgwelwen N. [gwˈɛl̡wɛn] n. air, lower air (distinct from the upper air of the stars, or the outer) ◇ Ety/398gwilith N. [gwˈiliθ] n. air (as a region) ◇ Ety/398lhind N. (lhinn N.) n. air, tune ◇ Ety/369, X/LH, X/ND1

alasnae N. [nˈɑɛ] interj. alas ◇ Ety/375

alivecuin N. [kˈujn] adj. alive ◇ Ety/366*cuina- N. [kˈujnɑ] inf. cuino N. [kˈujnɔ] v. to be alive ◇ Ety/366

all*pân II S. [pˈɑːn] pl. *pain S. [pˈɑjn] adj. all, in totality ← mhellyn în phain SD/129-31As no other word beginning in ph- is attested, it is assumed that a nasal mutation is triggered by the pronoun în I, hence the form observed in the "King's Letter"

allegiance*buia- N. [bˈuj.ɑ] inf. buio N. [bˈuj.ɔ] v. to serve, to hold allegiance to ◇ Ety/353

aloneer- S., N. [ɛr] pref. alone, one ◇ VT/42:19erui S. [ˈɛruj] adj. 1. single, alone ○ 2. by ext., first (incorrect use by the Gondorians) ◇ TI/312, WR/436, VT/42:10The proper word for first in Sindarin was minui

alphabetangerthas S. [ɑŋgˈɛrθɑs] n. Ling. runic alphabet, long rune-rows (extended version of the Certhas) ◇ S/427, LotR/Ecerthas S. [kˈɛrθɑs] n. abst. of certh, Ling. runic alphabet, rune-rows ◇ LotR/Etiwdi N. [tˈiwdi] n. Ling. alphabet ◇ VT/46:18

amputate*osgar- N. [ˈɔsgɑr] inf. esgeri N. [ˈɛsgɛri] v. to cut round, to amputate ◇ Ety/379

anchoragelhorn N. n. 1. quiet water ○ 2. by ext., anchorage, harbour ◇ VT/45:29, X/LH

ancientiaur S., N. [jˈɑur] adj. 1. ancient, old, original ○ 2. older, former ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, S/433, UT/384

anda I S. [ɑ] (ar S.) conj. and ◇ LotR/II:IV, LotR/VI:IV, S/428, SD/129-31, LB/354, Letters/308See ah for the form that this conjunction might take before a vowelah S. [ɑh] prep. and conj. and, with ◇ MR/329The title Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth is translated as "converse of Finrod and Andreth", but some scholars actually believe this word to be unrelated with the conjunction a I, ar "and", and they render it as "with". Other scholars consider that "and" and "with" (in the comitative sense) are not exclusive of each other, and regard ah as the form taken by this conjunction before a vowel. That a, ar and ah are etymologically related has finally been confirmed in VT/43:29-30. Compare also with Welsh, where the coordination "and" also takes different forms whether it occurs before a vowel or a consonant (respectively ac and a). In written Welsh, a often triggers the aspirate mutation: bara a chaws "bread and cheese". This usage is seldom applied in colloquial Welsh (Modern Welsh §510)

angerrûth S. [rˈuːθ] n. anger ◇ S/436

anglebennas N. [bˈɛnnɑs] n. angle, corner ◇ Ety/352, Ety/375nass N. [nˈɑss] n. 1. point, (sharp) end ○ 2. angle or corner ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37

animallavan S. [lˈɑvɑn] pl. levain S. [lˈɛvɑjn] n. Zool. animal (usually applied to four-footed beasts, and never to reptiles or birds) ◇ WJ/388, WJ/416*tad-dal S. [tˈɑd.dɑl] pl. tad-dail S. [tˈɑd.dɑjl] n. and adj. Zool. biped, two-legged animal ◇ WJ/388

annalínias N. [ˈiːni.ɑs] n. abst. of în II, annals ◇ Ety/400

anniversaryedinar N. n. Cal. anniversary day ◇ Ety/400, X/Z

answerdambeth S. [dˈɑmbɛθ] n. answer, response ◇ PM/395In Tolkien's manuscript, this form was rejected in favor of dangweth, with a slightly different meaning. However, it may possibly be assumed that the word is valid per se (although it may be argued that this compound word does not show the regular mutation that one would have expected)dangweth S. [dˈɑŋgwɛθ] n. answer, reply giving new information ◇ PM/395

anybodypen II S. [pɛn] pron. one, somebody, anybody ◇ WJ/376Usually enclitic and mutated as ben II

apparitionauth II S. [ˈɑuθ] n. a dim shape, spectral or vague apparition ◇ VT/42:9

appear*thia- N. [θˈi.ɑ] inf. thio N. [θˈi.ɔ] v. to appear, seem ◇ Ety/392

applecordof S. [kˈɔrdɔv] n. Bot. pippin (seed of certain fruits, or more probably small red apple) ◇ SD/129-31

approach*anglenna- S. [ɑŋglˈɛnnɑ] v. to approach ← anglennatha SD/129-31

appropriateseidia- S. [sˈɛjdi.ɑ] v. to set aside, appropriate to a special purpose or owner ◇ VT/42:20

aprilgwirith S. [gwˈiriθ] n. Cal. april (month) ◇ LotR/D, SD/129-31

arch S., N. [kˈuː] n. 1. arch, crescent ○ 2. Mil. by ext., bow ◇ Ety/365, S/429

areasad S. [sˈɑd] n. limited area naturally or artificially defined, a place, spot ◇ UT/425, VT/42:19-20

aridafarch N. adj. very dry, arid ◇ VT/45:5, X/PH

armrhanc N. pl. rhenc N. (Arch. rhengy N.) n. arm ◇ Ety/382, X/RH

aroundos- N. [ɔs] pref. about, around ◇ Ety/379

articlebach N. [bˈɑx] n. article (for exchange), ware, thing ◇ Ety/372

assui II S. [sˈuj] conj. as, like ◇ VT/44:21,27

ashlith S., N. [lˈiθ] n. ash, sand, dust ◇ Ety/369, S/434, TC/178

ashenlithui S. [lˈiθuj] adj. ashen, ashy, of ash, ash-coloured, dusty ◇ S/434, UT/435, RGEO/74, TC/178, VT/42:10

ashylithui S. [lˈiθuj] adj. ashen, ashy, of ash, ash-coloured, dusty ◇ S/434, UT/435, RGEO/74, TC/178, VT/42:10

assemblyhûd N. [hˈuːd] n. assembly ◇ Ety/364

associategwathel N. [gwˈɑθɛl̡] pl. gwethil N. [gwˈɛθil̡] n. f. sister, associate ◇ Ety/392

atna S., N. [nɑ] prep. 1. with, by (also used as a genitive sign) ○ 2. to, towards, at ◇ Ety/374, LotR/I:XII

athwartthar- S., N. [θɑr] pref. across, athwart, over, beyond ◇ Ety/388, S/438

augusturui S. [ˈuruj] n. and adj. 1. hot ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of august ◇ LotR/D

autumniavas S. [jˈɑvɑs] n. abst. of iau I, Cal. season of autumn ◇ LotR/Dlhasbelin N. n. Cal. season of autumn ◇ Ety/366-367, X/LH

awakeningechui S., N. [ˈɛxuj] (echuiw N.) n. awakening ◇ Ety/366, S/429

aweanwar S. [ˈɑnwɑr] n. awe ◇ UT/418, VT/42:23

awfultaur III N. [tˈɑur] adj. mighty, vast, overwhelming, huge, awful, high, sublime ◇ Ety/395

axehast N. [hˈɑst] n. axe-stroke ◇ Ety/389hathol S. [hˈɑθl̩] (hathel N., *hathal N.) n. 1. Mil. broadsword-blade, axe-blade ○ 2. Mil. by ext., axe ◇ Ety/389, WJ/234, UT/444, LR/433See orchal for a discussion about syllabic consonants and their vocalization

B

babble*glavra- N. [glˈɑvrɑ] inf. glavro N. [glˈɑvrɔ] v. to babble ◇ Ety/358

babblingglavrol N. [glˈɑvrɔl] part. of glavra-, babbling ◇ Ety/358

babelhaes N. n. babe ◇ Ety/367, X/LH

babygwinig S. [gwˈinig] n. dim. 1. "litte baby" ○ 2. Biol. little finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,16-17

backad- N. [ɑd] pref. back, again, re- ◇ Ety/349, VT/45:6dan S. [dɑn] prep. 1. against ○ 2. etym. back ◇ LotR/II:IV

badfoeg N. adj. mean, poor, bad ◇ Ety/387, X/OEum N. [ˈum] adj. bad, evil ◇ Ety/396

baldrûdh S. [rˈuːð] adj. bald ◇ S/379, WJ/187

ballcoron S., N. [kˈɔrɔn] n. 1. globe, ball ○ 2. Geog. by ext., mound ◇ Ety/365, S/429

banedagnir S. [dˈɑgnir] n. 1. slayer ○ 2. by ext., bane ◇ S/430

bankduirro N. [dˈujrrɔ] n. Geog. river-bank ◇ VT/46:10rhaw I N. n. Geog. bank (especially of a river) ◇ Ety/382, X/RH

bark*rîf S. [rˈiːv] n. bark ← Fladrif LotR/E, TC/169, TC/173

barrowgorthad S. [gˈɔrθɑd] pl. gœrthaid S. [gˈɛrθɑjd] n. barrow ◇ LotR/A(iii), PM/194

batter*blab- N. [blˈɑb] inf. blebi N. [blˈɛbi] v. to beat, batter, flap (wings, etc.) ◇ Ety/380

battleauth I N. [ˈɑuθ] n. war, battle ◇ Ety/365, Ety/379, VT/45:23dagor S., N. [dˈɑgr̩] (dagr N.) n. battle ◇ Ety/375, S/430*dagra- N. [dˈɑgrɑ] inf. dagro N. [dˈɑgrɔ] v. to battle ◇ Ety/375maeth N. [mˈɑɛθ] n. battle, fight (not of general host but of two or a few) ◇ Ety/371

baycôf S. [kˈɔːv] n. Geog. bay ◇ VT/42:15hûb N. [hˈuːb] n. Geog. haven, harbour, small land-locked bay ◇ Ety/364

be*na- S. [nˈɑ] v. to be ← no aer i eneth lín VT/44:21,24no II S. [nˈɔ] v. imp. of na-, be! ◇ VT/44:21,24

beachfalas S., N. [fˈɑlɑs] pl. feles N. n. 1. Geog. beach, wave-beaten shore, line of surf ○ 2. Geog. as a proper noun, the western coast of Beleriand ◇ Ety/381, S/431, RC/18, X/EIfaur N. [fˈɑur] n. Geog. beach, shore ◇ VT/46:15

beacon*narthan S. [nˈɑrθɑn] n. beacon, signal fire to notify of the approach of an enemy ← Fornarthan VT/42:30

bearbrôg N. [brˈɔːg] n. Zool. bear ◇ Ety/374graw S. [grˈɑw] n. Zool. bear ◇ VT/47:12megli N. n. Zool. bear ◇ Ety/369, Ety/371, X/DLmeglin N. adj. honey-eater, bear-like ◇ Ety/369, X/DL

beardfang N. [fˈɑŋ] n. beard ◇ Ety/387

bearer*cyll S. [kˈyll] n. bearer ← Taengyl, Tengyl MR/385

beat*blab- N. [blˈɑb] inf. blebi N. [blˈɛbi] v. to beat, batter, flap (wings, etc.) ◇ Ety/380*dringa- N. [drˈiŋgɑ] inf. dringo N. [drˈiŋgɔ] v. to beat (with a hammer, etc.) ◇ Ety/355

beautifulbein N. adj. beautiful, fair ◇ Ety/351, Ety/359, X/EI

bedhaust N. [hˈɑust] n. bed ◇ Ety/364

bedriddencaeleb N. [kˈɑɛlɛb] adj. bedridden, sick ◇ Ety/363

beechbrethil II S. [brˈɛθil̡] (brethel N.) pl. brethil S., N. n. Bot. beech, beech-tree, silver birch ◇ Ety/352, Ety/376, S/429fêr N. [fˈɛːr] pl. ferin N. [fˈɛrin] n. Bot. beech-tree ◇ Ety/352, Ety/381

begetedonna- N. [ɛdˈɔnnɑ] v. to beget ◇ Ety/379*onna- S. [ˈɔnnɑ] v. to beget ← Abonnen, Eboennin WJ/387

begin*heria- N. [hˈɛri.ɑ] inf. herio N. [hˈɛri.ɔ] (hœrio N.) v. to begin suddenly and vigorously ◇ Ety/364, VT/45:22The forms heno, hœno in the Etymologies are misreadings according to VT/45:22

behindadel N. [ɑdɛl̡] prep. behind, in rear (of) ◇ Ety/392

beholdalae S. [ˈɑlɑɛ] interj. (?) behold! ◇ UT/40Uncertain meaning, but compare with Quenya ela! "imperative exclamation directing sight to an actually visible object" (WJ/362)

bellnell N. [nˈɛl̡l] n. bell ◇ Ety/379nelladel N. [nˈɛl̡lɑdɛl̡] n. ringing of bells ◇ Ety/379

bellowingglam S. [glˈɑm] (glamm S., N., glamb S., N.) n. 1. barbarous speech, shouting, confused noise ○ 2. din, uproar, the confused yelling and bellowing of beasts ○ 3. Pop. by ext., as a coll. noun, any body of Orcs ◇ Ety/358, Ety/377, WJ/390, WJ/416

beneathdi- S. [di] pref. beneath, under ← di-nguruthos LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278, VT/45:37The only known usage of this word is as prefix, but VT/45:37 lists it as a unitary word di

bentcûn N. [kˈuːn] adj. bowed, bow-shaped, bent ◇ Ety/365rhoeg N. adj. crooked, bent, wrong ◇ Ety/383, X/OE, X/RH

besidear- II N. [ɑr] pref. 1. Arch. etym. beside ○ 2. by ext., without ◇ Ety/349

betray*gweria- N. [gwˈɛri.ɑ] inf. gwerio N. [gwˈɛri.ɔ] v. to betray, cheat ◇ Ety/397

betrayergwarth N. [gwˈɑrθ] n. betrayer ◇ Ety/397

betweenmîn II S. [mˈiːn] (min- S.) prep. (in) between (referring to a gap, space, barrier or anything intervening between two other things) ← Minhiriath LotR/Map, VT/47:11,14

beyondathan S. [ɑθɑn] prep. beyond ◇ SD/62thar- S., N. [θɑr] pref. across, athwart, over, beyond ◇ Ety/388, S/438

bind*gwedh- N. [gwˈɛð] inf. gwedhi (corr. gwedi) N. [gwˈɛði] pa. t. gwedhant N. [gwˈɛðɑnt] (gwend N., gwenn N.) v. to bind ◇ Ety/397, X/ND1nud- N. v. to tie, bind ◇ Ety/378, X/Z

biped*tad-dal S. [tˈɑd.dɑl] pl. tad-dail S. [tˈɑd.dɑjl] n. and adj. Zool. biped, two-legged animal ◇ WJ/388

birchbrethil II S. [brˈɛθil̡] (brethel N.) pl. brethil S., N. n. Bot. beech, beech-tree, silver birch ◇ Ety/352, Ety/376, S/429

birdaew S., N. [ˈɑɛw] n. Orn. (small) bird ◇ Ety/348, S/434*aewen S. [ˈɑɛwɛn] adj. of birds ← Linaewen S/434emlin N. [ˈɛmlin] (emmelin N., emelin N.) n. Orn. yellow bird, "yellow hammer" ◇ Ety/386fileg N. [fˈilɛg] pl. filig N. [fˈilig] n. Orn. small bird ◇ Ety/381filigod N. [fˈiligɔd] n. sing. of fileg, Orn. small bird ◇ Ety/381heledir N. [hˈɛlɛdˌir] (heledirn N.) n. Orn. kingfisher (bird) ◇ Ety/363, Ety/386, Ety/394tavor N. [tˈɑvr̩] (tavr N., tafr N.) n. Orn. woodpecker (bird) ◇ Ety/390tuilinn N. [tˈujlinn] (tuilind N., tuilin N.) n. Orn. swallow (bird) ◇ Ety/395, X/ND4

bitenag- N. [nˈɑg] v. to bite ◇ Ety/374

bitingnaeth S., N. [nˈɑɛθ] n. 1. biting ○ 2. by ext., woe (gets sense of gnashing teeth in grief) ← Elu-naeth WJ/258, Ety/374-375narch S. [nˈɑrx] n. (bitter-) biting ← Narchost LotR, RC/601

bittersaer N. [sˈɑɛr] adj. bitter ◇ Ety/385

blackmorn S., N. [mˈɔrn] pl. myrn S. [mˈyrn] adj. black, dark ◇ Ety/373, Letters/382, Letters/427, WJ/368, WR/113, UT/65

blackthorntoss N. [tˈɔss] n. Bot. bush, low-growing tree (as maple, hawthorn, blackthorn, holly, etc.) ◇ Ety/379, Ety/395

bladehathol S. [hˈɑθl̩] (hathel N., *hathal N.) n. 1. Mil. broadsword-blade, axe-blade ○ 2. Mil. by ext., axe ◇ Ety/389, WJ/234, UT/444, LR/433See orchal for a discussion about syllabic consonants and their vocalization

blessednessgalw N. n. (?) blessings, (?) blessedness, (?) good fortune (meaning not entirely clear) ◇ Ety/357, X/W

blessingsgalw N. n. (?) blessings, (?) blessedness, (?) good fortune (meaning not entirely clear) ◇ Ety/357, X/W

blissmanadh N. [mˈɑnɑð] n. 1. doom, final end, fate, fortune ○ 2. by ext., final bliss ◇ Ety/371

blocked*tafnen S. [tˈɑvnɛn] adj. closed, blocked, stopped ← uidavnen WR/341Orthography normalized to tafnen, as in lefnui

blood*agar S. [ˈɑgɑr] n. blood ← Agarwaen S/378iâr N. [jˈɑːr] n. blood ◇ Ety/400sereg S. [sˈɛrɛg] n. blood ◇ S/437

bloodstainedagarwaen S. [ɑgˈɑrwɑɛn] adj. bloodstained ◇ S/378

blossom*edlothia- S. [ɛdlˈɔθi.ɑ] v. to blossom, flower ← edlothiand WR/293, X/TLThe sentence from WR/293 is hardly legible and is not translated, but this word is however a plausible formgwaloth N. [gwˈɑlɔθ] n. Bot. blossom, collection of flowers ◇ Ety/370, VT/45:29This form replaced deleted goloth in the manuscript of The Etymologies, see VT/45:29. The deleted form is however also later attested in VT/42:18

blossoming*edlothiad (corr. edlothiand) S. [ɛdlˈɔθi.ɑd] ger. of edlothia-, blossoming, flowering ← edlothiand WR/293Actually, edlothiand might be a misreading, according to David Salo who checked the original manuscript at Marquette and reported that his reading was unmistakably edlothiad

blowdrambor N. [drˈɑm.bɔr] n. 1. clenched fist ○ 2. by ext., blow (with fist) ◇ Ety/354dramm N. (dramb N.) n. heavy stroke, a blow (of axe, etc.) ◇ Ety/354, X/MB

blueelw N. adj. (pale) blue ◇ Ety/360, X/Wlhûn N. [ɬˈuːn] adj. (unknown meaning) ◇ Ety/370, VT/48:24-29This word, which also appears on the map of Middle-earth in LotR, is glossed as "blue" in The Etymologies, but Tolkien later rejected this meaning (as luin was already used in that sense). He then proposed several explanations for it, including the possible adaptation of a Dwarvish name into Sindarin, but he apparently never reached a definitive solution.luin S. [lˈujn] adj. invar. blue ◇ LotR (misc.), S/434, UT/390, Ety/370, VT/48:24

boardpân I N. [pˈɑːn] pl. pein N. n. plank, fixed board (especially in floor) ◇ Ety/380, X/EI

boatlhunt N. n. boat ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

bodyrhaw IV S. [ɹ̥ˈɑw] n. flesh, body ◇ MR/350, VT/47:12

boldberen II N. [bˈɛrɛn] adj. bold ◇ Ety/352cann N. adj. bold ◇ Ety/362, X/ND1

bolsternedhw N. n. bolster, cushion ◇ Ety/378, X/W

bondgwaedh N. [gwˈɑɛð] n. bond, troth, compact, oath ◇ Ety/397gwedh N. [gwˈɛð] n. bond ◇ Ety/397gwend II N. [gwˈɛnd] n. bond, friendship ◇ Ety/397-398, X/ND1

bookparf N. [pˈɑrv] pl. perf N. [pˈɛrv] n. book ◇ Ety/380

borderedrein N. n. border ◇ Ety/383, X/EIglân II S. [glˈɑːn] n. hem, border (of textile and other hand-made things) ◇ VT/42:8rhain N. (rhein N.) n. border ◇ Ety/383, X/RHrhîf N. n. edge, hem, border ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

born*onnen S. [ˈɔnnɛn] pl. *ennin S. [ˈɛnnin] pp. of onna-, born ← Abonnen, Eboennin WJ/387

bossdolt II N. [dˈɔlt] pl. dylt N. [dˈylt] n. round knob, boss ◇ Ety/376

boundgleina- S. [glˈɛjnɑ] v. to bound, enclose, limit ◇ VT/42:8, VT/42:28This entry should perhaps read gleinia-, cf. VT/42:28, note 13naud N. [nˈɑud] adj. bound ◇ Ety/378

boundarygland S. [glˈɑnd] (glann S.) n. boundary ← Glanduin, Glanhír UT/264, UT/318, UT/441, VT/42:8, X/ND1taeg S. [tˈɑɛg] n. boundary, limit, boundary line ◇ WJ/309

bow S., N. [kˈuː] n. 1. arch, crescent ○ 2. Mil. by ext., bow ◇ Ety/365, S/429peng N. [pˈɛŋ] n. Mil. bow (for shooting) ◇ Ety/366

bowedcûn N. [kˈuːn] adj. bowed, bow-shaped, bent ◇ Ety/365

bowstringtang N. [tˈɑŋ] n. Mil. bowstring ◇ Ety/394

branchgolf N. [gˈɔlv] n. Bot. branch ◇ Ety/359

brandiolf N. n. brand ◇ Ety/400, X/IUThe word is classed as Old Noldorin (ON) in the Etymologies, but rather seems to be Noldorin

breadbasgorn N. [bˈɑsgɔrn] n. loaf (of bread) ◇ Ety/372, Ety/365*bass S. [bˈɑss] n. bread ← besain, besoneth, imbas PM/404-405, VT/44:21In the Etymologies, the word for "bread" is given as bast, Quenya masta, but it seems that Tolkien later changed his mind and updated the word to bass, as shown in Quenya massánie, Sindarin besain, besoneth "bread-giver", and in the mutated form (i)mbas (apparently prefixed with the article). These latter Sindarin forms are however dubious, as we would rather have expected besain (as a regular cognate of Quenya massánie) and besoneth (without i-affection), and possibly a different mutation pattern after the articlebast N. [bˈɑst] n. bread ◇ Ety/372besain S. n. f. bread-giver ◇ PM/404-405, X/ZSee bass for a discussion regarding this wordbesoneth S. n. f. bread-giver ◇ PM/404-405, X/ZSee bass for a discussion regarding this wordlembas S. [lˈɛmbɑs] n. journey bread made by the Elves ◇ PM/404, LotR/II:VIII

break*breitha- N. [brˈɛjθɑ] inf. breitho N. [brˈɛjθɔ] v. to break out suddenly ◇ Ety/352

breathchwest N. n. puff, breath, breeze ◇ Ety/388, X/HWthûl N. [θˈuːl] n. breath ◇ Ety/393

breathe*thuia- N. [θˈuj.ɑ] inf. thuio N. [θˈuj.ɔ] v. to breathe ◇ Ety/393

breezechwest N. n. puff, breath, breeze ◇ Ety/388, X/HW

bridedineth N. [dˈinɛθ] n. bride ◇ Ety/377-378dîs N. [dˈiːs] n. f. bride ◇ Ety/352, Ety/375

bridegroomdoer N. n. bridegroom ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:9, X/OE

bridgeiant S., N. [jˈɑnt] n. bridge ◇ Ety/400, S/432

bright*glân I S. [glˈɑːn] adj. bright, shining white ← Curunír 'Lân UT/390The word is deduced from its mutated form, but it is worth mentioning that a stem GALÁN "bright", with glan "daylight" (and later "clear") as derivative, is listed in the Etymologies (not included in the published text, but see VT/45:13). Most of the words meaning "white" in the Indo-Eureopean languages come from the original notion of "brightness", e.g. Greek leukós "white" is cognate with Latin lucere "to shine", lux "light". This association of sense is also found in Gnomish, PE/11:39 (glan "clean, pure", from "bright" originally) and in Early Noldorin (PE/13:144, glann "clean"). The similarity with Welsh glan (where the vowel, incidentally, is also long, though this is concealed by Welsh orthographic convention) is also striking

brillianceaglar S., N. [ˈɑglɑr] n. glory, brilliance, splendour ◇ Ety/348, S/427, LotR/II:I, LotR/VI:IV, RGEO/73, VT/47:13*fael II S. [fˈɑɛl] n. gleaming brilliance (of the sun) ← Faelivrin LB/376, S/209-210

brilliantceleir N. adj. brilliant ◇ Ety/362, X/EI

bring*tog- N. [tˈɔg] inf. tegi N. [tˈɛgi] v. to lead, bring ◇ Ety/395

broadland S. [lˈɑnd] (lhand N., lhann N.) adj. wide, broad ← Landroval LotR/VI:IV, Ety/367, X/LH, X/ND1

broadswordhathol S. [hˈɑθl̩] (hathel N., *hathal N.) n. 1. Mil. broadsword-blade, axe-blade ○ 2. Mil. by ext., axe ◇ Ety/389, WJ/234, UT/444, LR/433See orchal for a discussion about syllabic consonants and their vocalization

broochtachol N. [tˈɑxl̩] (tachl N.) n. pin, brooch ◇ Ety/389

brothsalff N. n. broth, liquid food, soup ◇ Ety/385, VT/46:12, X/PHThe form salf in the Etymologies is a misreading, see VT/45:12

brothergwador N. [gwˈɑdɔr] pl. gwedeir N. n. m. brother (especially used of those not brothers by blood, but sworn brothers or associates) ◇ Ety/394gwanur N. [gwˈɑnur] n. 1. a pair of twins ○ 2. brother or kinsman, kinswoman ◇ Ety/378, Ety/392, VT/46:6, LotR/A(iv)hanar S. [hˈɑnɑr] n. m. brother ◇ VT/47:14hawn S. [hˈɑwn] n. m. Arch. brother ◇ VT/47:14honeg S. [hˈɔnɛg] n. m. dim. of hawn, 1. "litte brother" ○ 2. Biol. middle finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,16-17Given as honig in VT/47:14, but see VT/48:17 n. 13 for discussionmuindor N. [mˈujndɔr] pl. muindyr N. [mˈujndyr] n. m. brother ◇ Ety/394tôr N. [tˈɔːr] pl. terein N. n. m. Arch. brother ◇ Ety/394, X/ZThe word muindor is more usual

brownbaran I S., N. [bˈɑrɑn] adj. brown, swart, dark brown, golden brown, yellow brown ◇ Ety/351, LotR/F, TC/179, RC/343rhosc N. adj. brown ◇ Ety/385, X/Z

budtuiw N. [tˈujw] (tui N.) n. Bot. a sprout, bud ◇ Ety/395

builderthavron N. [θˈɑvrɔn] n. carpenter, wright, builder ◇ Ety/388

buildingadab N. [ˈɑdɑb] pl. edeb N. n. building, house ◇ Ety/390, WR/379-80, X/EIcar N. [kˈɑr] (cardh N.) n. house, building ◇ Ety/362

bullmund S. [mˈund] n. Zool. bull ◇ Letters/422-423

burdencaul S. [kˈɑul] n. great burden, affliction ◇ VT/39:10

bushtoss N. [tˈɔss] n. Bot. bush, low-growing tree (as maple, hawthorn, blackthorn, holly, etc.) ◇ Ety/379, Ety/395

butterflygwilwileth N. [gwˈil̡wilɛθ] n. Zool. butterfly ◇ Ety/398

byan- N. [ɑn] pref. with, by ◇ Ety/374na S., N. [nɑ] prep. 1. with, by (also used as a genitive sign) ○ 2. to, towards, at ◇ Ety/374, LotR/I:XII

C

cairnsarnas N. [sˈɑrnɑs] n. abst. of sarn, cairn, pile of stones ◇ LR/406

cakecram S., N. [krˈɑm] (cramb N.) n. cake of compressed flour or meal (often containing honey and milk) ◇ Ety/365, LotR/II:VIII

calendargenediad S. [gɛnˈɛdi.ɑd] ger. of genedia-, 1. reckoning ○ 2. by ext., calendar ◇ SD/129-31

callcan- S. [kˈɑn] v. to cry out, shout, call ◇ PM/361-362ial N. [jˈɑl] n. (?) a call, (?) a cry ◇ VT/46:22ialla- N. [jˈɑllɑ] v. to call ◇ VT/46:22

calligraphertegilbor S. [tɛgˈil̡bɔr] n. one skilled in calligraphy, a calligrapher ◇ PM/318, VT/47:8

campechad S. [ˈɛxɑd] n. camp ◇ UT/431

canopydaedelu N. [dˈɑɛdɛlu] n. canopy ◇ Ety/391orthelian N. [ɔrθˈɛli.ɑn] n. canopy ◇ Ety/391

capebund N. [bˈund] (bunn N.) n. 1. Biol. snout, nose ○ 2. Geog. by ext., cape (of land) ◇ Ety/372, X/ND2*cast S. [kˈɑst] n. Geog. cape, headland ← Angast VT/42:28

carpenterthavron N. [θˈɑvrɔn] n. carpenter, wright, builder ◇ Ety/388

catchgad- N. [gˈɑd] inf. gedi N. [gˈɛdi] v. to catch ◇ Ety/358raeda- S. [rˈɑɛdɑ] v. to catch in a net ◇ VT/42:12

cavefela N. [fˈɛlɑ] pl. fili N. [fˈili] n. cave ◇ Ety/381gathrod N. [gˈɑθrɔd] n. cave ◇ Ety/358groth S. [grˈɔθ] n. 1. cave, tunnel, large excavation ○ 2. delving, underground dwelling ◇ WJ/415, S/431, VT/46:12rond S. [rˈɔnd] (rhond N., rhonn N.) n. 1. cave roof ○ 2. vaulted or arched roof, as seen from below (and usually not visible from outside), or a (large) hall of chamber so roofed ◇ Ety/384, VT/46:12, S/437, WJ/414, X/RH, X/ND1

caverngath N. [gˈɑθ] n. cavern ◇ Ety/358

cavernousrhaudh N. adj. hollow, cavernous ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

centreened S. [ˈɛnɛd] (enedh N.) n. core, centre, middle ◇ Ety/356, Ety/376, UT/450, Letters/224, VT/41:12,16While the word is written enedh in the Etymologies, it seems that Tolkien considered and reconsidered its form throughout his life. Late rough jottings (c. 1968), as well as the text of letter no. 168 and the fact that the toponym Enedwaith was never changed on the LotR map, seem to imply that ened is the (most) definitive form. See also the possibly related preposition ned, which has sometimes been suggested to mean "in" (while again a prefix nedh- is seen in the Etymologies)

cessationpost N. [pˈɔst] n. pause, halt, rest, cessation, respite ◇ Ety/382

chainangwedh N. [ˈɑŋgwɛð] n. chain ◇ Ety/397

chairham N. [hˈɑm] n. (?) chair ◇ VT/45:20

chamber*sam S. [sˈɑm] n. chamber ← Sammath LotR/VI:III, S/435sammath S. [sˈɑmmɑθ] n. coll. of sam, chambers ◇ LotR/VI:III, S/435

chantlinnathon S. [lˈinnɑθɔn] v. fut. 1st of linna-, I will sing, I will chant ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72linnod S. [lˈinnɔd] n. 1. (?) a single verse used as a maxim ○ 2. (?) a chant of a certain metrical type, where each (half-)verse is composed of seven syllables ◇ LotR/A(iv)The word is not translated by Tolkien. The first meaning assumes that -od is a singulative affix (cf. filigod). The second meaning is proposed by Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne in Tolkien's Legendarium p. 132, based on the metrical characteristics of Gilraen's linnod

charmlhûth N. n. spell, charm ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

chaserrhŷn N. n. Zool. "chaser", hound of chase ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

cheat*gweria- N. [gwˈɛri.ɑ] inf. gwerio N. [gwˈɛri.ɔ] v. to betray, cheat ◇ Ety/397

childhên II S. [hˈɛːn] pl. hîn S. [hˈiːn] n. child (mostly used as a prefix in patronymics or metronymics) ◇ WJ/403sell N. [sˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid (child) ◇ Ety/385

circleechor S. [ˈɛxɔr] n. outer circle, encircling, outer ring ◇ LotR/V:I, LotR/Index, S/430rhind N. (rhinn N.) n. circle ◇ Ety/383, X/RH, X/ND1rhingorn N. n. circle ◇ Ety/365, X/RH

circularrhenn N. adj. circular ◇ Ety/383, VT/46:11, X/RH, X/ND1

citadelost S., N. [ˈɔst] n. 1. city, town with wall round ○ 2. citadel, fortress or stronghold, made or strenghtened by art ◇ Ety/379, S/435, WJ/414, RC/232

citycaras S., N. [kˈɑrɑs] n. 1. circular earthwall with dike ○ 2. city (built above ground) ◇ Ety/362, LotR/II:VII, RC/311minas S. [mˈinɑs] (minnas N.) n. abst. 1. tower ○ 2. by ext., fort, city with a citadel and central watch-tower ◇ Ety/373, S/434, VT/42:24ost S., N. [ˈɔst] n. 1. city, town with wall round ○ 2. citadel, fortress or stronghold, made or strenghtened by art ◇ Ety/379, S/435, WJ/414, RC/232othrond S., N. n. fortress or city in underground caves, underground stronghold ◇ Ety/379, Ety/384, WJ/414, X/ND4

clamorcaun II S. [kˈɑun] n. outcry, clamor ◇ PM/361-362

clannoss S., N. [nˈɔss] (nos N.) n. kindred, family, clan ◇ Ety/378, PM/320

clasptaew N. [tˈɑɛw] n. holder, socket, hasp, clasp, staple ◇ Ety/390, VT/46:17

clawgamp S., N. [gˈɑmp] n. hook, claw, crook ◇ Ety/357, VT/47:20

cleanpuig N. [pˈujg] adj. clean, tidy, neat ◇ Ety/382

clearlim II S. [lˈim] adj. clear, sparkling, light ◇ WJ/337

clearedlhaden N. pl. lhedin N. adj. open, cleared ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

clearinglhant N. n. clearing in forest ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

cleavercrist N. [krˈist] n. Mil. cleaver, sword ◇ Ety/365hâdh N. [hˈɑːð] n. Arch., Poet. (?) cleaver ◇ Ety/389

cleftcîl I N. [kˈiːl] n. Geog. cleft, pass between hills, gorge ◇ Ety/365cirith S. [kˈiriθ] n. cleft, high climbing pass, narrow passage cut through earth or rock, ravine, defile ◇ S/387, UT/426, TC/181, RC/334-335criss N. [krˈiss] n. cleft, cut, slash ◇ Ety/365, VT/45:23*falch S. [fˈɑlx] n. Geog. deep cleft, ravine ← Orfalch Echor UT/468iau II N. [jˈɑu] n. Geog. ravine, cleft, gulf ◇ Ety/400, VT/46:22thanc S., N. [θˈɑŋk] adj. cleft, split, forked ← Orthanc S/415, Ety/388

clevermaen N. [mˈɑɛn] adj. skilled, clever ◇ Ety/371

cloak*coll III S. [kˈɔll] n. cloak, mantle ← Thingol S/421, MR/385

closedhollen S. [hˈɔllɛn] pp. closed ← Fen Hollen LotR/V:IV, RC/550*tafnen S. [tˈɑvnɛn] adj. closed, blocked, stopped ← uidavnen WR/341Orthography normalized to tafnen, as in lefnui*uidafnen S. [ujdˈɑvnɛn] (uidavnen N.) adj. ever-closed ◇ WR/341, X/ZNormalized to uidafnen, as in lefnui

clothehab- N. [hˈɑb] v. to clothe ◇ Ety/363hamma- N. [hˈɑmmɑ] v. to clothe ◇ Ety/363, VT/45:21The form hamnia- in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:21

clothinghammad N. [hˈɑmmɑd] ger. of hamma-, clothing ◇ Ety/363

cloudfain S. [fˈɑjn] (fein N.) n. and adj. 1. white ○ 2. as a noun, cloud ◇ Ety/387, WR/288, RC/268, VT/46:15, X/EIfân S. [fˈɑːn] n. 1. veil ○ 2. by ext., cloud (applied to clouds, floating as veils over the blue sky or the sun or moon, or resting on hills) ◇ RGEO/74faun N. [fˈɑun] n. cloud ◇ Ety/387, VT/46:15

cloudyfanui S. [fˈɑnuj] adj. cloudy ◇ RGEO/74, RC/268

clubgrond N. [grˈɔnd] n. Mil. club ◇ Ety/384, X/ND1

coatheleth N. [hˈɛlɛθ] n. fur, fur-coat ◇ Ety/386

cobwebthling N. n. spider, spider's web, cobweb ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

coincanath II S. [kˈɑnɑθ] n. "quarter", silver coin used in Gondor, the fourth part of a "mirian" → mirianPM/45mirian S. [mˈiri.ɑn] n. piece of money, coin used in Gondor → canath IIPM/45

coldhelch N. [hˈɛl̡x] n. bitter cold ◇ Ety/364ring S. [rˈiŋ] (rhing N.) adj. cold ◇ Ety/383, S/436, VT/42:13, X/RH

come*tol- N. [tˈɔl] inf. teli N. [tˈɛli] v. to come ◇ Ety/395tolo S. [tˈɔlɔ] v. imp. of tol-, come! ◇ VT/44:21,25

commanding*conui S. [kˈɔnuj] adj. commanding, (?) ruling ← Argonui LotR/A(ii)

compactgowest N. [gˈɔwɛst] n. contract, compact, treaty ◇ Ety/397, Ety/399gwaedh N. [gwˈɑɛð] n. bond, troth, compact, oath ◇ Ety/397

compulsionthang S., N. [θˈɑŋ] n. compulsion, duress, need, oppression ◇ Ety/388, S/438

concealdelia- N. [dˈɛli.ɑ] inf. delio N. [dˈɛli.ɔ] (dœlio N.) v. to conceal ◇ Ety/355doltha- N. [dˈɔlθɑ] pa. t. Arch. daul N. [dˈɑul] v. to conceal ◇ Ety/355

concealeddolen N. [dˈɔlɛn] pp. of doltha-, concealed, hidden ◇ Ety/355

conceivenautha- N. [nˈɑuθɑ] v. to conceive ◇ Ety/378

concerningo II N. [ɔ] prep. about, concerning ◇ Ety/378The Etymologies state that h- is prefixed to the word following this preposition, when it begins with a vowel: o Hedhil "concerning the Elves". Some scholars consider that this rule is not valid in Sindarin, but that the preposition would perhaps become oh in such a case (hence oh Edhil, to be compared with ah in Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth)

confirm*tangada- N. [tˈɑŋgɑdɑ] inf. tangado N. [tˈɑŋgɑdɔ] v. to make firm, confirm, establish ◇ Ety/389

conquer*orthor- N. [ˈɔrθɔr] inf. ortheri N. [ˈɔrθɛri] v. to master, conquer ◇ Ety/395

contortednorn N. [nˈɔrn] pl. nyrn S. [nˈyrn] adj. 1. twisted, knotted, crabbed, contorted ○ 2. hard ◇ Ety/387

contractgowest N. [gˈɔwɛst] n. contract, compact, treaty ◇ Ety/397, Ety/399

contrivancegaud N. [gˈɑud] n. device, contrivance, machine ◇ Ety/358

control*tortha- N. [tˈɔrθɑ] inf. tortho N. [tˈɔrθɔ] v. to wield, control ◇ Ety/395

converseathrabeth S. [ˈɑθrɑbɛθ] n. debate, converse ◇ MR/329

coolhim II S. [hˈim] adj. cool ◇ S/432

coppergoer N. adj. red, copper-coloured, ruddy ◇ Ety/358, X/OEross S. [rˈɔss] adj. red-haired, copper coloured (especially used of animals, as fox, red deer, etc.) ◇ VT/41:10rust S. [rˈust] n. copper ◇ VT/41:10rustui S. [rˈustuj] adj. of copper ◇ VT/41:10

cordnordh N. [nˈɔrð] n. cord ◇ Ety/387

coreened S. [ˈɛnɛd] (enedh N.) n. core, centre, middle ◇ Ety/356, Ety/376, UT/450, Letters/224, VT/41:12,16While the word is written enedh in the Etymologies, it seems that Tolkien considered and reconsidered its form throughout his life. Late rough jottings (c. 1968), as well as the text of letter no. 168 and the fact that the toponym Enedwaith was never changed on the LotR map, seem to imply that ened is the (most) definitive form. See also the possibly related preposition ned, which has sometimes been suggested to mean "in" (while again a prefix nedh- is seen in the Etymologies)

corniau I N. [jˈɑu] pl. iui N. [jˈuj] n. Bot. corn ◇ Ety/399

cornerbennas N. [bˈɛnnɑs] n. angle, corner ◇ Ety/352, Ety/375nass N. [nˈɑss] n. 1. point, (sharp) end ○ 2. angle or corner ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37

corpsedaen N. [dˈɑɛn] n. corpse ◇ Ety/375

corruptthaw N. [θˈɑw] adj. corrupt, rotten ◇ Ety/393

counselgûr I S. [gˈuːr] n. heart (in the moral sense), counsel ◇ VT/41:11,15

countgonod- N. [gˈɔnɔd] v. to count, count up, reckon, sum up ◇ Ety/378, Ety/399, VT/46:6*nedia- S. [nˈɛdi.ɑ] (nœdia- N.) v. to count ◇ Ety/378, VT/46:6

countenancethîr S., N. [θˈiːr] n. look, face, expression, countenance ◇ Ety/392, VT/41:10

countlessarnediad N. [ɑrnˈɛdi.ɑd] (arnœdiad S., N.) adj. innumerable, countless, endless, without reckoning, numberless ◇ Ety/349, Ety/378, S/428, VT/46:6aronoded N. [ɑrˈɔnɔdɛd] adj. innumerable, countless, endless ◇ Ety/378

courseiôr N. n. course ◇ Ety/400, X/IUrant S., N. [rˈɑnt] n. 1. lode, vein ○ 2. Geog. course, riverbed ◇ Ety/383, S/436rath S., N. [rˈɑθ] n. 1. course, riverbed ○ 2. street (in a city) ◇ Ety/383, LotR/Index, RC/523,551

courtyardpann I N. n. courtyard ◇ Ety/380, X/ND1

coveresgal S. [ˈɛsgɑl] n. veil, screen, cover that hides ◇ S/431*toba- N. [tˈɔbɑ] inf. tobo N. [tˈɔbɔ] v. to cover, roof over ◇ Ety/394

crabbednorn N. [nˈɔrn] pl. nyrn S. [nˈyrn] adj. 1. twisted, knotted, crabbed, contorted ○ 2. hard ◇ Ety/387

craftcuru N. [kˈuru] (curw N.) n. craft, skill ◇ Ety/366, X/Wmaenas N. [mˈɑɛnɑs] n. abst. of maen, craft ◇ Ety/371

creatureraug S. [rˈɑug] (graug S., rhaug N.) n. a powerful, hostile and terrible creature, a demon ◇ Ety/384, S/436, WJ/415, X/RHulund N. (ulun N.) n. monster, deformed and hideous creature ◇ Ety/396, X/ND4ûn N. [ˈuːn] n. creature ◇ Ety/379urug S. [ˈurug] n. 1. Orc (rarely used) ○ 2. Arch. "bogey", anything that caused fear to the Elves, any dubious shape or shadow, or prowling creature ◇ WJ/390

crescent S., N. [kˈuː] n. 1. arch, crescent ○ 2. Mil. by ext., bow ◇ Ety/365, S/429cúran N. n. Astron. the crescent Moon ◇ Ety/365, X/Z

crestamloth S. [ˈɑmlɔθ] n. Mil. flower or floreate device used as crest fixed to the point of a tall helmet ◇ WJ/318

crookgamp S., N. [gˈɑmp] n. hook, claw, crook ◇ Ety/357, VT/47:20

crookedrhaen N. adj. crooked ◇ Ety/382, X/RHrhoeg N. adj. crooked, bent, wrong ◇ Ety/383, X/OE, X/RH

cross*athrada- N. [ˈɑθrɑdɑ] inf. athrado N. [ˈɑθrɑdɔ] v. to cross, traverse ◇ Ety/383

crossingathrad S., N. [ˈɑθrɑd] pl. ethraid S. [ˈɛθrɑjd] n. (river-)crossing, ford, way ◇ Ety/349, Ety/383, UT/437, VT/42:7*iach S. [jˈɑx] n. ford, crossing ← Arossiach S/382, Brithiach S/286, Cirith Ninniach S/387

crowcorch N. [kˈɔrx] n. Orn. crow ◇ Ety/362*craban S. [krˈɑbɑn] pl. crebain S. [krˈɛbɑjn] n. Orn. kind of crow of large size, raven ◇ LotR/II:III

crowdhoth S., N. [hˈɔθ] n. Pej. host, crowd, horde (nearly always in a bad sense) ◇ Ety/364, S/432ovras N. [ˈɔvrɑs] n. abst. of ovor, crowd, heap. ◇ Ety/396rim S. [rˈim] (rhim N., rhimb N.) n. crowd, host, great number ◇ Ety/383, S/436, Letters/178, Letters/382, X/RH

crown S. [rˈiː] (rhî N.) n. crown, wreath, garland ◇ Ety/383, PM/347, X/RH

crownedrhîn N. (rhien N.) n. and adj. 1. crowned ○ 2. as a noun, by ext., crowned lady, queen ◇ Ety/393, Ety/389, X/RH

cruelbalch N. [bˈɑlx] adj. cruel ◇ Ety/377baug N. [bˈɑug] adj. tyrannous, cruel, oppressive ◇ Ety/372

crycan- S. [kˈɑn] v. to cry out, shout, call ◇ PM/361-362hûl N. [hˈuːl] n. cry of encouragement in battle ◇ Ety/386ial N. [jˈɑl] n. (?) a call, (?) a cry ◇ VT/46:22*nalla- S. [nˈɑllɑ] v. to cry ← nallon LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278nallon S. [nˈɑllɔn] v. pres. 1st of nalla-, I cry ◇ LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278

cunningcorw N. adj. cunning, wily ◇ Ety/366, X/W

curse*rhach S. [ɹ̥ˈɑx] n. curse ← e-'Rach MR/373

cushionnedhw N. n. bolster, cushion ◇ Ety/378, X/W

custodyband S., N. [bˈɑnd] (bann N.) n. duress, prison, custody, safe-keeping ◇ Ety/371, S/428, MR/350, X/ND1

customhaew N. [hˈɑɛw] n. custom, habit ◇ Ety/364, VT/45:22Written hæw (with ae-ligature) in the Etymologies, rectified here according to VT/45:22

cut*osgar- N. [ˈɔsgɑr] inf. esgeri N. [ˈɛsgɛri] v. to cut round, to amputate ◇ Ety/379rhest N. n. cut ◇ Ety/384, X/RH*rhista- N. inf. rhisto N. v. 1. to cut ○ 2. to rend, rip ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

cutlasslhang N. n. Mil. cutlass, sword ◇ Ety/367, X/LH

cycleanrand N. n. cycle, age (100 Valian Years) ◇ Ety/382, X/ND4Helge Fauskanger noted that the element and "long" would normally be preserved before r-, but the -d is lost because there is another d in the word (VT/41:9); however, this second d later disappeared in the change from -nd to -nn, and it is unclear whether or not an- would then revert to and-

D

daddyada N. [ˈɑdɑ] n. m. hypo. of adar, father, daddy ◇ Ety/349

daggersigil I N. [sˈigil̡] n. Mil. dagger, knife ◇ Ety/385

dailyilaurui S. [ilˈɑuruj] adj. daily ◇ VT/44:21,28

daisyeirien S. [ˈɛjri.ɛn] n. Bot. daisy (flower) ◇ SD/129-31

dampnîd N. [nˈiːd] adj. damp, wet, tearful ◇ Ety/376

danglegling- N. [glˈiŋ] v. to hang, dangle ◇ Ety/359, Ety/369, VT/45:15,27

dare*bertha- N. [bˈɛrθɑ] inf. bertho N. [bˈɛrθɔ] v. to dare ◇ Ety/352

darkdoll N. [dˈɔll] (dolt N.) adj. dark, dusky, obscure ◇ Ety/355, Ety/376, Tengwestie/20031207dûr S., N. [dˈuːr] pl. duir S. [dˈujr] adj. dark, sombre ◇ Ety/354, S/430, UT/434môr S., N. [mˈɔːr] n. darkness, dark, night ◇ Ety/373, Letters/382morn S., N. [mˈɔrn] pl. myrn S. [mˈyrn] adj. black, dark ◇ Ety/373, Letters/382, Letters/427, WJ/368, WR/113, UT/65

darknessdúath S., N. [dˈuːɑθ] (dúwath N.) n. coll. of , 1. darkness, shadow ○ 2. nightshade ◇ Ety/354, S/430fuin S., N. [fˈujn] n. night, dead of night, gloom, darkness ◇ Ety/354, Ety/382, S/431môr S., N. [mˈɔːr] n. darkness, dark, night ◇ Ety/373, Letters/382

darthador S., N. [hˈɑdr̩] n. Mil. thrower (of spears and darts) ◇ Ety/363, WJ/234hadron N. [hˈɑdrɔn] n. m. Mil. thrower (of spears and darts) ◇ Ety/363

daughteriell N. [jˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid ◇ Ety/385, Ety/400Stated to be an alteration of sell, remodelled after ion "son" (OS *jondo). It was "a change assisted by the loss of s in compounds and patronymics", hence the ending -iel in several feminine wordssell N. [sˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid (child) ◇ Ety/385sellath S. [sˈɛl̡lɑθ] n. coll. of sell, all the daughters ◇ SD/129-31

dauntlessthalion S., N. [θˈɑli.ɔn] pl. thelyn N. [θˈɛlyn] n. hero, dauntless man (especially as surname of Húrin Thalion) ◇ Ety/388, S/438

dawnminuial S. [minˈuj.ɑl] n. "morrowdim", the time near dawn, when the star fade ◇ LotR/D

dayarad N. [ˈɑrɑd] n. daytime, a day ◇ Ety/349aur S., N. [ˈɑur] n. day, sunlight, morning ◇ Ety/349, S/439calan S. [kˈɑlɑn] n. day, period of actual daylight ◇ aLotR/DAttested in the first edition of LotR, but omitted from the second.oraearon S. [ɔrˈɑɛ.ɑrɔn] n. Cal. seventh day of the Númenórean week, Sea-day ◇ LotR/Doranor S. [ˈɔrɑnɔr] n. Cal. second day of the week, day of the Sun ◇ LotR/Dorbelain S. [ˈɔrbɛlɑjn] n. Cal. sixth day of the week, day of the Powers or Valar ◇ LotR/Dorgaladh S. [ˈɔrgɑlɑð] n. Cal. fourth day of the Númenórean week, day of the White Tree ◇ LotR/DThis day was formerly called orgaladhad in the Elvish calendarorgaladhad S. [ɔrgˈɑlɑðɑd] n. Cal. fourth day of the Elvish week, day of the Two Trees ◇ LotR/DThis day was renamed orgaladh in the Númenórean calendarorgilion S. [ɔrgˈili.ɔn] n. Cal. first day of the week, day of the Stars ◇ LotR/Dorithil S. [ˈɔriθil̡] n. Cal. third day of the week, day of the Moon ◇ LotR/Dormenel S. [ˈɔrmɛnɛl̡] n. Cal. fifth day of the week, Heavens' day ◇ LotR/Dpenninar N. n. Cal. last day of the year ◇ Ety/400, X/Z

daylightcalan S. [kˈɑlɑn] n. day, period of actual daylight ◇ aLotR/DAttested in the first edition of LotR, but omitted from the second.

daytimearad N. [ˈɑrɑd] n. daytime, a day ◇ Ety/349

deadfern N. [fˈɛrn] pl. firn N. [fˈirn] n. and adj. 1. dead (of mortals) ○ 2. as a noun, dead person ◇ Ety/381*gorth II S. [gˈɔrθ] pl. gyrth S. [gˈyrθ] n. a dead person ← [Raith >] Fui 'Ngorthrim RC/526, gyrth Letters/417*gorthrim S. [gˈɔrθrim] n. class pl. of gorth II, the dead ← [Raith >] Fui 'Ngorthrim RC/526gwann N. [gwˈɑnn] adj. departed, dead ◇ Ety/397

deadlydelw N. adj. hateful, deadly, fell ◇ Ety/355, X/W

dealmaetha- II S. [mˈɑɛθɑ] v. to handle, wield, manage, deal with ◇ VT/47:6

dearmell N. [mˈɛl̡l] adj. dear ◇ Ety/372muin N. [mˈujn] adj. dear ◇ Ety/374

deathgûr II N. [gˈuːr] n. death ◇ Ety/377gurth S. [gˈurθ] n. death ◇ S/432, UT/39, UT/54guruth N. [gˈuruθ] n. death ◇ Ety/377*guruthos S. [gˈuruθɔs] n. the shadow of death, death-horror ← di-nguruthos LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278gwanath N. [gwˈɑnɑθ] n. death (act of dying, not death as a state or abstract) ◇ Ety/397gwanw N. n. death (act of dying, not death as a state or abstract) ◇ Ety/397, X/W

debateathrabeth S. [ˈɑθrɑbɛθ] n. debate, converse ◇ MR/329

decembergirithron S. [girˈiθrɔn] n. Cal. december (month) ◇ LotR/D

declivitypend N. [pˈɛnd] (penn S., N.) pl. *pind N. [pˈind] (pinn N.) n. declivity, slope ◇ Ety/380, RC/525, X/ND1

decripitgern N. [gˈɛrn] adj. worn, old, decripit (used of things only) ◇ Ety/360ingem N. [ˈiŋgɛm] adj. old (of person, in mortal sense: decripit, suffering from old age) ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, Ety/400New word coined by the Elves after meeting with Men

deedcarth N. [kˈɑrθ] (cardh N.) n. deed, feat ◇ Ety/362

deepnûr I N. [nˈuːr] adj. deep ◇ Ety/378tofn N. [tˈɔvn] adj. lowlying, deep, low ◇ Ety/394

deeraras S. [ˈɑrɑs] n. Zool. deer ◇ WJ/156-157

defileaglond N. (aglon N.) n. defile, pass between high walls ◇ Ety/348, X/ND4cirith S. [kˈiriθ] n. cleft, high climbing pass, narrow passage cut through earth or rock, ravine, defile ◇ S/387, UT/426, TC/181, RC/334-335

dellim II S., N. [ˈim] (imm N., imb N.) n. Arch. Geog. dell, deep vale ← imlad, imloth, imrath, imrad, VT/45:18, VT/47:14This word only survived in compounds (due to the clash with im I)

delvinggroth S. [grˈɔθ] n. 1. cave, tunnel, large excavation ○ 2. delving, underground dwelling ◇ WJ/415, S/431, VT/46:12

demonraug S. [rˈɑug] (graug S., rhaug N.) n. a powerful, hostile and terrible creature, a demon ◇ Ety/384, S/436, WJ/415, X/RH

denialubed N. [ˈubɛd] n. denial ◇ WR/132, WR/137-138

depart*gwanna- N. [gwˈɑnnɑ] inf. gwanno N. [gwˈɑnnɔ] v. to depart, die ◇ Ety/397

departedgwann N. [gwˈɑnn] adj. departed, dead ◇ Ety/397

deprive*neitha- S. [nˈɛjθɑ] v. to wrong, to deprive ← Neithan UT/456

deprivedneithan S. [nˈɛjθɑn] adj. deprived, wronged ◇ UT/456

descendantion S. [jˈɔn] (ionn N.) n. m. 1. son ○ 2. by ext., scion, male descendant ◇ Ety/400, MR/373, X/ND1, X/ND2For the second meaning, cf. Hadorion, a Húrin's epithet in WJ/294, Hurinionath referring to the house of Húrin the Steward in PM/202-3,218, and Gil-Galad's epithet Ereinion, cf. also the gloss of the old Qenya cognate yondo "descendant of" in PE/12:106, or the use of the same suffix in later Quenya names such as Isildurioni and Anárioni "Heirs of Isildur (resp. Anárion)" in PM/192,196

deserteru N. [ˈɛru] n. waste, desert ◇ Ety/356

desireaníra- S. [ɑnˈiːrɑ] v. to desire ◇ SD/129-31îr N. [ˈiːr] n. sexual desire ◇ VT/46:23

detestationdelos N. [dˈɛlɔs] (deloth N.) n. abhorrence, detestation, loathing ◇ Ety/355

devicegaud N. [gˈɑud] n. device, contrivance, machine ◇ Ety/358

dewmîdh N. [mˈiːð] n. dew ◇ Ety/373

diacriticgasdil N. [gˈɑsdil̡] n. Ling. "stopgap", name of a diacritic sign used to indicate that g had been lenited to zero ◇ Ety/354, Ety/357

die*gwanna- N. [gwˈɑnnɑ] inf. gwanno N. [gwˈɑnnɔ] v. to depart, die ◇ Ety/397

dimgwathra- S. [gwˈɑθrɑ] v. to overshadow, dim, veil, obscure ◇ VT/42:9gwathren S. [gwˈɑθrɛn] pl. gwethrin S. [gwˈɛθrin] adj. shadowy, dim ← Ered Wethrin S/432, VT/42:9

dimness S., N. [dˈuː] n. nightfall, late evening, night, dimness ◇ Ety/354, S/430, VT/45:9

dinglam S. [glˈɑm] (glamm S., N., glamb S., N.) n. 1. barbarous speech, shouting, confused noise ○ 2. din, uproar, the confused yelling and bellowing of beasts ○ 3. Pop. by ext., as a coll. noun, any body of Orcs ◇ Ety/358, Ety/377, WJ/390, WJ/416

dirtygwaur N. [gwˈɑur] adj. soiled, dirty ◇ Ety/397

disgustdel N. [ˈdɛl̡] n. fear, disgust, loathing, horror ◇ Ety/355*fuia- N. [fˈuj.ɑ] inf. fuio N. [fˈuj.ɔ] v. to feel disgust at, abhor ◇ Ety/381

distancehaered S. [hˈɑɛrɛd] n. remote distance, the remote ← na-chaered LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

distanthae S., N. [hˈɑɛ] adj. far, remote, distant ← Gwahaedir PM/186, VT/45:21haeron S. [hˈɑɛrɔn] adj. far, remote, distant ◇ PM/273

distinctminei N. adj. single, distinct, unique ◇ Ety/373, X/EI

district*trann S. [trˈɑnn] n. shire, administrative district, division of a realm ← i-Drann SD/129-31

disturb*presta- N. [prˈɛstɑ] inf. presto N. [prˈɛstɔ] v. to affect, trouble, disturb ◇ Ety/380

divinitybalan S., N. [bˈɑlɑn] pl. belain S. [bˈɛlɑjn] (belein N., belen N.) n. Theo. Vala, divine power, divinity ◇ Ety/350, S/439, Letters/427, X/EI*rodon S. [rˈɔdɔn] pl. rodyn S. [rˈɔdyn] n. Theo. Vala, divinity ◇ LotR/D

do*car- S. [kˈɑr] irreg. pa. t. agor S. [ˈɑgɔr] v. to do ← avo garo WJ/371, WJ/415caro S. [kˈɑrɔ] v. imp. of car-, do! make! ◇ VT/44:21,25

doerceredir N. [kˈɛrɛdˌir] n. doer, maker ◇ Ety/354

dog N. [hˈuː] n. Zool. dog ◇ Ety/364

doing*cared N. [kˈɑrɛd] ger. of car-, making, doing ← ceredir Ety/354

dometelu N. [tˈɛlu] n. dome, high roof ◇ Ety/391

doomamarth S. [ˈɑmɑrθ] (ammarth N.) n. fate, doom ◇ Ety/372, S/427, LotR/A(i), TC/183*bartha- N. [bˈɑrθɑ] inf. bartho N. [bˈɑrθɔ] v. to doom ◇ Ety/372manadh N. [mˈɑnɑð] n. 1. doom, final end, fate, fortune ○ 2. by ext., final bliss ◇ Ety/371

doomedbarad I N. [bˈɑrɑd] adj. doomed ◇ Ety/372

doorannon S., N. [ˈɑnnɔn] pl. ennyn S., N. [ˈɛnnyn] n. augm. great door or gate ◇ Ety/348, S/428, LotR/II:IV, TAI/150fen S. [fˈɛn] (fend N., fenn N.) n. door, threshold ◇ Ety/381, LotR/V:IV, WR/341, RC/550, X/ND1

doorwayfennas S. [fˈɛnnɑs] n. abst. of fen, doorway, gateway ◇ LotR/II:IV, RS/463, RGEO/75

dotpeg N. [pˈɛg] n. small spot, dot ◇ Ety/382

doubleedaid S. [ˈɛdɑjd] adj. num. quant. double ◇ VT/42:26-27tadol N. [tˈɑdɔl] adj. num. quant. double ◇ Ety/391

doughmoeas N. [mˈɔɛ.ɑs] n. abst. of moe, dough ◇ Ety/371

dovecugu N. [kˈugu] n. dove ◇ Ety/365

downdad N. [dˈɑd] adv. down, downwards ◇ Ety/354

downhilldadbenn N. [dˈɑdbɛnn] (dadben N.) adv. 1. downhill, inclined ○ 2. by ext., inclined, prone (to do something) ◇ Ety/354, Ety/380, VT/46:8, X/ND4

downspenneth S. [pˈɛnnɛθ] n. coll. of pend, ridges, group of downs ◇ RC/525pinnath S. [pˈinnɑθ] n. coll. of pend, ridges, group of downs ◇ LotR/Index, RC/525tyrn S. [tˈyrn] n. pl. Geog. downs ◇ LotR/A(iii), PM/194Tyrn Gorthad "the Barrow-downs"

downwardsdad N. [dˈɑd] adv. down, downwards ◇ Ety/354

dragonamlug N. [ˈɑmlug] n. dragon ◇ Ety/349, Ety/370lhimlug N. n. fish-dragon, sea-serpent ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

drainsautha- N. [sˈɑuθɑ] v. to drain ◇ Ety/388

draughtsûth N. n. draught ◇ Ety/388, X/Z

dread*achas S. [ˈɑxɑs] n. dread, fear ← Daerachas WJ/187This might also be *gachas, mutated in compositiongae N. [gˈɑɛ] n. dread ◇ Ety/358gost N. [gˈɔst] n. dread ◇ Ety/359

dreadfulgaer I N. [gˈɑɛr] adj. dreadful ◇ Ety/358goeol S. [gˈɔɛ.ɔl] adj. dreadful, terrifying ◇ PM/363

dreamôl N. [ˈɔːl] pl. elei N. n. dream ◇ Ety/370, Ety/379oltha- N. [ˈɔlθɑ] v. to dream ◇ Ety/370, Ety/379

drearmuil S. [mˈujl] n. drear ← Emyn Muil RC/334

drink*sog- N. [sˈɔg] inf. sogo N. [sˈɔgɔ] pa. t. sogant N. [sˈɔgɑnt] (sunc N.) v. to drink ◇ Ety/388, VT/46:16

drunksogannen (corr. sogennen) N. [sɔgˈɑnnɛn] pp. of sog-, drunk ◇ Ety/388

dryafarch N. adj. very dry, arid ◇ VT/45:5, X/PHparch N. [pˈɑrx] adj. dry ◇ Ety/380, VT/45:5

dungeongador N. [gˈɑdr̩] (gadr N.) n. prison, dungeon ◇ Ety/358

Dunlendingsgwathuirim S. [gwɑθˈujrim] n. class pl. of gwathui, Pop. The Dunlendings or People of Dunland ◇ PM/330

duressband S., N. [bˈɑnd] (bann N.) n. duress, prison, custody, safe-keeping ◇ Ety/371, S/428, MR/350, X/ND1thang S., N. [θˈɑŋ] n. compulsion, duress, need, oppression ◇ Ety/388, S/438

dusktinnu N. [tˈinnu] (tindu N.) n. 1. dusk, twilight, early night (without Moon) ○ 2. by ext., starry twilight ◇ Ety/355, Ety/393, X/ND2

duskydoll N. [dˈɔll] (dolt N.) adj. dark, dusky, obscure ◇ Ety/355, Ety/376, Tengwestie/20031207

dustast N. [ˈɑst] n. dust ◇ Ety/349lith S., N. [lˈiθ] n. ash, sand, dust ◇ Ety/369, S/434, TC/178

dwarfanfang N. [ˈɑnfɑŋ] pl. enfeng S., N. [ˈɛnfɛŋ] n. Pop. one of the Longbeards (a tribe of Dwarves) ◇ Ety/348, Ety/387, WJ/322anfangrim S. [ɑnfˈɑŋgrim] n. class pl. of anfang, Pop. the Longbeards (a tribe of Dwarves) ◇ WJ/322dornhoth S. [dˈɔrn.hɔθ] n. class pl. of dorn, Pop. the Dwarves, lit. "the Thrawn Folk" ◇ WJ/388hadhod S. [hˈɑðɔd] n. Pop. Dwarf ◇ WJ/388, WJ/414hadhodrim S. [hɑðˈɔdrim] n. class pl. of hadhod, Pop. the Dwarves (as a race) ◇ WJ/388naug S., N. [nˈɑug] pl. noeg S. [nˈɔɛg] n. and adj. 1. stunted, dwarf ○ 2. Pop. as a noun, a Dwarf ◇ Ety/375, WJ/388, UT/100, UT/148naugol N. [nˈɑugl̩] (naugl N.) pl. nauglin S. [nˈauglin] n. dim. of naug, dwarf ◇ Ety/375naugrim S. [nˈɑugrim] n. class pl. of naug, Pop. Dwarves ◇ WJ/388nawag N. [nˈɑwɑg] pl. neweg N. (neweig N.) n. Pop. Dwarf ◇ Ety/375nogoth S. [nˈɔgɔθ] pl. negyth S. [nˈɛgyθ] (nœgyth S.) n. Pop. Dwarf, lit. "the Stunted Folk" ◇ S/435, WJ/338, WJ/388, WJ/408, WJ/413nogotheg S. [nˈɔgɔθɛg] n. dim. of nogoth, Pop. lit. "dwarflet", a name of the Petty-Dwarves ◇ WJ/388nogothrim S. [nɔgˈɔθrim] n. class pl. of nogoth, Pop. Dwarf-folk ◇ RGEO/75, UT/318, WJ/388nornwaith S. [nˈɔrn.wɑjθ] n. class pl. of norn, Pop. the Dwarves ◇ MR/93, MR/106

dwell*dortha- N. [dˈɔrθɑ] inf. dortho N. [dˈɔrθɔ] v. to dwell, stay ◇ Ety/376

dwellingbar S. [bˈɑr] pl. bair S. [bˈɑjr] n. 1. dwelling, home ○ 2. by ext., inhabited land ◇ S/428, WR/379-80, SD/129-31groth S. [grˈɔθ] n. 1. cave, tunnel, large excavation ○ 2. delving, underground dwelling ◇ WJ/415, S/431, VT/46:12

E

eagerbara N. [bˈɑrɑ] adj. 1. fiery ○ 2. eager ◇ Ety/351

eaglethôr I S., N. [θˈɔːr] n. Orn. eagle ← Belecthor S/322,365, LotR/A(ii), Ety/392thoron S., N. [θˈɔrɔn] pl. therein N. n. Orn. eagle ◇ Ety/392, S/438, X/Zthoronath S. [θˈɔrɔnɑθ] n. coll. of thoron, eagles ◇ S/387, S/438

earlhaw S., N. [ɬˈɑw] n. pl. Biol. ears (referring to one person's pair of ears only) ◇ Ety/368, LotR/II:IXlhewig N. [ɬˈɛwig] n. sing. of lhaw, Biol. ear ◇ Ety/368, LotR/II:IX

earthamar N. [ˈɑmɑr] (ambar N.) n. earth ◇ Ety/372ceven S. [kˈɛvɛn] n. Earth ◇ VT/44:21,27coe N. n. earth ◇ Ety/363, X/OEThis word is indeclinable, according to the Etymologiesennor S. [ˈɛnnɔr] n. central land, middle-earth ◇ LotR/E, X/ND2ennorath S. [ˈɛnnɔrɑθ] n. coll. of ennor, central lands, middle-earth ◇ LotR/E, LotR/II:I, RGEO/72-75

earthencevn N. adj. earthen ◇ Ety/363, X/Z

eastamrûn S., N. [ˈɑmruːn] n. east, orient ◇ Ety/348, Ety/384, S/437, LotR/Erhufen N. n. Arch., Poet. east ◇ Ety/384, X/RHrhûn S., N. [ɹ̥ˈuːn] n. east ◇ Ety/384, S/436, LotR/E

easternrhúnen S. [ɹ̥ˈuːnɛn] adj. eastern ← Talath Rhúnen S/420

eat*mad- N. [mˈɑd] inf. medi N. [mˈɛdi] v. to eat ◇ Ety/371

eavesdrop*lhathra- N. inf. lhathro N. v. to listen in, eavesdrop ◇ Ety/368, X/LH*lhathrada- N. inf. lhathrado N. v. to listen in, eavesdrop ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

eavesdropperlhathron N. n. hearer, listener, eavesdropper ◇ Ety/368, X/LHlhethril N. n. f. hearer, listener, eavesdropper ◇ VT/45:26, X/LH

ebbdannen II S. [dˈɑnnɛn] n. ebb, low tide ◇ VT/48:26

echoglamor N. [glˈɑmr̩] (glambr N.) n. echo ◇ Ety/358

echoingglamren N. [glˈɑmrɛn] adj. echoing ◇ Ety/358

eddy*chwinia- N. inf. chwinio N. v. to twirl, whirl, eddy ◇ Ety/388

edgelanc II S. [lˈɑŋk] n. sharp edge (not of tools), sudden end (as a cliff-edge, or the clean edge of things made by hand or built) ◇ VT/42:8rhîf N. n. edge, hem, border ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

eighttoloth N. [tˈɔlɔθ] (tolodh S.) adj. num. card. eight ◇ Ety/394, VT/42:25, VT/42:31, VT/48:6Tolkien emended toloth to tolodh, cf. VT/42:31 (and also VT/48:6). If we are to follow him, a word such as tolothen would be incorrect, unless the two forms coexisted

eighthtollui S. [tˈɔɬuj] (Arch. tolhui S., Arch. tolthui S.) adj. num. ord. eighth ◇ VT/42:25, VT/42:27, VT/47:32, VT/42:10, Tengwestie/20031207tolothen S. [tˈɔlɔθɛn] adj. num. ord. eighth ← erin dolothen SD/129-31

eldereinior S. [ˈɛjni.ɔr] adj. elder ◇ PM/358

elephantannabon N. [ˈɑnnɑbɔn] (andabon N.) n. Zool. elephant ◇ Ety/372, X/ND2

elevenmimp S. [mˈimp] adj. num. card. eleven ◇ PE/17:95minib S. [mˈinib] adj. num. card. eleven ◇ VT/48:6-8

elfavar S. [ˈɑvɑr] pl. evair S. [ˈɛvɑjr] n. 1. refuser ○ 2. Pop. esp. in the pl., the Avari, Elves who refused the invitation of the Valar ◇ WJ/380, VT/47:12This plural name was known to the loremasters, but went out of daily use at the time of the Exilecalben S. [kˈɑlbɛn] pl. celbin S. [kˈɛl̡bin] n. 1. Pop. Elf of the Great Journey (lit. "light person") ○ 2. Pop. by ext., all Elves but the Avari ◇ WJ/362, WJ/376-377, WJ/408-409danwaith S. [dˈɑnwɑjθ] n. class pl. Pop. the Nandor (a tribe of Elves) ◇ WJ/385denwaith S. [dˈɛnwɑjθ] n. class pl. Pop. the Nandor (a tribe of Elves), the people of Denwe ◇ WJ/385*dúnedhel S. [dˈuːnɛðɛl̡] pl. dúnedhil S. [dˈunːɛðil̡] n. Pop. Elf of the West, Elf of Beleriand (including Noldor and Sindar) ◇ WJ/378edhel S., N. [ˈɛðɛl̡] pl. edhil S., N. [ˈɛðil̡] n. Pop. Elf ◇ Ety/356, S/430, WJ/363-364edhelharn S. [ɛðˈɛl̡hɑrn] n. elf-stone ◇ SD/128-129egladhrim S. [ɛglˈɑðrim] n. class pl. of eglan, Pop. "The Forsaken", Elves of the Falathrim ◇ WJ/189, WJ/365, WJ/379eglan S. [ˈɛglɑn] pl. eglain S. [ˈɛglɑjn] n. and adj. 1. forsaken ○ 2. Pop. as a noun, an Elf of the Falathrim ◇ WJ/365, WJ/379-380eglath S. [ˈɛglɑθ] n. coll. of egol, Pop. "The Forsaken", Elves of the Falathrim ◇ WJ/189, WJ/344*egol S. [ˈɛgl̩] n. Pop. someone forsaken, an Elf of the Falathrim ← Eglath WJ/189, WJ/344elleth S. [ˈɛl̡lɛθ] n. f. elf-maid ◇ WJ/148, WJ/256, WJ/363-364ellon S. [ˈɛl̡lɔn] n. m. elf ◇ WJ/363-364*elvellon S. [ɛl̡vˈɛl̡lɔn] pl. elvellyn S. [ɛl̡vˈɛl̡lyn] n. elf-friend ◇ WJ/412galadhrim S. [gɑlˈɑðrim] n. class pl. of galadh, Pop. Elves of Lothlórien ◇ LotRglinnel S. [glˈinnɛl̡] pl. glinnil S. [glˈinnil̡] n. Pop. Elf, one of the Teleri ◇ WJ/378, WJ/385gódhel S. [gˈɔːðɛl̡] pl. gódhil S. [ˈgɔːðil̡] n. Pop. "Deep Elf" or "Gnome", one of the Wise Folk ◇ WJ/364, WJ/379gódhellim S. [gɔːðˈɛl̡lim] n. class pl. of gódhel, Pop. "Deep Elves" or "Gnomes", the Wise Folk ◇ WJ/364golodh S., N. [gˈɔlɔð] pl. gelydh S. [gˈɛlyð] (gœlydh S., gœlœidh N., geleidh N.) n. Pop. "Deep Elf" or "Gnome", one of the Wise Folk ◇ Ety/377, S/431, WJ/364golodhrim S., N. [gɔlˈɔðrim] n. class pl. of golodh, Pop. Deep Elves, Gnomes ◇ Ety/377, WJ/323iathrim S. [jˈɑθrim] n. class pl. of iâth, Pop. Elves of Doriath ◇ WJ/378lachend S. pl. lechind S. n. Pop. Deep Elf (Sindarin name for the Ñoldor) ◇ WJ/384, X/ND4laegel S. [lˈɑɛgɛl̡] pl. laegil S. [lˈɑɛgil̡] n. Pop. a Green Elf ◇ WJ/385laegrim S. [lˈɑɛgrim] (laegeldrim S.) n. class pl. of laegel, Pop. the people of the Green Elves ◇ WJ/385miniel S. [mˈini.ɛl̡] pl. mínil S. [mˈiːnil̡] n. Pop. an Elf, one of the Vanyar ◇ WJ/383mornedhel S. [mˈɔrnɛðɛl̡] n. Pop. Dark-Elf ◇ WJ/377, WJ/380ódhel S. [ˈɔːðɛl̡] pl. ódhil S. [ˈɔːðil̡] n. Pop. Deep Elf or Gnome, one of the Wise Folk ◇ WJ/364, WJ/366, WJ/378-379ódhellim S. [ɔːðˈɛl̡lim] n. class pl. of ódhel, Pop. Deep Elves or Gnomes, the Wise Folk ◇ WJ/364tawarwaith S. [tɑwˈɑrwɑjθ] n. class pl. of tawar, Pop. Silvan elves ◇ UT/256teler S. [tˈɛlɛr] pl. telir S. [tˈɛlir] n. Pop. an Elf, one of the Teleri ◇ PM/385telerrim S. [tɛlˈɛrrim] n. class pl. of teler, Pop. the Teleri, a tribe of Elves ◇ PM/385

elmlalf N. [lˈɑlv] pl. lelf N. [lˈɛl̡v] n. Bot. elm-tree ◇ Ety/348lalven N. [lˈɑlvɛn] pl. lelvin N. [lˈɛl̡vin] n. Bot. elm-tree ◇ Ety/348lhalorn N. n. Bot. elm-tree ◇ Ety/367, X/LHlhalwen N. pl. lelwin N. [lˈɛl̡win] n. Bot. elm-tree ◇ Ety/367, X/LH

elvishedhellen S. [ɛðˈɛl̡lɛn] adj. elvish, of the Elves ◇ LotR/II:IV, RS/463

embersiûl N. [jˈuːl] n. embers ◇ Ety/400The word is classed as Old Noldorin (ON) in the Etymologies, but rather seems to be Noldorin

eminentorchal S., N. [ˈɔrxl̩] (orchall N., orchel N.) adj. 1. superior, lofty, eminent ○ 2. tall ◇ Ety/363, Ety/379, WJ/305In his article Probable errors in the Etymologies, Helge Fauskanger lists orchel as a misreading, following Christopher Tolkien's note admitting that the e is uncertain. However, though orchal is attested in WJ/305, it does not necessarily mean that the form orchel is incorrect. It might be constructed by analogy with words such as hathol "axe" (from WJ/234 and the name of a Númenórean, Hatholdir, UT:444), which is also found as hathal (in Hathaldir, name of a companion of Barahir, LR/433, untranslated but conceivably cognate) and hathel (LR/389). Without entering into the details, such words end with a syllabic consonant (as in English "people"), and several vocalizations are apparently possible in Sindarin. The epenthetical vowel is generally o, but it seems that a or e are also allowed. Regarding orchal, its origin is of course different, as it is a compound word where the second element clearly derives from KHAL, but it may have been assimilated, later, to this class of words by analogy. We may therefore consider that orchel is a perfectly valid dialectal variant

employ*iuitha- N. [jˈujθɑ] inf. iuitho N. [jˈujθɔ] v. to employ, to use ◇ Ety/400, VT/46:23The gloss was hardly legible and Christopher Tolkien read "to enjoy" in Ety/400, but the meaning "to employ", much more probable (Cf. iuith), was later confirmed in VT/45:23

emptycofn N. [kˈɔvn] (caun N.) adj. empty, void ◇ Ety/366lhost N. adj. empty ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

encampmentestolad S. [ˈɛstɔlɑd] n. encampment ◇ UT/77, S/396

enchantlhútha- N. v. to enchant ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

encirclingechor S. [ˈɛxɔr] n. outer circle, encircling, outer ring ◇ LotR/V:I, LotR/Index, S/430

enclosegleina- S. [glˈɛjnɑ] v. to bound, enclose, limit ◇ VT/42:8, VT/42:28This entry should perhaps read gleinia-, cf. VT/42:28, note 13

enclosurecerin S., N. [kˈɛrin] n. 1. circular enclosure ○ 2. by ext., mound ◇ Ety/365, S/429

encouragementhûl N. [hˈuːl] n. cry of encouragement in battle ◇ Ety/386

endmeth N. [mˈɛθ] n. end ◇ Ety/373methed S. [mˈɛθɛd] n. end ◇ UT/452methen N. [mˈɛθɛn] adj. end, final ◇ Ety/373, VT/45:34tele N. [tˈɛlɛ] pl. telei N. [tˈɛlɛj] n. end, rear, hindmost part ◇ Ety/392

endlessarnediad N. [ɑrnˈɛdi.ɑd] (arnœdiad S., N.) adj. innumerable, countless, endless, without reckoning, numberless ◇ Ety/349, Ety/378, S/428, VT/46:6aronoded N. [ɑrˈɔnɔdɛd] adj. innumerable, countless, endless ◇ Ety/378

endurancebronwe S., N. [brˈɔnwɛ] n. endurance, lasting quality, faith ◇ Ety/353, SD/62

endure*brenia- N. [brˈɛni.ɑ] inf. brenio N. [brˈɛni.ɔ] v. to endure ◇ Ety/353, VT/45:7The form bronio in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:7dartha- N. [dˈɑrθɑ] v. to wait, stay, last, endure, remain ◇ Ety/353, VT/45:8

enduringbronadui N. [brˈɔnɑduj] adj. enduring, lasting ◇ Ety/353

enemycoth N. [kˈɔθ] n. 1. enmity ○ 2. enemy ◇ Ety/365

enfold*gwaeda- N. [gwˈɑɛdɑ] inf. gwaedo N. [gwˈɑɛdɔ] v. to enfold ◇ VT/46:21

enlacedraen S. [rˈɑɛn] adj. nettled, enlaced ◇ VT/42:11

enlarge*panna- N. [pˈɑnnɑ] inf. panno N. [pˈɑnnɔ] v. to open, to enlarge ◇ Ety/380

enmeshgonathra- N. [gɔnˈɑθrɑ] v. to entangle, enmesh ◇ Ety/375

enmitycoth N. [kˈɔθ] n. 1. enmity ○ 2. enemy ◇ Ety/365

enoughfar N. [fˈɑr] adj. or adv. sufficient, enough, quite ◇ Ety/381farn N. [fˈɑrn] adj. or adv. enough ◇ Ety/381

entonod S. [ˈɔnɔd] pl. enyd S. [ˈɛnyd] n. Pop. Ent ◇ LotR/F, Letters/224onodrim S. [ɔnˈɔdrim] n. class pl. of onod, Pop. the Ents, as a race ◇ Letters/224, TC/165

entanglegonathra- N. [gɔnˈɑθrɑ] v. to entangle, enmesh ◇ Ety/375

entanglementgonathras N. [gɔnˈɑθrɑs] n. abst. of gonathra-, entanglement ◇ Ety/375

enterminna- S. [mˈinnɑ] v. to enter ◈ minno S. [mˈinnɔ] v. imp. of minna-, enter! (lit. to the inside!) ◇ LotR/II:IV*neledh- N. [nɛlˈɛð] inf. neledhi N. [nɛlˈɛði] v. to enter ◇ TAI/150, HL/77Hammond and Scull apparently understand this word as a derivative of neledh "three", hence their translation neledh neledhi "three by three". However, we have shown in Hiswelókë (third issue, pp. 74-78) that this word is conceivably a verb derived from LED "to go". The prefix ne- also occurs in nestegi "to insert, stick in"

envelopeui N. [ˈuj] n. Theo. envelope (especially of the Outer Sea or Air enfolding the world within the Ilurambar or world-walls) ◇ Ety/397

errantrhaun N. adj. errant ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

errormist N. [mˈist] n. error, wandering ◇ Ety/373mistrad N. n. straying, error ◇ Ety/373, X/Z

especialedregol S. [ˈɛdrɛgl̩] adv. in especial ◇ SD/129-31

establish*tangada- N. [tˈɑŋgɑdɑ] inf. tangado N. [tˈɑŋgɑdɔ] v. to make firm, confirm, establish ◇ Ety/389

estuaryethir I S., N. [ˈɛθir] n. Geog. mouth (of a river), estuary ◇ LotR/II:X, Ety/356, RC/350

eternaluireb N. [ˈujrɛb] adj. eternal ◇ Ety/379

eternityuir N. [ˈujr] n. eternity ◇ Ety/379

eveningaduial S. [ɑdˈuj.ɑl] n. the evening, time of star-opening, "evendim" ◇ LotR/D S., N. [dˈuː] n. nightfall, late evening, night, dimness ◇ Ety/354, S/430, VT/45:9thîn N. [θˈiːn] n. Poet. evening ◇ Ety/392, VT/46:18thinna- N. [θˈinnɑ] v. to fade, to grow towards evening ◇ Ety/392The punctuation in The Etymologies is considered incorrect (the full dot after this word should conceivably be a comma)

ever*ui- S. [uj] pref. ever ← uidafnen, uilos (see these words)

evilogol S. [ˈɔgl̩] adj. wicked, evil ◇ VT/48:32um N. [ˈum] adj. bad, evil ◇ Ety/396

exalted*arth S. [ˈɑrθ] adj. (unknown meaning, perhaps (?) noble, lofty, exalted) ← Arthedain LotRhall I N. [hˈɑll] adj. exalted, high ◇ Ety/363

excavate*rosta- N. [rˈɔstɑ] inf. rosto N. [rˈɔstɔ] v. to hollow out, excavate ◇ Ety/384

excavationgroth S. [grˈɔθ] n. 1. cave, tunnel, large excavation ○ 2. delving, underground dwelling ◇ WJ/415, S/431, VT/46:12torech N. [tˈɔrɛx] n. hole, excavation, lair ◇ WR/202, RC/490

exclamationelo S. [ˈɛlɔ] interj. an exclamation of wonder, admiration, delight ◇ WJ/362

excludedsaid S. [sˈɑjd] adj. private, separate, not common, excluded ◇ VT/42:20

exile*egledhia- N. [ɛglˈɛði.ɑ] (*egledh- N. [ˈɛglɛð]) inf. egledhio (corr. eglehio) N. [ɛglˈɛði.ɔ] (egledhi N. [ˈɛglɛði]) pa. t. egledhas N. [ˈɛglɛðɑs] (Arch. eglant N.) v. to go into exile ◇ Ety/368, VT/45:27, X/TLegledhron N. n. exile (person who is exiled) ◇ Ety/368, X/TL

exiledeglenn N. adj. exiled ◇ Ety/368, X/TL

expressionthîr S., N. [θˈiːr] n. look, face, expression, countenance ◇ Ety/392, VT/41:10

eyehen II S. [hˈɛn] (henn S., hên N.) pl. hîn N. n. Biol. eye ◇ Ety/364, LotR/II:IX, WR/128, X/ND1*heneb S. [hˈɛnɛb] adj. of eye, eyed, having eyes ← maecheneb "sharp-eyed", WJ/337hent N. [hˈɛnt] n. dual pl. of hen II, Biol. the two eyes (referring to one person's eyes) ◇ VT/45:22

F

facenîf N. [nˈiːv] n. front, face ◇ Ety/378thîr S., N. [θˈiːr] n. look, face, expression, countenance ◇ Ety/392, VT/41:10

fadethinna- N. [θˈinnɑ] v. to fade, to grow towards evening ◇ Ety/392The punctuation in The Etymologies is considered incorrect (the full dot after this word should conceivably be a comma)

fading*peleth S. [pˈɛlɛθ] n. fading, withering ← Narbeleth LotR/D*pelin N. [pˈɛlin] n. fading, withering ← Lhasbelin Ety/366

faintnesschwîn N. n. giddiness, faintness ◇ Ety/388, X/HW

fairbein N. adj. beautiful, fair ◇ Ety/351, Ety/359, X/EIfael I S. [fˈɑɛl] adj. fair minded, just, generous ◇ PM/352

faithbronwe S., N. [brˈɔnwɛ] n. endurance, lasting quality, faith ◇ Ety/353, SD/62

faithful*sador S. [sˈɑdr̩] n. faithful one ← Sador (name)Sador was Túrin's faithful servant. The meaning of this noun is deduced from sadron, assuming that these words are in the same kind of relation as hador and hadron*sadron S. [sˈɑdrɔn] pl. sedryn S. [sˈɛdryn] n. faithful one ◇ UT/431

falldant S. [dˈɑnt] n. fall ◇ MR/373dant- N. v. to fall ◇ Ety/354, X/ZWritten dant- in the Etymologiesdath N. [dˈɑθ] n. hole, pit, steep fall, abyss ◇ Ety/354, VT/45:8*lant S. [lˈɑnt] n. fall ← Lanthir S/406, PM/349

fallendannen I N. [dˈɑnnɛn] pp. of dant-, fallen ◇ Ety/354

fallingtalt N. [tˈɑlt] adj. slipping, falling, insecure ◇ Ety/390

fallowmaidh N. [mˈɑjð] (meidh N.) adj. pale, fallow, fawn ◇ Ety/371, X/EImalw N. adj. fallow, pale ◇ Ety/386, X/W

familynoss S., N. [nˈɔss] (nos N.) n. kindred, family, clan ◇ Ety/378, PM/320nost S. [nˈɔst] n. kindred, family, house ◇ PM/360nothlir N. [nˈɔθlir] n. family line (esp. as family tree, genealogical tree) ◇ WR/234, WR/237, WR/309nothrim S. [nˈɔθrim] n. class pl. of nost, kindred, family, house ← Nothrim [> Nost] Finarfin PM/360The word was rejected in favor of nost, but it may be interpreted as a valid class plural "those of the house"

faneiaun N. [jˈɑun] n. holy place, fane, sanctuary ◇ Ety/400

fangcarch S., N. [kˈɑrx] n. Biol. tooth, fang ◇ Ety/362, S/429

fantasticchwiniol N. part. of chwinia-, whirling, giddy, fantastic ◇ Ety/388

farhae S., N. [hˈɑɛ] adj. far, remote, distant ← Gwahaedir PM/186, VT/45:21haeron S. [hˈɑɛrɔn] adj. far, remote, distant ◇ PM/273palan- S. [pˈɑlɑn] adv. afar, abroad, far and wide ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74

fashion*echad- N. [ˈɛxɑd] inf. echedi N. [ˈɛxɛdi] pa. t. echant S., N. [ˈɛxɑnt] v. to fashion, make ◇ Ety/363, LotR/II:IV

fast*avorn S. [ˈɑvɔrn] adj. staying, fast ← Baravorn Hamfast, SD/129-31

fasten*taetha- N. [tˈɑɛθɑ] inf. taetho N. [tˈɑɛθɔ] v. to fasten, tie ◇ Ety/389

fattûg N. [tˈuːg] adj. thick, fat ◇ Ety/394

fateamarth S. [ˈɑmɑrθ] (ammarth N.) n. fate, doom ◇ Ety/372, S/427, LotR/A(i), TC/183manadh N. [mˈɑnɑð] n. 1. doom, final end, fate, fortune ○ 2. by ext., final bliss ◇ Ety/371

fatedamarthan N. [ɑmˈɑrθɑn] adj. fated ◇ VT/41:10

fatherada N. [ˈɑdɑ] n. m. hypo. of adar, father, daddy ◇ Ety/349adar S., N. [ˈɑdɑr] pl. edair S. [ˈɛdɑjr] (eder N., edeir N.) n. m. father ◇ Ety/349, PM/324, MR/373, LotR/II:II, VT/44:21-22, X/EIatheg S. [ˈɑθɛg] n. m. dim. of adar, 1. "litte father" ○ 2. Biol. thumb (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,17

fathomrhaew N. n. fathom ◇ Ety/382, X/RH

fawnmaidh N. [mˈɑjð] (meidh N.) adj. pale, fallow, fawn ◇ Ety/371, X/EI

fear*achas S. [ˈɑxɑs] n. dread, fear ← Daerachas WJ/187This might also be *gachas, mutated in compositiondel N. [ˈdɛl̡] n. fear, disgust, loathing, horror ◇ Ety/355goe S. [gˈɔɛ] n. terror, great fear ◇ PM/363gorgor S. [gˈɔrgɔr] n. extreme horror, terror, haunting fear ◇ WJ/415, RC/334-335gosta- N. [gˈɔstɑ] v. to fear exceedingly ◇ Ety/359niphred S. [nˈifrɛd] (nifred N.) n. pallor, fear ◇ Ety/378, S/435, X/PH

feastmereth S., N. [mˈɛrɛθ] n. feast, festival ◇ Ety/372, S/434The word was changed to bereth in the Etymologies, but was never changed in the texts (cf. Mereth Aderthad and the compound Merethrond)

featcarth N. [kˈɑrθ] (cardh N.) n. deed, feat ◇ Ety/362

februarynínui S. [nˈiːnuj] n. and adj. 1. watery ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of february ◇ LotR/D

feelplada- S. [plˈɑdɑ] v. to feel with the hand, to pass the sensitive palm over a surface ◇ VT/47:9

felldelw N. adj. hateful, deadly, fell ◇ Ety/355, X/W

femaleinw N. adj. female ◇ Ety/361, X/W

fencecail S. [kˈɑjl] n. fence or palisade of spikes and sharp stakes ◇ UT/282ephel S., N. [ˈɛffɛl̡] n. outer fence, encircling fence ◇ S/436, LotR/Eiâth S. [jˈɑːθ] (iath S.) n. fence ◇ S/433, WJ/370, WJ/378*thora- N. [θˈɔrɑ] inf. thoro N. [θˈɔrɔ] v. to fence ◇ Ety/393

fencedthoren N. [θˈɔrɛn] pp. of thora-, fenced ◇ Ety/393

fenland S. [lˈɔː] n. Geog. shallow lake, fenland ◇ UT/263, VT/42:8-10

festivalmereth S., N. [mˈɛrɛθ] n. feast, festival ◇ Ety/372, S/434The word was changed to bereth in the Etymologies, but was never changed in the texts (cf. Mereth Aderthad and the compound Merethrond)

festivemeren N. [mˈɛrɛn] adj. festive, gay, joyous ◇ Ety/372The word was changed to beren in the Etymologies, but meren would be restored together with mereth

fetch*toltha- N. [tˈɔlθɑ] inf. toltho N. [tˈɔlθɔ] v. to fetch, summon, make come ◇ Ety/395

fieldparth S. [pˈɑrθ] n. Geog. field, enclosed grassland, sward ◇ UT/260, PM/330, RC/349pel N. [pˈɛl̡] pl. peli N. [pˈɛli] n. fenced field (= Old English tún) ◇ Ety/380rîdh N. [rˈiːð] n. sown field, acre ◇ Ety/383, VT/46:11sant S. [sˈɑnt] n. garden, field, yard (or other place in private ownership whether enclosed or not) ◇ VT/42:20talf S. [tˈɑlv] n. Geog. flat field, flat land ← Nindalf TC/195, LotR/Map

fiercebraig N. [brˈɑjg] (breig N.) adj. wild, fierce ◇ Ety/373, VT/45:34The form brerg in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:34bregol N. [brˈɛgɔl] adj. violent, sudden, fierce ◇ Ety/352, Ety/373

fiercenessbregolas N. [brˈɛgɔlɑs] n. abst. of bregol, fierceness ◇ Ety/352

fierybara N. [bˈɑrɑ] adj. 1. fiery ○ 2. eager ◇ Ety/351nórui S. [nˈɔːruj] n. and adj. 1. sunny, fiery ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of june ◇ LotR/D

fifthlefnui S. [lˈɛvnuj] (lhefneg N.) adj. num. ord. fifth ◇ WR/436, VT/42:25, TI/312

fightmaeth N. [mˈɑɛθ] n. battle, fight (not of general host but of two or a few) ◇ Ety/371maetha- I N. [mˈɑɛθɑ] v. to fight ◇ Ety/371

filamentthlê N. n. fine thread, spider filament ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

fillpannod N. v. to fill ◇ Ety/366, X/Z*pathra- N. [pˈɑθrɑ] inf. pathro N. [pˈɑθrɔ] v. to fill ◇ Ety/366

finalmethen N. [mˈɛθɛn] adj. end, final ◇ Ety/373, VT/45:34

finebrand N. [brˈɑnd] (brann N.) adj. 1. lofty, noble, fine ○ 2. high (in size) ◇ Ety/351, TAI/150, X/ND1thlind N. (thlinn N.) adj. fine, slender ◇ Ety/386, X/LH, X/ND1trîw N. [trˈiːw] adj. fine, slender ◇ Ety/392

fingeremig S. [ˈɛmig] n. f. dim. of emel, 1. "litte mother" ○ 2. Biol. index finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,17gwinig S. [gwˈinig] n. dim. 1. "litte baby" ○ 2. Biol. little finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,16-17honeg S. [hˈɔnɛg] n. m. dim. of hawn, 1. "litte brother" ○ 2. Biol. middle finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,16-17Given as honig in VT/47:14, but see VT/48:17 n. 13 for discussionlebdas S. [lˈɛbdɑs] (tas S.) n. Biol. index finger ◇ VT/48:5lebed S. [lˈɛbɛd] (lhebed N.) pl. lebid S. [lˈɛbid] n. Biol. finger ◇ Ety/368, X/LH, VT/47:23-24,27Tolkien later seems to have replaced this form by leberlebenedh S. [lˈɛbɛnɛð] n. Biol. middle finger ◇ VT/48:5lebent S. [lˈɛbɛnt] n. Biol. ring finger ◇ VT/48:5leber S. [lˈɛbɛr] pl. lebir S. [lˈɛbir] n. Biol. finger ◇ VT/47:10,23-24, VT/48:5lebig S. [lˈɛbig] n. dim. Biol. little finger ◇ VT/48:5,15nethig S. [nˈɛθig] n. f. dim. of neth II, 1. "litte sister" ○ 2. Biol. ring finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/47:14, VT/47:38-39, VT/48:6,17First given in the manuscript as netheg in VT/47:14-15, but see especially VT/48:17 n. 13 for discussionniben S. [nˈibɛn] pl. nibin S. [nˈibin] adj. 1. small, petty ○ 2. Biol. as a noun, little finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ S/435, WJ/388, WJ/408, VT/48:6niged S. [nˈigɛd] n. Biol. little finger ◇ VT/48:5nobad S. [nˈɔbɑd] n. dual pl. of nawb, Biol. the pair of fingers composed of the thumb and the index (grouped together as in the act of picking something) ◇ VT/48:5,16toleg S. [tˈɔlɛg] (tolch S.) n. dim. 1. (?) "litte prominent one" ○ 2. Biol. middle finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,16-17

firenaur S., N. [nˈɑur] n. 1. flame ○ 2. fire ◇ Ety/374, S/435, LotR/II:IVûr I N. [ˈuːr] n. fire, heat ◇ Ety/396

firmtanc N. [tˈɑŋk] adj. firm ◇ Ety/389*tangada- N. [tˈɑŋgɑdɑ] inf. tangado N. [tˈɑŋgɑdɔ] v. to make firm, confirm, establish ◇ Ety/389thala N. [θˈɑlɑ] adj. stalwart, steady, firm ◇ Ety/388thand II N. [θˈɑnd] (thann N.) adj. firm, true, abiding ◇ Ety/388, VT/46:16Misreading thenid, thenin rectified according to VT/46:16

firmamentmenel S. [mˈɛnɛl̡] n. sky, high heaven, firmament, the region of the stars ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, LB/354, RGEO/72, VT/44:21,23-24

firsterui S. [ˈɛruj] adj. 1. single, alone ○ 2. by ext., first (incorrect use by the Gondorians) ◇ TI/312, WR/436, VT/42:10The proper word for first in Sindarin was minuimain S. [m'ɑjn] (mein S.) adj. num. ord. first, (only in the sense of) prime, chief, pre-eminent ◇ VT/42:10, VT/42:25minui S. [mˈinuj] adj. num. ord. first ◇ VT/42:10, VT/42:25

fishhâl N. [hˈɑːl] n. Zool. fish ◇ VT/45:20lhim N. (lhimb N.) n. Zool. fish ◇ Ety/369, X/LH

fistdond S. [dˈɔnd] (donn S.) n. Biol. fist, hand (especially in punching) ◇ VT/47:23drambor N. [drˈɑm.bɔr] n. 1. clenched fist ○ 2. by ext., blow (with fist) ◇ Ety/354paur S., N. [pˈɑur] n. Biol. fist (often used to mean "hand", its chief use was in reference of the tighly closed hand, as in using an implement or a craft-tool, rather than to the fist used in punching) ◇ Ety/366, S/429, PM/179, PM/318, VT/47:8

fitmaer N. [mˈɑɛr] adj. useful, fit, good (of things) ◇ Ety/371

fiveleben S. [lˈɛbɛn] (lheben N.) adj. num. card. five ◇ Ety/368, TAI/150, VT/42:24-25, VT/47:10, VT/47:24, VT/48:6, X/LH

fix*penia- N. [pˈɛni.ɑ] inf. penio N. [pˈɛni.ɔ] v. to fix, to set ◇ Ety/380

flame*lacha- S. [lˈɑxɑ] v. to flame ◈ lacho S. [lˈɑxɔ] v. imp. of lacha-, flame! ◇ UT/65lhach N. n. (leaping) flame ◇ S/433, X/LHnaur S., N. [nˈɑur] n. 1. flame ○ 2. fire ◇ Ety/374, S/435, LotR/II:IV

flap*blab- N. [blˈɑb] inf. blebi N. [blˈɛbi] v. to beat, batter, flap (wings, etc.) ◇ Ety/380

flatdalw N. adj. flat ◇ Ety/353, X/W

flee*drega- S. [drˈɛgɑ] v. to flee ◈ Only the imperative drego is attested. Therefore, the verb may also be dreg- (inf. dregi)drego S. [drˈɛgɔ] v. imp. of drega-, flee! ◇ UT/65

fleshrhaw IV S. [ɹ̥ˈɑw] n. flesh, body ◇ MR/350, VT/47:12

floatlhoda- N. v. to float ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

floodduinen S. [ˈdujnɛn] n. flood, high tide ◇ VT/48:26*iôl S. [jˈɔːl] n. Geog. wash, flood-water ← Onodiôl RC/334, VT/48:33

floorpân I N. [pˈɑːn] pl. pein N. n. plank, fixed board (especially in floor) ◇ Ety/380, X/EIpanas N. [pˈɑnɑs] n. abst. of pân I, floor ◇ Ety/380talaf N. [tˈɑlɑv] pl. teleif N. n. ground, floor ◇ Ety/390, X/EI

flowrhib- N. v. to flow like a (torrent ?) ◇ Ety/384, X/RHThe reading of the gloss is uncertain*siria- N. [sˈiri.ɑ] inf. sirio N. [sˈiri.ɔ] v. to flow ◇ Ety/385

floweralfirin S. [ˈɑlfirin] n. and adj. 1. immortal ○ 2. Bot. as a noun, name of a flower, bell-like and running through many soft and gentle colours ○ 3. Bot. as a noun, also used for another small white flower ◇ LotR/V:IX, Letters/402, UT/55, UT/303, UT/316, UT/417*edlothia- S. [ɛdlˈɔθi.ɑ] v. to blossom, flower ← edlothiand WR/293, X/TLThe sentence from WR/293 is hardly legible and is not translated, but this word is however a plausible formeirien S. [ˈɛjri.ɛn] n. Bot. daisy (flower) ◇ SD/129-31elanor S. [ˈɛlɑnɔr] n. Bot. a flower, a kind of enlarged pimpernel bearing golden and silver flowers ◇ LotR/VI:IX, UT/432, Letters/402elloth S. [ˈɛl̡lɔθ] n. sing. of loth, Bot. (single) flower ◇ VT/42:18goloth S. [gˈɔlɔθ] n. Bot. inflorescence, a head of small flowers ◇ VT/42:18gwaloth N. [gwˈɑlɔθ] n. Bot. blossom, collection of flowers ◇ Ety/370, VT/45:29This form replaced deleted goloth in the manuscript of The Etymologies, see VT/45:29. The deleted form is however also later attested in VT/42:18loth S. [lˈɔθ] (lhoth N.) n. Bot. flower, inflorescence, a head of small flowers ◇ Ety/370, LB/354, VT/42:18, X/LHThe noun is collective, a single flower being lotheglotheg S. [lˈɔθɛg] n. sing. of loth, Bot. (single) flower ◇ VT/42:18lothod N. [lˈɔθɔd] (lhothod N.) n. sing. of loth, Bot. (single) flower ◇ VT/45:29, X/LHmallos S. [mˈɑllɔs] n. Bot. a golden flower ◇ UT/451, Letters/248meril S. [mˈɛril̡] n. Bot. rose (flower) ◇ SD/129-31ninglor S. [nˈiŋglɔr] n. Bot. golden water-flower, gladden ◇ UT/280-81, UT/450nínim N. [nˈiːnim] n. Bot. snowdrop (flower) ◇ Ety/367niphredil S. [nˈifrɛdil̡] (nifredil N.) n. Bot. a pale winter flower, snowdrop ◇ Ety/376, Ety/378, LotR/II:VI, Letters/402, X/PHseregon S. [sˈɛrɛgɔn] n. Bot. "Blood of Stone", a plant of the kind called in English "stonecrop", with deep red flowers, that grew on Amon Rûdh ◇ S/437uilos S. [ˈujlɔs] n. and adj. 1. always white, ever white as snow ○ 2. Bot. as a noun, a small white everlasting flower also called simbelmynë or "evermind" ◇ RGEO/74, Letters/278, UT/55

flowering*edlothiad (corr. edlothiand) S. [ɛdlˈɔθi.ɑd] ger. of edlothia-, blossoming, flowering ← edlothiand WR/293Actually, edlothiand might be a misreading, according to David Salo who checked the original manuscript at Marquette and reported that his reading was unmistakably edlothiad

flowing*cell S. [kˈɛl̡l] adj. 1. running ○ 2. by ext., flowing (of water) ← Celduin LotR/Map

fly*rhevia- N. inf. rhevio (corr. rhenio) N. v. 1. to fly, sail ○ 2. to wander ◇ Ety/382, X/RH

foamfalf N. [fˈɑlv] n. foam, breaker ◇ Ety/381*faltha- N. [fˈɑlθɑ] inf. faltho N. [fˈɑlθɔ] v. to foam ◇ Ety/381

foe*gûd S. n. foe ← Thuringud WJ/256

foghîth S. [hˈiːθ] (hith N.) n. mist, fog ◇ Ety/364, S/432hithw N. n. fog ◇ Ety/364, X/Wmith I N. [mˈiθ] n. white fog, wet mist ◇ Ety/373

foggyhethw N. adj. foggy, obscure, vague ◇ Ety/364, X/W

followaphad- S. [ˈɑffɑd] v. to follow ◇ WJ/387In WJ/387, the verbal stem is given as aphad-, and the etymology as *ap-pata. If we follow the latter, the verb should perhaps read aphada-

followeraphadon S. [ˈɑffɑdɔn] pl. ephedyn S. [ˈɛffɛdyn] n. 1. follower ○ 2. Pop. by ext., man (elvish name for men) ◇ WJ/387aphadrim S. [ɑffˈɑdrim] n. class pl. of aphadon, Pop. followers, men (elvish name for men) ◇ WJ/387bior N. (beor N.) n. follower, vassal ◇ Ety/352, X/IUechil S. [ˈɛxil̡] n. 1. follower ○ 2. Pop. by ext., human being ◇ WJ/219

foodaes N. [ˈɑɛs] n. cooked food, meat ◇ Ety/349

footprintrhein II N. (rhœin N.) n. slot, spoor, track, footprint ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

footstooltharas N. [θˈɑrɑs] n. hassock, footstool ◇ Ety/388

foran S. [ɑn] prep. to, towards, for ◇ LotR/II:IV, UT/39, SD/129-31With suffixed article and elision in aglar'ni Pheriannath

fordathrad S., N. [ˈɑθrɑd] pl. ethraid S. [ˈɛθrɑjd] n. (river-)crossing, ford, way ◇ Ety/349, Ety/383, UT/437, VT/42:7*iach S. [jˈɑx] n. ford, crossing ← Arossiach S/382, Brithiach S/286, Cirith Ninniach S/387

foresttaur II S., N. [tˈɑur] n. great wood, forest ◇ Ety/391, S/420, S/438tawar S., N. [tˈɑwɑr] n. 1. wood (as a material) ○ 2. by ext., great wood, forest ← Tawar-in-Drúedain UT/467, Ety/391

forestertauron S. [tˈɑurɔn] n. forester ◇ S/421, PM/258

forgivedíhena- S. [dˈiːhɛnɑ] v. to forgive (with matter forgiven as object?) ◇ VT/44:29díheno S. [dˈiːhɛnɔ] v. imp. of díhena-, forgive! ◇ VT/44:21,28gohena- S. [gˈɔhɛnɑ] v. to forgive (with person forgiven as object?) ◇ VT/44:29

forkedthanc S., N. [θˈɑŋk] adj. cleft, split, forked ← Orthanc S/415, Ety/388

formationdírnaith S. [dˈiːrnɑjθ] n. Mil. a military wedge-formation launched over a short distance against an enemy massing but not yet arrayed, or against a defensive formation on open ground ◇ UT/282

formedcadw N. adj. shaped, formed ◇ Ety/362-363, X/W

formeriaur S., N. [jˈɑur] adj. 1. ancient, old, original ○ 2. older, former ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, S/433, UT/384

forsakeawartha- N. [ɑwˈɑrθɑ] v. to forsake, abandon ◇ Ety/397

forsakeneglan S. [ˈɛglɑn] pl. eglain S. [ˈɛglɑjn] n. and adj. 1. forsaken ○ 2. Pop. as a noun, an Elf of the Falathrim ◇ WJ/365, WJ/379-380*egol S. [ˈɛgl̩] n. Pop. someone forsaken, an Elf of the Falathrim ← Eglath WJ/189, WJ/344

fortgarth N. [gˈɑrθ] n. fort, fortress ◇ Ety/360minas S. [mˈinɑs] (minnas N.) n. abst. 1. tower ○ 2. by ext., fort, city with a citadel and central watch-tower ◇ Ety/373, S/434, VT/42:24

forthed- N. [ɛd] pref. forth, out ◇ Ety/356

fortressbarad II S., N. [bˈɑrɑd] pl. beraid S. [bˈɛrɑjd] n. tower, fortress ◇ Ety/351, S/428, LotR/Bgarth N. [gˈɑrθ] n. fort, fortress ◇ Ety/360ost S., N. [ˈɔst] n. 1. city, town with wall round ○ 2. citadel, fortress or stronghold, made or strenghtened by art ◇ Ety/379, S/435, WJ/414, RC/232othrond S., N. n. fortress or city in underground caves, underground stronghold ◇ Ety/379, Ety/384, WJ/414, X/ND4

fortunegalw N. n. (?) blessings, (?) blessedness, (?) good fortune (meaning not entirely clear) ◇ Ety/357, X/Wmanadh N. [mˈɑnɑð] n. 1. doom, final end, fate, fortune ○ 2. by ext., final bliss ◇ Ety/371

fourcanad S., N. [kˈɑnɑd] (canath N.) adj. num. card. four ◇ Ety/362, VT/42:24,25, VT/48:6, VT/46:3

fourthcanthui S. [kˈɑnθuj] (Arch. cantui S., Arch. canhui S.) adj. num. ord. fourth ◇ VT/42:10, VT/42:25,27

foxrusc S. [rˈusk] n. Zool. fox ◇ VT/41:10

frailmîw N. [mˈiːw] adj. small, tiny, frail ◇ VT/45:35nimp II S. [nˈimp] adj. small and frail ◇ VT/48:18

freelhein N. (lhain N.) adj. free, freed ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

freedlhein N. (lhain N.) adj. free, freed ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

freeingleithian S., N. [lˈɛjθi.ɑn] (lheithian N.) n. release, freeing, release from bondage ◇ Ety/368, S/406, X/LH

frequentlhaew N. adj. frequent, many ◇ VT/45:27, X/LHrhem N. (rhemb N.) adj. frequent, numerous ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

freshcîw S. [kˈiːw] adj. fresh, new ◇ VT/48:7-8laeg S. [lˈɑɛg] adj. "viridis", fresh and green ◇ Letters/282, Letters/382Seldom used (replaced by calen)lhaeb N. (lhoeb N.) adj. fresh ◇ Ety/368, VT/45:26, X/OE, X/LH

friend*elvellon S. [ɛl̡vˈɛl̡lɔn] pl. elvellyn S. [ɛl̡vˈɛl̡lyn] n. elf-friend ◇ WJ/412meldir N. [mˈɛl̡dir] n. m. friend ◇ Ety/372meldis N. [mˈɛl̡dis] n. f. friend ◇ Ety/372mellon S., N. [mˈɛl̡lɔn] pl. mellyn S. [mˈɛl̡lyn] n. friend ◇ Ety/372, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-31, Letters/424

friendlymilui N. [mˈiluj] adj. friendly, loving, kind ◇ Ety/372

friendshipgwend II N. [gwˈɛnd] n. bond, friendship ◇ Ety/397-398, X/ND1

frogcabor N. [kˈɑbr̩] (cabr N.) n. Zool. frog ◇ Ety/362

fromo I S., N. [ɔ] (od S.) prep. from, of (preposition (as a proclitic) used in either direction, from or to the point of view of the speaker) ◇ Ety/360, WJ/366, WJ/369-70, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-31, RGEO/72According to WJ/366, the preposition "is normally o in all positions, though od appears occasionally before vowels, especially before o-". With a suffixed article, see also uin

frontnîf N. [nˈiːv] n. front, face ◇ Ety/378

fullpant S., N. [pˈɑnt] adj. full ◇ Ety/366, SD/129-31

fullnesspathred N. [pˈɑθrɛd] n. fullness ◇ Ety/366

fungushwand N. [ʍˈɑnd] (chwand N., chwann N.) n. Bot. sponge, fungus ◇ Ety/388, X/ND1, X/HW

furheleth N. [hˈɛlɛθ] n. fur, fur-coat ◇ Ety/386helf N. [hˈɛl̡v] n. fur ◇ Ety/386

G

gapdîn II N. [dˈiːn] n. opening, gap, pass in mountains ◇ Ety/354gas N. [gˈɑs] n. hole, gap ◇ Ety/357

gardensant S. [sˈɑnt] n. garden, field, yard (or other place in private ownership whether enclosed or not) ◇ VT/42:20

garland S. [rˈiː] (rhî N.) n. crown, wreath, garland ◇ Ety/383, PM/347, X/RH

garmenthamp II N. [hˈɑmp] n. garment ◇ Ety/363

gateannon S., N. [ˈɑnnɔn] pl. ennyn S., N. [ˈɛnnyn] n. augm. great door or gate ◇ Ety/348, S/428, LotR/II:IV, TAI/150

gatewayfennas S. [fˈɛnnɑs] n. abst. of fen, doorway, gateway ◇ LotR/II:IV, RS/463, RGEO/75

gaygelir S. [gˈɛlir] n. merry, happy, gay person ◇ SD/129-31meren N. [mˈɛrɛn] adj. festive, gay, joyous ◇ Ety/372The word was changed to beren in the Etymologies, but meren would be restored together with mereth

gaze*tir- N. [tˈir] inf. tiri N. [tˈiri] v. to watch, to gaze, look at ◇ Ety/394*tiria- N. [tˈiri.ɑ] inf. tirio N. [tˈiri.ɔ] pa. t. tiriant N. [tˈiri.ɑnt] v. to watch, to gaze, look at ◇ Ety/394

gazedtíriel S. [tˈiːri.ɛl̡] perf. of tiria-, having gazed ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74

gazingtiriel S. [tˈiri.ɛl̡] part. of tiria-, gazing ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74

generousfael I S. [fˈɑɛl] adj. fair minded, just, generous ◇ PM/352

germeredh N. [ˈɛrɛð] n. Bot. seed, germ ◇ Ety/356

giddinesschwîn N. n. giddiness, faintness ◇ Ety/388, X/HW

giddychwiniol N. part. of chwinia-, whirling, giddy, fantastic ◇ Ety/388

giftant N. [ˈɑnt] n. gift ◇ Ety/348

girdlelest S. [lˈɛst] n. girdle ◇ WJ/333, WJ/225, WJ/228

girliell N. [jˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid ◇ Ety/385, Ety/400Stated to be an alteration of sell, remodelled after ion "son" (OS *jondo). It was "a change assisted by the loss of s in compounds and patronymics", hence the ending -iel in several feminine wordsneth II S. [nˈɛθ] n. f. 1. hypo. of nîth II sister ○ 2. girl (in her teens, approaching the adult) ◇ VT/47:14-16,33, VT/48:6sell N. [sˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid (child) ◇ Ety/385

give*anna- N. [ˈɑnnɑ] inf. anno N. [ˈɑnnɔ] v. to give ◇ Ety/348anno II S. [ˈɑnnɔ] v. imp. of anna-, give! ◇ VT/44:21,27

giver*oneth S. [ˈɔnɛθ] n. f. giver ← besoneth PM/404-05

gladdenninglor S. [nˈiŋglɔr] n. Bot. golden water-flower, gladden ◇ UT/280-81, UT/450

glanceglintha- S. v. to glance at ◇ WJ/337

glasscenedril N. [kɛnˈɛdril̡] n. looking-glass, mirror ◇ TI/184, RS/466heledh S. [hˈɛlɛd] n. glass ◇ S/433

gleamglîn S. [glˈiːn] (glînn S.) n. gleam, glint (usually of fine slender but bright shafts of light, particularly applied to light of eyes) ◇ WJ/337, S/431

glimmeringgael N. [gˈɑɛl] adj. pale, glimmering ◇ Ety/358

glintglîn S. [glˈiːn] (glînn S.) n. gleam, glint (usually of fine slender but bright shafts of light, particularly applied to light of eyes) ◇ WJ/337, S/431*tinna- N. [tˈinnɑ] inf. tinno N. [tˈinnɔ] v. to glint ◇ Ety/393

glisten*thilia- N. [θˈili.ɑ] inf. thilio N. [θˈili.ɔ] v. to glisten ◇ Ety/392, VT/46:18

glitteringgalad S. [gˈɑlɑd] n. light, radiance, glittering, reflection (from jewels, glass or polished metal, or water) ◇ VT/45:13, PM/347, Letters/425silivren S. [silˈivrɛn] adj. (white) glittering ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

globecoron S., N. [kˈɔrɔn] n. 1. globe, ball ○ 2. Geog. by ext., mound ◇ Ety/365, S/429

globedcorn N. [kˈɔrn] adj. round, globed ◇ Ety/365

gloomdaw N. [dˈɑw] n. night-time, gloom ◇ Ety/354fuin S., N. [fˈujn] n. night, dead of night, gloom, darkness ◇ Ety/354, Ety/382, S/431maur N. [mˈɑur] n. gloom ◇ Ety/373

gloomydem N. [dˈɛm] adj. sad, gloomy ◇ Ety/354No language indication in the Etymologies, but Noldorin from context and phonological evidencedofn N. [dˈɔvn] adj. gloomy ◇ Ety/355

glorify*egleria- S. [ɛglˈɛri.ɑ] v. to glorify, to praise ◈ eglerio S. [ɛglˈɛri.ɔ] v. imp. of egleria-, glorify! praise! ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308

gloriousaglareb S., N. [ˈɑglɑrɛb] adj. glorious ◇ Ety/348, S/427, WJ/412

gloryaglar S., N. [ˈɑglɑr] n. glory, brilliance, splendour ◇ Ety/348, S/427, LotR/II:I, LotR/VI:IV, RGEO/73, VT/47:13claur N. [klˈɑur] n. Poet. splendour, glory ◇ Ety/362

gobletsûl II N. [sˈuːl] n. goblet ◇ Ety/388

goblinorch S., N. [ˈɔrx] pl. yrch S., N. [ˈyrx] (eirch N., erch N.) n. Pop. Goblin, Orc ◇ Ety/379, LR/406, WJ/390, LotR/II:VI, LotR/F, Letters/178

goldcôl N. [kˈɔːl] n. gold (metal) ◇ Ety/365mallen N. [mˈɑɬɛn] (Arch. malthen N.) adj. of gold, golden ◇ Ety/386, RC/625, VT/46:14, Tengwestie/20031207malt N. [mˈɑlt] n. gold (as metal) ◇ Ety/386, VT/46:14, VT/42:27, Tengwestie/20031207

goldenmallen N. [mˈɑɬɛn] (Arch. malthen N.) adj. of gold, golden ◇ Ety/386, RC/625, VT/46:14, Tengwestie/20031207

goodmaer N. [mˈɑɛr] adj. useful, fit, good (of things) ◇ Ety/371

goosegwaun N. [gwˈɑun] pl. guin N. n. Orn. goose ◇ Ety/397, X/Z

gorenaith S., N. [nˈɑjθ] pl. natsai N. [nˈɑtsɑj] n. any formation or projection tapering to a point: a spearhead, triangle gore, wedge, narrow promontory ◇ Ety/387, UT/282, RC/307

gorgecabed S. [kˈɑbɛd] ger. of cab-, 1. leap ○ 2. by ext., deep gorge ◇ S/386, WJ/100Emended by Tolkien from earlier cabad. This is our sole late example that basic verbs should perhaps form their gerund in -ed, whereas derived verbs are well attested to use -ad (cf. aderthad)cîl I N. [kˈiːl] n. Geog. cleft, pass between hills, gorge ◇ Ety/365

grassthâr N. [θˈɑːr] n. Bot. stiff grass ◇ Ety/388

grasslandnan S. [nˈɑn] (nand S., N., nann N.) n. 1. Geog. wide grassland, land at foot of hills with many streams ○ 2. by ext., valley ◇ Ety/374, S/435, Letters/308, VT/45:36, X/ND1parth S. [pˈɑrθ] n. Geog. field, enclosed grassland, sward ◇ UT/260, PM/330, RC/349

gravehaudh S., N. [hˈɑuð] n. (burial) mound, grave, tomb ◇ Ety/363-364, S/432, LotR/A(iv)sarch S. [sˈɑrx] n. grave ◇ UT/463

gravelbrith N. [brˈiθ] n. gravel ◇ Ety/353

greatbeleg S., N. [bˈɛlɛg] adj. great, mighty ◇ Ety/352, S/428daer S. [dˈɑɛr] adj. great ◇ UT/450, WJ/187, WJ/335, VT/42:11

greedymelch N. [mˈɛl̡x] adj. greedy ◇ Ety/373

greencalen S., N. [kˈɑlɛn] pl. celin S. [kˈɛlin] adj. green ◇ Ety/362, S/429, Letters/282, RC/349, VT/42:19laeg S. [lˈɑɛg] adj. "viridis", fresh and green ◇ Letters/282, Letters/382Seldom used (replaced by calen)

greet*suila- S. [sˈujlɑ] v. to greet ← suilad SD/129-31*suilanna- S. [sujlˈɑnnɑ] v. to greet, to give greetings ← suilannad SD/129-31

greeting*suil S. [sˈujl] n. greeting ← Arassuil LotR/A(ii)Deduced from Arassuil, conceivably aran+suil. For the meaning, see suiladsuilad S. [sˈujlɑd] ger. of suila-, greeting ◇ SD/129-31suilannad S. [sujlˈɑnnɑd] ger. of suilanna-, greeting, giving of greetings ◇ SD/129-31

greymith II S., N. [mˈiθ] adj. (pale) grey ◇ Ety/373, S/434, TC/187*mithren S. [mˈiθrɛn] pl. mithrin S. [mˈiθrin] adj. grey ◇ UT/436thind S., N. [θˈind] (thinn N.) adj. grey, pale ◇ Ety/392, S/438

grosshost N. [hˈɔst] n. gross (144) ◇ Ety/364

groundtalaf N. [tˈɑlɑv] pl. teleif N. n. ground, floor ◇ Ety/390, X/EI

grow*gala- N. [gˈɑlɑ] inf. galo N. [gˈɑlɔ] v. to grow ◇ Ety/357

growthgalas N. [gˈɑlɑs] n. abst. of gala-, Bot. growth, plant ◇ Ety/357

guardtirith S., N. [tˈiriθ] n. watch, guard (abstract noun), vigilance ◇ Ety/394, S/437, Letters/158, VT/42:11

guarded*tirnen S. [tˈirnɛn] pp. of tir-, guarded ← Talath Dirnen UT/465, Ety/394, S/437

guessinc N. [ˈiŋk] n. guess, idea, notion ◇ Ety/361

gulf S. [jˈɑː] (ia N.) n. 1. gulf ○ 2. abyss, void ◇ Ety/400, S/432, Letters/383iau II N. [jˈɑu] n. Geog. ravine, cleft, gulf ◇ Ety/400, VT/46:22

gullgwael S. [gwˈɑɛl] n. Orn. gull ◇ WJ/418maew N. [mˈɑɛw] n. Orn. gull ◇ Ety/373mŷl S. [mˈyːl] n. Orn. gull ◇ WJ/379-380, WJ/418

H

habithaew N. [hˈɑɛw] n. custom, habit ◇ Ety/364, VT/45:22Written hæw (with ae-ligature) in the Etymologies, rectified here according to VT/45:22

hack*hasta- N. [hˈɑstɑ] inf. hasto N. [hˈɑstɔ] v. to hack through ◇ Ety/389

hairfast N. [fˈɑst] n. shaggy hair ◇ Ety/381fing S. [fˈiŋ] n. lock of hair ← Finglas "Leaflock" RC/386finnel N. [fˈinnɛl̡] (findel N.) n. (braided) hair ◇ Ety/387, X/ND2lhaws N. n. hair ringlet ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

halfper- N. [pɛr] pref. half, divided in middle ◈ perin N. [pˈɛrin] adj. half, divided in middle ◇ Ety/380

halflingperian S. [pˈɛri.ɑn] pl. periain S. [pˈɛri.ɑjn] n. Pop. Hobbit, Halfling ◇ LotR/VI:IV, LotR/E, RGEO/75, Letters/308, X/ND4periannath S. [pˌɛri.ˈɑnnɑθ] n. coll. of perian, Pop. the Hobbits, Halflings ◇ LotR/VI:IV, LotR/E-F, RGEO/75, Letters/308

halltham N. [θˈɑm] (thamb N.) n. hall ◇ Ety/387thamas N. [θˈɑmɑs] (thambas N.) n. abst. of tham, great hall ◇ Ety/387

haltdaro S., N. [dˈɑrɔ] v. imp. of dar-, halt! stop! ◇ Ety/353, LotR/II:VIpost N. [pˈɔst] n. pause, halt, rest, cessation, respite ◇ Ety/382

hammerdam N. [dˈɑm] n. hammer ◇ Ety/375damma- N. [dˈɑmmɑ] pa. t. dammant N. [dˈɑmmant] v. to hammer ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37It was long considered that damna-, dammint in the Etymologies might have been misreadings. VT/45:37 confirms this, though the exact reading actually remains rather uncertain*dring S. [drˈiŋ] n. hammer ← Glamdring H, Ety/355

handcam S., N. [kˈɑm] (camb N., camm N.) n. Biol. hand ◇ Ety/361, Ety/371, S/429camland N. n. Biol. palm of hand ◇ Ety/367, X/ND4crum N. [krˈum] n. left hand ◇ Ety/366dalf N. n. Biol. palm of hand ◇ Ety/353dond S. [dˈɔnd] (donn S.) n. Biol. fist, hand (especially in punching) ◇ VT/47:23feir II N. (fœir N.) n. right (hand) ◇ Ety/382, VT/46:10forvo S. [fˈɔrvɔ] n. 1. right hand ○ 2. by ext., right side ◇ VT/47:6harvo S. [hˈɑrvɔ] n. 1. left hand ○ 2. by ext., left side ◇ VT/47:6heir N. n. and adj. left (hand) ◇ Ety/365, X/EImâb S. [mˈɑːb] (mab- S.) n. Biol. a hand-full, complete hand (with all five fingers) ◇ Ety/371, VT/45:32, VT/47:6-7maw I S. [mˈɑw] n. Biol. Arch. hand ◇ VT/47:6paur S., N. [pˈɑur] n. Biol. fist (often used to mean "hand", its chief use was in reference of the tighly closed hand, as in using an implement or a craft-tool, rather than to the fist used in punching) ◇ Ety/366, S/429, PM/179, PM/318, VT/47:8plad S. [plˈɑd] n. Biol. palm, flat of the hand, hand held upwards or forwards, flat and tensed (with fingers and thumb closed or spread) ◇ VT/47:9

handedcrumui N. [krˈumuj] adj. left-handed ◇ Ety/366erchamion S. [ɛrxˈɑmi.ɔn] adj. one-handed ◇ WJ/51, WJ/231,erchamon S. n. m. one-handed man ◇ VT/47:7, X/Zerchamui N. adj. one-handed ◇ Ety/361, X/Zforgam N. [fˈɔrgɑm] adj. right-handed ◇ Ety/382hargam N. [hˈɑrgɑm] n. left-handed ◇ Ety/365

handlemaetha- II S. [mˈɑɛθɑ] v. to handle, wield, manage, deal with ◇ VT/47:6

handymaed II S. [mˈɑɛd] (moed N.) adj. handy, skilled, skilful ◇ Ety/371, VT/47:6, X/OE

hanggling- N. [glˈiŋ] v. to hang, dangle ◇ Ety/359, Ety/369, VT/45:15,27

happygelir S. [gˈɛlir] n. merry, happy, gay person ◇ SD/129-31

harasstrasta- N. [trˈɑstɑ] v. to harass, trouble ◇ Ety/391

harbourhûb N. [hˈuːb] n. Geog. haven, harbour, small land-locked bay ◇ Ety/364lhorn N. n. 1. quiet water ○ 2. by ext., anchorage, harbour ◇ VT/45:29, X/LHlond S., N. [lˈɔnd] (lonn S., N., lhonn N.) n. 1. narrow path or strait ○ 2. by ext., entrance to harbour, land-locked haven ◇ Ety/348, Ety/370, S/434, UT/450, VT/42:10, X/LH, X/ND1

harbouragehobas N. [hˈɔbɑs] n. abst. of hûb, harbourage ◇ Ety/364

hardnorn N. [nˈɔrn] pl. nyrn S. [nˈyrn] adj. 1. twisted, knotted, crabbed, contorted ○ 2. hard ◇ Ety/387

harp*ganna- N. [gˈɑnnɑ] inf. ganno N. [gˈɑnnɔ] v. to play a harp ◇ Ety/377*gannada- N. [gˈɑnnɑdɑ] inf. gannado N. [gˈɑnnɑdɔ] v. to play a harp ◇ Ety/377gannel N. [gˈɑnnɛl̡] (gandel N.) n. harp ◇ Ety/377, X/ND2

harpertalagand N. n. harper ◇ Ety/377, X/ND4

hasptaew N. [tˈɑɛw] n. holder, socket, hasp, clasp, staple ◇ Ety/390, VT/46:17

hassocktharas N. [θˈɑrɑs] n. hassock, footstool ◇ Ety/388

hastyceleg S., N. [kˈɛlɛg] adj. swift, agile, hasty ◇ Ety/366, PM/353, VT/41:10

hatcarab S. [kˈɑrɑb] n. hat ◇ WJ/187

hatefuldelw N. adj. hateful, deadly, fell ◇ Ety/355, X/W

have*gar- N. [gˈɑr] inf. garo N. [gˈɑrɔ] v. to hold, have ◇ Ety/360gerin N. [gˈɛrin] v. pres. 1st of gar-, I hold, I have ◇ Ety/360

havencirban N. n. haven ◇ Ety/380, X/ND4hûb N. [hˈuːb] n. Geog. haven, harbour, small land-locked bay ◇ Ety/364lond S., N. [lˈɔnd] (lonn S., N., lhonn N.) n. 1. narrow path or strait ○ 2. by ext., entrance to harbour, land-locked haven ◇ Ety/348, Ety/370, S/434, UT/450, VT/42:10, X/LH, X/ND1lonnath S. [lˈɔnnɑθ] n. coll. of lond, havens ◇ WR/294, WR/370

hawthorntoss N. [tˈɔss] n. Bot. bush, low-growing tree (as maple, hawthorn, blackthorn, holly, etc.) ◇ Ety/379, Ety/395

hee S. [ɛ] pron. 3rd he ◇ SD/129-31The meaning "he" is deduced from the apparent function of this word in the so-called "King's Letter", but it also seems possible to interpret it as "indeed" (as in Q. e, LR/63, VT/45:11), used here in a way of formal address expressing the wishes or the will of the Kingho N. [hɔ] (hon N., hono N.) pl. huin N. pron. 3rd m. he ◇ Ety/385, X/Z

headland*cast S. [kˈɑst] n. Geog. cape, headland ← Angast VT/42:28

heal*nesta- N. [nˈɛstɑ] v. to heal ← nestad WR/379-380

healingnestad N. [nˈɛstɑd] ger. of nesta-, healing ◇ WR/379-80*nestadren N. [nɛstˈɑdrɛn] pl. nestedrin (corr. nestedriu) N. [nɛstˈɛdrin] adj. healing ◇ WR/380

heapcum N. [kˈum] (cumb N.) n. mound, heap ◇ Ety/365ovras N. [ˈɔvrɑs] n. abst. of ovor, crowd, heap. ◇ Ety/396

hearerlhathron N. n. hearer, listener, eavesdropper ◇ Ety/368, X/LHlhethril N. n. f. hearer, listener, eavesdropper ◇ VT/45:26, X/LH

heartgûr I S. [gˈuːr] n. heart (in the moral sense), counsel ◇ VT/41:11,15hûn N. [hˈuːn] n. Biol. heart (physical) ◇ Ety/364ind N. [ˈind] (inn N.) n. inner thought, meaning, heart ◇ Ety/361, X/ND1

heatbrass N. [brˈɑss] n. white heat ◇ Ety/351ûr I N. [ˈuːr] n. fire, heat ◇ Ety/396

heavenmenel S. [mˈɛnɛl̡] n. sky, high heaven, firmament, the region of the stars ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, LB/354, RGEO/72, VT/44:21,23-24

heavylhong N. adj. heavy ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

hedgecai S. [kˈɑj] n. hedge ◇ UT/282

heighttaen I N. [tˈɑɛn] n. height, summit of high mountain ◇ Ety/389

heir*hîl S. [hˈiːl] n. heir ← Eluchíl PM/369

helmthôl S. [θˈɔːl] n. Mil. helm ◇ S/438

helmetharn IV N. [hˈɑrn] n. Mil. helmet ◇ VT/45:21

hemglân II S. [glˈɑːn] n. hem, border (of textile and other hand-made things) ◇ VT/42:8rhîf N. n. edge, hem, border ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

herbathelas S. [ˈɑθɛlɑs] n. Bot. "kingsfoil", a healing herb brought to Middle-earth by the Númenóreans ◇ LotR/V:VIIIsalab N. [sˈɑlɑb] pl. seleb N. n. Bot. herb ◇ Ety/385, X/EI

here S. [sˈiː] adv. here ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

herocallon N. [kˈɑllɔn] n. hero ◇ Ety/362thalion S., N. [θˈɑli.ɔn] pl. thelyn N. [θˈɛlyn] n. hero, dauntless man (especially as surname of Húrin Thalion) ◇ Ety/388, S/438

hew*draf- N. [drˈɑv] inf. dravo N. [drˈɑvɔ] pa. t. drammen N. [drˈɑmmɛn] (dravant N., Arch. dramp N.) v. to hew ◇ Ety/354, VT/45:8

hewndrafn N. [drˈɑvn] n. hewn log ◇ Ety/354

hiddendolen N. [dˈɔlɛn] pp. of doltha-, concealed, hidden ◇ Ety/355hall II N. [hˈɑll] adj. veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady ◇ Ety/386thurin N. [θˈurin] adj. secret, hidden ◇ LB/304, Ety/394

hideousuanui N. [ˈu.ɑnuj] adj. monstrous, hideous ◇ Ety/351

highara- S. [ɑrɑ] (ar- S.) pref. high, noble, royal ◇ S/428brand N. [brˈɑnd] (brann N.) adj. 1. lofty, noble, fine ○ 2. high (in size) ◇ Ety/351, TAI/150, X/ND1taur III N. [tˈɑur] adj. mighty, vast, overwhelming, huge, awful, high, sublime ◇ Ety/395

hillamon S., N. [ˈɑmɔn] pl. emyn S., N. [ˈɛmyn] (emuin N.) n. Geog. hill, steep-sided mount ◇ Ety/348, LotR/E, RC/334dôl N. [dˈɔːl] (dol S.) n. 1. head ○ 2. Geog. by ext., hill or mountain ◇ Ety/376, S/430, RC/268mindon N. [mˈindɔn] n. 1. Geog. isolated hill, especially a hill with a watch tower ○ 2. by ext., tower ◇ Ety/373, Ety/395tund N. [tˈund] (tunn N.) n. Geog. hill, mound ◇ Ety/395, X/ND1

hindmosttele N. [tˈɛlɛ] pl. telei N. [tˈɛlɛj] n. end, rear, hindmost part ◇ Ety/392

hisîn I S. [ˈiːn] adj. poss. 3rd his (referring to the subject) ◇ SD/129-31*tîn I S. [tˈiːn] adj. poss. 3rd his ← bess dîn SD/129-31

historicalgobennathren N. [gˌɔbɛnnˈɑθrɛn] adj. historical ◇ Ety/366

historygobennas N. [gɔbˈɛnnɑs] n. history ◇ Ety/366pennas N. [pˈɛnnɑs] n. abst. of pent II, history, historical account ◇ Ety/366, WJ/192, WJ/206

hobbitperian S. [pˈɛri.ɑn] pl. periain S. [pˈɛri.ɑjn] n. Pop. Hobbit, Halfling ◇ LotR/VI:IV, LotR/E, RGEO/75, Letters/308, X/ND4periannath S. [pˌɛri.ˈɑnnɑθ] n. coll. of perian, Pop. the Hobbits, Halflings ◇ LotR/VI:IV, LotR/E-F, RGEO/75, Letters/308

hold*gar- N. [gˈɑr] inf. garo N. [gˈɑrɔ] v. to hold, have ◇ Ety/360gerin N. [gˈɛrin] v. pres. 1st of gar-, I hold, I have ◇ Ety/360

holdertaew N. [tˈɑɛw] n. holder, socket, hasp, clasp, staple ◇ Ety/390, VT/46:17

holedath N. [dˈɑθ] n. hole, pit, steep fall, abyss ◇ Ety/354, VT/45:8gas N. [gˈɑs] n. hole, gap ◇ Ety/357tess N. [tˈɛss] (ters N.) n. (fine pierced) hole ◇ VT/46:18torech N. [tˈɔrɛx] n. hole, excavation, lair ◇ WR/202, RC/490

hollowcoll II S. [kˈɔll] adj. hollow ◇ WJ/414rhaudh N. adj. hollow, cavernous ◇ Ety/384, X/RH*rosta- N. [rˈɔstɑ] inf. rosto N. [rˈɔstɔ] v. to hollow out, excavate ◇ Ety/384

hollyereg S., N. [ˈɛrɛg] pl. erig N. [ˈɛrig] n. Bot. holly-tree, thorn ◇ Ety/356, S/431eregdos N. [ɛrˈɛgdɔs] n. Bot. holly, holly-tree ◇ Ety/356, Ety/379, Ety/395toss N. [tˈɔss] n. Bot. bush, low-growing tree (as maple, hawthorn, blackthorn, holly, etc.) ◇ Ety/379, Ety/395

holyaer II S. [ˈɑɛr] adj. holy ◇ VT/44:21,24

homebar S. [bˈɑr] pl. bair S. [bˈɑjr] n. 1. dwelling, home ○ 2. by ext., inhabited land ◇ S/428, WR/379-80, SD/129-31

honeyglî N. [glˈiː] n. honey ◇ Ety/369meglin N. adj. honey-eater, bear-like ◇ Ety/369, X/DL

honeycombnîdh N. [nˈiːð] n. honeycomb ◇ VT/45:38

hookgamp S., N. [gˈɑmp] n. hook, claw, crook ◇ Ety/357, VT/47:20

hop*laba- S. [lˈɑbɑ] v. to hop ← Labadal UT/60This entry is interpolated from Sador's nickname, Labadal, which is rendered as "Hopafoot" in the text

hopeamdir S. [ˈɑmdir] n. hope based on reason ◇ MR/320estel S. [ˈɛstɛl̡] n. hope, trust, a temper of mind, steady fixed in purpose, and difficult to dissuade and unlikely to fall into despair or abandon its purpose ◇ WJ/318-319, LotR/A(v), MR/320*hartha- S. [hˈɑrθɑ] v. to hope ← Harthad SD/62harthad S. [hˈɑrθɑd] ger. of hartha-, hope ◇ SD/62

hordehoth S., N. [hˈɔθ] n. Pej. host, crowd, horde (nearly always in a bad sense) ◇ Ety/364, S/432

hornras S. [rˈɑs] (rhas N.) pl. rais S. [rˈɑjs] n. horn (especially on living animal, but also applied to mountains) ◇ Ety/383, VT/46:10, LotR/E, S/436, X/RHThe form rhaes in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/46:10rhafn N. n. wing (horn), extended point at side, etc. ◇ Ety/382, X/RHrhasg N. n. horn (especially on living animal, but also applied to mountains) ◇ Ety/383, X/RHrhomru N. n. sound of horns ◇ Ety/384, X/RHrom S. [rˈɔm] (rhom N.) n. horn, trumpet ◇ Ety/384, WJ/400, X/RHtarag N. [tˈɑrɑg] n. 1. horn ○ 2. by ext., steep mountain peak ◇ Ety/391, VT/46:17till N. [tˈil̡l] (tild N.) n. horn, point ◇ Ety/393

horribledeleb N. [dˈɛlɛb] adj. horrible, abominable, loathsome ◇ Ety/355gortheb (corr. gorthob) S. [gˈɔrθɛb] adj. horrible ◇ WJ/415

horrordel N. [ˈdɛl̡] n. fear, disgust, loathing, horror ◇ Ety/355girith S., N. [gˈiriθ] n. shuddering, horror ◇ Ety/358, S/431gorgor S. [gˈɔrgɔr] n. extreme horror, terror, haunting fear ◇ WJ/415, RC/334-335gorog S. [gˈɔrɔg] n. horror ◇ WJ/415goroth N. [gˈɔrɔθ] n. horror ◇ Ety/377gorth I S. [gˈɔrθ] n. horror ◇ WJ/415

horselobor N. [lˈɔbr̩] n. Zool. horse ◇ VT/45:28roch S., N. [rˈɔx] n. Zool. horse, swift horse for riding ◇ Ety/384, S/436, Letters/178, Letters/282, Letters/382

hostgwaith S., N. [gwˈɑjθ] (gweith N.) n. 1. manhood ○ 2. by ext., man power, troop of able-bodied men, host, regiment, people ○ 3. by ext., region, wilderness ◇ Ety/398, VT/46:21, X/E1hoth S., N. [hˈɔθ] n. Pej. host, crowd, horde (nearly always in a bad sense) ◇ Ety/364, S/432rim S. [rˈim] (rhim N., rhimb N.) n. crowd, host, great number ◇ Ety/383, S/436, Letters/178, Letters/382, X/RH

hotborn S. [bˈɔrn] adj. hot, red ◇ Letters/426-27urui S. [ˈuruj] n. and adj. 1. hot ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of august ◇ LotR/D

houndrhŷn N. n. Zool. "chaser", hound of chase ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

houseadab N. [ˈɑdɑb] pl. edeb N. n. building, house ◇ Ety/390, WR/379-80, X/EIcar N. [kˈɑr] (cardh N.) n. house, building ◇ Ety/362gobel N. [gˈɔbɛl̡] n. walled house or village, town ◇ Ety/380nost S. [nˈɔst] n. kindred, family, house ◇ PM/360nothrim S. [nˈɔθrim] n. class pl. of nost, kindred, family, house ← Nothrim [> Nost] Finarfin PM/360The word was rejected in favor of nost, but it may be interpreted as a valid class plural "those of the house"sennas S. [sˈɛnnɑs] n. abst. of send, guesthouse ◇ RC/523

householdherth N. [hˈɛrθ] n. Mil. household, troop under a "hîr" (master, lord) ◇ Ety/364

howlgaul N. [gˈɑul] n. wolf-howl ◇ Ety/377gaw- N. [gˈɑw] v. to howl ◇ Ety/377, X/Z

howlinggawad N. [gˈɑwɑd] ger. of gaw-, howling ◇ Ety/377

hugetaur III N. [tˈɑur] adj. mighty, vast, overwhelming, huge, awful, high, sublime ◇ Ety/395

humanechil S. [ˈɛxil̡] n. 1. follower ○ 2. Pop. by ext., human being ◇ WJ/219firen N. [fˈirɛn] adj. human ◇ Ety/381

hummockgwastar N. [gwˈɑstɑr] n. hummock ◇ Ety/388, Ety/399

humptump N. [tˈump] n. hump ◇ Ety/395

hunt*fara- N. [fˈɑrɑ] inf. faro N. [fˈɑrɔ] v. to hunt ◇ Ety/387rhui II N. (rhuiw N.) n. hunt, hunting ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

hunterfaradrim N. [fɑrˈɑdrim] n. class pl. of feredir, hunters ◇ Ety/387*faron N. [fˈɑrɔn] n. m. hunter ← Elfaron Ety/387faroth S. [fˈɑrɔθ] n. (?) hunter, (?) group of hunters ← Taur-en-Faroth S/431, Ety/387feredir N. [fˈɛrɛdˌir] n. hunter ◇ Ety/387

hunting*farad N. [fˈɑrɑd] ger. of fara-, hunting ← faradrim Ety/387faras N. [fˈɑrɑs] n. abst. of fara-, hunting ◇ Ety/387rhui II N. (rhuiw N.) n. hunt, hunting ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

hurl*had- N. [hˈɑd] inf. hedi N. [hˈɛdi] pa. t. hant N. [hˈɑnt] v. to hurl ◇ Ety/363

husbandhervenn N. [hˈɛrvɛn] (herven N.) n. m. husband ◇ Ety/352, Ety/364, X/ND4

I

Iim I S. [ˈim] pron. 1st I ◇ LotR/II:IV, LB/354, VT/47:14,37-38In late writings (see esp. VT/47:37-38), Tolkien reinterpreted this form as a reflexive pronoun (= "self").

iceheleg N. [hˈɛlɛg] n. ice ◇ Ety/364

icicleaeglos S. [ˈɑɛglɔs] n. 1. Bot. snowthorn, a plant like furze (gorse), but larger and with white flowers ○ 2. Geol. icicle (a pendent spear of ice formed by the freezing of dripping water) ◇ UT/417, LotR/Index

ideainc N. [ˈiŋk] n. guess, idea, notion ◇ Ety/361naw N. [nˈɑw] pl. nui N. n. idea ◇ Ety/378, X/Z

illthlaew N. (thloew N., flaew N.) adj. sickly, sick, ill ◇ Ety/386, X/OE, X/LH

immortalalfirin S. [ˈɑlfirin] n. and adj. 1. immortal ○ 2. Bot. as a noun, name of a flower, bell-like and running through many soft and gentle colours ○ 3. Bot. as a noun, also used for another small white flower ◇ LotR/V:IX, Letters/402, UT/55, UT/303, UT/316, UT/417

impelledhorn N. [hˈɔrn] adj. driven under compulsion, impelled ◇ Ety/364

impetuousalag N. [ˈɑlɑg] adj. rushing, impetuous ◇ Ety/348, VT/45:5asgar N. [ˈɑsgɑr] (ascar N.) adj. violent, rushing, impetuous ◇ Ety/386gorn I N. [gˈɔrn] adj. impetuous ◇ Ety/359

impetusgorf N. [gˈɔrv] n. impetus, vigour ◇ Ety/359

inmîn II S. [mˈiːn] (min- S.) prep. (in) between (referring to a gap, space, barrier or anything intervening between two other things) ← Minhiriath LotR/Map, VT/47:11,14ned S. [nɛd] prep. (uncertain meaning) in, of (about time, e.g. giving a date) ◇ SD/129-31[Another possible interpretation: "another, one more" (related to Q. net(e)), VT/47:40]nedh- N. [nɛð] pref. in, inside, mid- ◇ Ety/376See also the preposition ned, and the noun ened for a discussion of this formvi S. [vi] prep. in ◇ VT/44:21,27

inclinetalad N. [tˈɑlɑd] n. an incline, slope ◇ Ety/390

inclineddadbenn N. [dˈɑdbɛnn] (dadben N.) adv. 1. downhill, inclined ○ 2. by ext., inclined, prone (to do something) ◇ Ety/354, Ety/380, VT/46:8, X/ND4

indexemig S. [ˈɛmig] n. f. dim. of emel, 1. "litte mother" ○ 2. Biol. index finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,17lebdas S. [lˈɛbdɑs] (tas S.) n. Biol. index finger ◇ VT/48:5nobad S. [nˈɔbɑd] n. dual pl. of nawb, Biol. the pair of fingers composed of the thumb and the index (grouped together as in the act of picking something) ◇ VT/48:5,16

inflorescencegoloth S. [gˈɔlɔθ] n. Bot. inflorescence, a head of small flowers ◇ VT/42:18loth S. [lˈɔθ] (lhoth N.) n. Bot. flower, inflorescence, a head of small flowers ◇ Ety/370, LB/354, VT/42:18, X/LHThe noun is collective, a single flower being lotheg

innumerablearnediad N. [ɑrnˈɛdi.ɑd] (arnœdiad S., N.) adj. innumerable, countless, endless, without reckoning, numberless ◇ Ety/349, Ety/378, S/428, VT/46:6aronoded N. [ɑrˈɔnɔdɛd] adj. innumerable, countless, endless ◇ Ety/378

insecuretalt N. [tˈɑlt] adj. slipping, falling, insecure ◇ Ety/390

insert*nestag- N. [nˈɛstɑg] inf. nestegi N. [nˈɛstɛgi] pa. t. nestanc N. [nˈɛstɑŋk] v. to insert, stick in ◇ Ety/388

insidenedh- N. [nɛð] pref. in, inside, mid- ◇ Ety/376See also the preposition ned, and the noun ened for a discussion of this form

insteadsennui S. [sˈɛnnuj] adv. (?) rather, (?) instead (used as an adverb?) ◇ SD/129-31

insulteitha- S. [ˈɛjθɑ] v. 1. to prick with a sharp point, to stab ○ 2. by ext., to treat with scorn, insult ◇ WJ/365eithad S. [ˈɛjθɑd] ger. of eitha-, insult ◇ WJ/365

intelligencehannas N. [hˈɑnnɑs] n. abst. of hand, understanding, intelligence ◇ Ety/363heniad N. [hˈɛni.ɑd] ger. of henia-, understanding, intelligence ◇ VT/45:21

intelligenthand N. [hˈɑnd] (hann N.) adj. intelligent ◇ Ety/363, X/ND1

intendthel- S. [θˈɛl̡] v. to intend, mean, purpose, resolve, will ◇ WJ/318-319

ironang S., N. [ˈɑŋ] n. iron ◇ Ety/348, S/428, PM/347angren S., N. [ˈɑŋgrɛn] pl. engrin S., N. [ˈɛŋgrin] adj. of iron ◇ Ety/348, S/428

islandtol S. [tˈɔl] (toll N.) pl. tyll N. [tˈyll] n. Geog. island, (steep) isle rising with sheer sides from the sea or from a river ◇ Ety/394, S/438, VT/47:13, RC/333-334

isletol S. [tˈɔl] (toll N.) pl. tyll N. [tˈyll] n. Geog. island, (steep) isle rising with sheer sides from the sea or from a river ◇ Ety/394, S/438, VT/47:13, RC/333-334

isolatedereb S., N. [ˈɛrɛb] pl. erib S. [ˈɛrib] adj. isolated, lonely ◇ Ety/356, S/431, UT/422, VT/42:10

itha N. [hɑ] (hana N.) pl. hain S. [hɑjn] (hein N.) pron. 3rd it ◇ Ety/385, LotR/II:IV, X/EI*ten S. [dɛn] pron. (?) it (as object) ← caro den VT/44:21,25-6

J

januarynarwain S. [nˈɑrwɑjn] n. Cal. the month of January ◇ LotR/D

jawanc N. [ˈɑŋk] n. Biol. jaw, row of teeth ◇ Ety/348, Ety/374carach S. [kˈɑrɑx] n. Biol. jaw, row of teeth ◇ S/429, RC/607naew N. [nˈɑɛw] n. Biol. jaw ◇ Ety/374

jerkrhinc N. n. twitch, jerk, trick, sudden move ◇ Ety/383, X/RH*rhitha- N. inf. rhitho N. v. to jerk, twitch, snatch ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

jewelmîr S., N. [mˈiːr] n. jewel, precious thing, treasure ◇ Ety/373, LotR/E, S/434, PM/348, LB/354, RGEO/73*mírdan S. [mˈiːrdɑn] pl. mírdain S. [mˈiːrdɑjn] n. jewel-smith ◇ S/401mirion N. [mˈiri.ɔn] pl. miruin N. [mˈirujn] n. augm. of mîr, Theo. great jewel, Silmaril ◇ Ety/373

journey*lend S. [lˈɛnd] (lenn- S.) n. journey ← lenn-mbas PM/404, X/ND1

joygell N. [gˈɛl̡l] n. joy, triumph ◇ Ety/359glass N. [glˈɑss] (glas N.) n. joy ◇ Ety/357

joyousmeren N. [mˈɛrɛn] adj. festive, gay, joyous ◇ Ety/372The word was changed to beren in the Etymologies, but meren would be restored together with mereth

jubilationgellam N. [gˈɛl̡lɑm] n. jubilation ◇ Ety/359

judgebadhor N. [bˈɑðr̩] n. judge ◇ Ety/350badhron N. [bˈɑðrɔn] n. judge ◇ Ety/350

judgementbaudh N. [bˈɑuð] n. judgement ◇ Ety/350

juicepeich N. n. juice, syrup ◇ Ety/382, X/EIsaw N. [sˈɑw] pl. sui N. n. juice ◇ Ety/385, X/Z

juicypichen N. adj. juicy ◇ Ety/382, X/Z

julycerveth S. [kˈɛrvɛθ] n. Cal. july (month) ◇ LotR/D

junenórui S. [nˈɔːruj] n. and adj. 1. sunny, fiery ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of june ◇ LotR/D

justfael I S. [fˈɑɛl] adj. fair minded, just, generous ◇ PM/352

K

keenlhaeg N. (lhoeg N.) adj. keen, sharp, acute ◇ Ety/367, VT/45:25, X/OE, X/LH

keep*heb- S. [hˈɛb] v. to retain, keep, do not give away or release, keep hold of ← *khep VT/41:6*hebin S. [hˈɛbin] v. pres. 1st of heb-, I keep, I have kept ← ú-chebin LotR/A(v), VT/41:6Because of the mutation triggered by the first person pronominal ending, it is impossible to guess whether the stem of this should be heb-, *hab- or *hob-. The root KHEP listed in VT/41:6 apparently implies that heb- is the correct form

kindmilui N. [mˈiluj] adj. friendly, loving, kind ◇ Ety/372

kindle*nartha- N. [nˈɑrθɑ] inf. nartho N. [nˈɑrθɔ] v. to kindle ◇ VT/45:37

kindler*toniel S. [tˈɔni.ɛl̡] n. f. kindler ← Gilthoniel LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74

kindrednoss S., N. [nˈɔss] (nos N.) n. kindred, family, clan ◇ Ety/378, PM/320nost S. [nˈɔst] n. kindred, family, house ◇ PM/360nothrim S. [nˈɔθrim] n. class pl. of nost, kindred, family, house ← Nothrim [> Nost] Finarfin PM/360The word was rejected in favor of nost, but it may be interpreted as a valid class plural "those of the house"

kingâr N. [ˈɑːr] n. king (used of a lord or king of a specified region) ◇ Ety/389aran S., N. [ˈɑrɑn] pl. erain S., N. [ˈɛrɑjn] n. king (used of a lord or king of a specified region) ◇ Ety/360, S/428, LotR/II:IV, LotR/VI:VII, SD/129-31, Letters/426taur I N. [tˈɑur] n. king (only used of the legitimate kings of whole tribes) ◇ Ety/389, Ety/395In LotR/IV:IV, Frodo is called Daur, which might be the mutated form of this word

kingdomaranarth S. [ˈɑrɑnɑrθ] n. kingdom, "king-holding" ◇ VT/44:22,25In Tolkien's manuscript, this form was rejected in favor of arnadarnad S. [ˈɑrnɑd] n. kingdom ◇ VT:44:21,25

kingfisherheledir N. [hˈɛlɛdˌir] (heledirn N.) n. Orn. kingfisher (bird) ◇ Ety/363, Ety/386, Ety/394

kingsfoilathelas S. [ˈɑθɛlɑs] n. Bot. "kingsfoil", a healing herb brought to Middle-earth by the Númenóreans ◇ LotR/V:VIII

kinsmangwanur N. [gwˈɑnur] n. 1. a pair of twins ○ 2. brother or kinsman, kinswoman ◇ Ety/378, Ety/392, VT/46:6, LotR/A(iv)

kinswomangwanur N. [gwˈɑnur] n. 1. a pair of twins ○ 2. brother or kinsman, kinswoman ◇ Ety/378, Ety/392, VT/46:6, LotR/A(iv)

knifesigil I N. [sˈigil̡] n. Mil. dagger, knife ◇ Ety/385

knobdolt II N. [dˈɔlt] pl. dylt N. [dˈylt] n. round knob, boss ◇ Ety/376

knock*tamma- N. [tˈɑmmɑ] inf. tammo N. [tˈɑmmɔ] v. to knock ◇ Ety/390, VT/46:17

knotnardh N. [nˈɑrð] n. knot ◇ Ety/387

knottednorn N. [nˈɔrn] pl. nyrn S. [nˈyrn] adj. 1. twisted, knotted, crabbed, contorted ○ 2. hard ◇ Ety/387

knowledgegûl S., N. [gˈuːl] n. 1. magic lore, long study (being used mostly of secret knowledge, especially such as possessed by artificers who made wonderful things) ○ 2. by ext., perverted or evil knowledge, sorcery, necromancy ◇ Ety/377, S/432, MR/350, WJ/383ist N. [ˈist] n. lore, knowledge ◇ Ety/361*ista- N. [ˈistɑ] inf. isto N. [ˈistɔ] pa. t. istas N. [ˈistɑs] (Arch. sint N.) v. to have knowledge ◇ Ety/361, VT/45:18

L

labour*muda- N. [mˈudɑ] inf. mudo N. [mˈudɔ] pa. t. mudas N. [mˈudɑs] v. to labour, toil ◇ Ety/373tass N. [tˈɑss] (tars N.) n. labour, task ◇ Ety/391

lacking*pen I S. [pɛn] prep. without, lacking, -less ← Iarwain ben-adar LotR/II:II

ladybrennil N. [brˈɛnnil̡] n. f. lady ◇ Ety/351 N. [dˈiː] n. f. Poet. woman, lady ◇ Ety/352, Ety/354*heryn S. [hˈɛryn] n. f. lady ← Roheryn S/436hiril N. [hˈiril̡] n. f. lady ◇ Ety/364rhîn N. (rhien N.) n. and adj. 1. crowned ○ 2. as a noun, by ext., crowned lady, queen ◇ Ety/393, Ety/389, X/RH

laircaew N. [kˈɑɛw] n. lair, resting-place ◇ Ety/363torech N. [tˈɔrɛx] n. hole, excavation, lair ◇ WR/202, RC/490

lake S. [lˈɔː] n. Geog. shallow lake, fenland ◇ UT/263, VT/42:8-10nen S., N. [nˈɛn] pl. nîn S., N. [nˈiːn] n. 1. water (used of a lake, pool or lesser river) ○ 2. Geog. by ext., waterland ◇ Ety/376, S/435, UT/457, RC/327-328oel N. pl. aelin S. [ˈɑɛlin] (oelin N.) n. Geog. lake, pool, mere ◇ Ety/349, S/427, X/OErhim II N. (rhimb N.) n. Geog. cold pool or lake (in mountains) ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

lamentnaergon S. [nˈɑɛrgɔn] n. woeful lament ◇ PM/362

lamentablenoer N. adj. sad, lamentable ◇ Ety/375, X/OE

lamentationconath S. [kˈɔnɑθ] n. coll. of caun II, 1. many voices ○ 2. by ext., lamentation ◇ PM/361-362nírnaeth N. [nˈiːrnɑɛθ] n. (tearful) lamentation ◇ Ety/376

lampcalar S. [kˈɑlɑr] n. (portable) lamp ← celerdain LotR/V:I, WR/287, RC/523

lampwrightcalardan S. [kɑlˈɑrdɑn] pl. celerdain S. [kɛlˈɛrdɑjn] n. lampwright ◇ LotR/V:I, WR/287, RC/523

landdôr S. [dˈɔːr] (dor S., N.) n. Geog. land, dwelling-place, region where certain people live ◇ Ety/376, S/430, WJ/413, Letters/417, VT/45:38, RC/384The form dor in the Etymologies is a misreading, see VT/45. In composition and in toponyms, the word is nevertheless reduced to Dortalath S. [tˈɑlɑθ] (dalath N.) n. 1. flat surface, plane ○ 2. Geog. flat land, plain, (wide) valley ← Talath Dirnen UT/465, Ety/353, S/437talf S. [tˈɑlv] n. Geog. flat field, flat land ← Nindalf TC/195, LotR/Map

languageannúnaid S. [ɑnnˈuːnɑjd] n. Ling. the "Westron" language (one of the names for Common Speech) ◇ PM/316falathren S., N. [fɑlˈɑθrɛn] n. and adj. 1. of the shore ○ 2. Ling. as a noun, Shore-language (one of the names for Common Speech) ◇ Ety/381, PM/32, PM/55lam II S. [lˈɑm] n. Ling. language ◇ WJ/394

last*brona- N. [brˈɔnɑ] inf. brono N. [brˈɔnɔ] v. to last, to survive ◇ Ety/353dartha- N. [dˈɑrθɑ] v. to wait, stay, last, endure, remain ◇ Ety/353, VT/45:8*medui S. [mˈɛduj] adj. last ← na vedui, Arvedui LotR/I:XII, LotR/A(iv)

lastingbronadui N. [brˈɔnɑduj] adj. enduring, lasting ◇ Ety/353bronwe S., N. [brˈɔnwɛ] n. endurance, lasting quality, faith ◇ Ety/353, SD/62

laterab- S. [ɑb] pref. after, later ← Abonnen WJ/387

laughgladh- S. [glˈɑð] v. to laugh ← gladh- PM/359

laughterlalaith S. [lˈɑlɑjθ] n. laughter ◇ S/406

layglaer N. [glˈɑɛr] n. long lay, narrative poem ◇ Ety/359, VT/45:15Written glær (with ae-ligature) in the Etymologies, rectified here according to VT/45:15glîr N. [glˈiːr] n. song, poem, lay ◇ Ety/359laer II S. [lˈɑɛr] (lhaer N.) n. song, long lay ← Laer Cú Beleg S/406, VT/45:28, X/LHlhîr II N. n. song, poem, lay ◇ VT/45:28, X/LH

lead*tog- N. [tˈɔg] inf. tegi N. [tˈɛgi] v. to lead, bring ◇ Ety/395

leafgalenas S. [gˈɑlɛnɑs] n. Bot. pipe-weed (leaf) or "westmansweed", a variety of Nicotiana ◇ LotR/V:VIIIlass S. [lˈɑss] (lhass N.) n. Bot. leaf ◇ Ety/367, Letters/282, TC/169, X/LH

leaguedaur S. [dˈɑur] n. 1. pause, stop ○ 2. by ext., league (about 3 miles) ◇ UT/279, UT/285

leanthlein N. pl. thlîn N. adj. lean, thin, meagre ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

leap*cab- S. [kˈɑb] v. to leap ← cabed S/386, WJ/100cabed S. [kˈɑbɛd] ger. of cab-, 1. leap ○ 2. by ext., deep gorge ◇ S/386, WJ/100Emended by Tolkien from earlier cabad. This is our sole late example that basic verbs should perhaps form their gerund in -ed, whereas derived verbs are well attested to use -ad (cf. aderthad)

learnedgolwen N. [gˈɔlwɛn] adj. wise, learned in deep arts ◇ Ety/377istui N. [ˈistuj] adj. learned ◇ Ety/361

leatherlhath N. n. (?) thong of leather ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

leftcrom N. [krˈɔm] n. left ◇ Ety/366crum N. [krˈum] n. left hand ◇ Ety/366crumui N. [krˈumuj] adj. left-handed ◇ Ety/366hargam N. [hˈɑrgɑm] n. left-handed ◇ Ety/365harvo S. [hˈɑrvɔ] n. 1. left hand ○ 2. by ext., left side ◇ VT/47:6heir N. n. and adj. left (hand) ◇ Ety/365, X/EI

lettertêw S. [tˈɛːw] pl. tîw S., N. [tˈiːw] n. Ling. letter, written sign ◇ Ety/391, WJ/396, LotR/II:IV, LotR/E, Letters/427

levellhand II N. adj. open space, level ◇ Ety/368, X/LH, X/ND1pathw N. n. level space, sward ◇ Ety/380, X/W

lick*lhaf- N. inf. lhefi N. v. to lick ◇ Ety/367, X/LH

lifecuil N. [kˈujl] n. life ◇ Ety/366

lift*hal- N. [hˈɑl] inf. heli N. [hˈɛli] pa. t. haul N. [hˈɑul] v. to lift ◇ VT/45:20

lightcalad S., N. [kˈɑlɑd] ger. light ◇ Ety/362, UT/65gail N. [gˈɑjl] n. bright light ◇ Ety/362gal- N. [gɑl] pref. light ← galvorn, etc.galad S. [gˈɑlɑd] n. light, radiance, glittering, reflection (from jewels, glass or polished metal, or water) ◇ VT/45:13, PM/347, Letters/425glaur N. [glˈɑur] (glor- N.) n. Theo. golden light (of the golden tree Laurelin) ◇ Ety/358, Ety/368lim II S. [lˈim] adj. clear, sparkling, light ◇ WJ/337

likesui II S. [sˈuj] conj. as, like ◇ VT/44:21,27

limitgleina- S. [glˈɛjnɑ] v. to bound, enclose, limit ◇ VT/42:8, VT/42:28This entry should perhaps read gleinia-, cf. VT/42:28, note 13taeg S. [tˈɑɛg] n. boundary, limit, boundary line ◇ WJ/309

linetaeg S. [tˈɑɛg] n. boundary, limit, boundary line ◇ WJ/309 N. [tˈɛː] n. line, way ◇ Ety/391 N. [tˈiː] n. line, row ◇ Ety/392

lionrhaw II N. pl. rhui N. n. Zool. lion ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

listen*lasta- S. [lˈɑstɑ] v. to listen ◈ lasto S. [lˈɑstɔ] v. imp. of lasta-, listen! ◇ LotR/II:IV, RS/463, LB/354*lhathra- N. inf. lhathro N. v. to listen in, eavesdrop ◇ Ety/368, X/LH*lhathrada- N. inf. lhathrado N. v. to listen in, eavesdrop ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

listenerlhathron N. n. hearer, listener, eavesdropper ◇ Ety/368, X/LHlhethril N. n. f. hearer, listener, eavesdropper ◇ VT/45:26, X/LH

littlepîn S. [pˈiːn] adj. little ← Cûl Bîn RC/536Similar words occur in Gnomish (pinig "tiny, little", PE/11:64) and in Qenya (pinea "small" etc., PE/12:73)tithen N. [tˈiθɛn] pl. tithin N. [tˈiθin] adj. little, tiny ◇ Ety/394

live*cuinar S. [kˈujnɑr] v. pres. 3rd pl. of cuina-, (they) live ← i-chuinar Letters/417

loadcûl S. [kˈuːl] n. load ← Cûl Veleg, Cûl Bîn RC/536

loafbasgorn N. [bˈɑsgɔrn] n. loaf (of bread) ◇ Ety/372, Ety/365

loathingdel N. [ˈdɛl̡] n. fear, disgust, loathing, horror ◇ Ety/355delos N. [dˈɛlɔs] (deloth N.) n. abhorrence, detestation, loathing ◇ Ety/355

loathsomedeleb N. [dˈɛlɛb] adj. horrible, abominable, loathsome ◇ Ety/355

lockfing S. [fˈiŋ] n. lock of hair ← Finglas "Leaflock" RC/386

loderant S., N. [rˈɑnt] n. 1. lode, vein ○ 2. Geog. course, riverbed ◇ Ety/383, S/436

lofty*arth S. [ˈɑrθ] adj. (unknown meaning, perhaps (?) noble, lofty, exalted) ← Arthedain LotRbrand N. [brˈɑnd] (brann N.) adj. 1. lofty, noble, fine ○ 2. high (in size) ◇ Ety/351, TAI/150, X/ND1orchal S., N. [ˈɔrxl̩] (orchall N., orchel N.) adj. 1. superior, lofty, eminent ○ 2. tall ◇ Ety/363, Ety/379, WJ/305In his article Probable errors in the Etymologies, Helge Fauskanger lists orchel as a misreading, following Christopher Tolkien's note admitting that the e is uncertain. However, though orchal is attested in WJ/305, it does not necessarily mean that the form orchel is incorrect. It might be constructed by analogy with words such as hathol "axe" (from WJ/234 and the name of a Númenórean, Hatholdir, UT:444), which is also found as hathal (in Hathaldir, name of a companion of Barahir, LR/433, untranslated but conceivably cognate) and hathel (LR/389). Without entering into the details, such words end with a syllabic consonant (as in English "people"), and several vocalizations are apparently possible in Sindarin. The epenthetical vowel is generally o, but it seems that a or e are also allowed. Regarding orchal, its origin is of course different, as it is a compound word where the second element clearly derives from KHAL, but it may have been assimilated, later, to this class of words by analogy. We may therefore consider that orchel is a perfectly valid dialectal variant

logdrafn N. [drˈɑvn] n. hewn log ◇ Ety/354

lonelyereb S., N. [ˈɛrɛb] pl. erib S. [ˈɛrib] adj. isolated, lonely ◇ Ety/356, S/431, UT/422, VT/42:10

longanann S. [ˈɑnɑnn] adv. long, for a long time ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308and S. [ˈɑnd] (ann N.) adj. long ◇ Ety/348, S/427, X/ND1taen II N. [tˈɑɛn] adj. long (and thin) ◇ Ety/391

lookthîr S., N. [θˈiːr] n. look, face, expression, countenance ◇ Ety/392, VT/41:10*tir- N. [tˈir] inf. tiri N. [tˈiri] v. to watch, to gaze, look at ◇ Ety/394*tiria- N. [tˈiri.ɑ] inf. tirio N. [tˈiri.ɔ] pa. t. tiriant N. [tˈiri.ɑnt] v. to watch, to gaze, look at ◇ Ety/394tiro S. [tˈirɔ] v. imp. of tir-, look! ◇ LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278-79, Letters/427

loose*adleg- N. [ˈɑdlɛg] inf. adlegi N. [ˈɑdlɛgi] pa. t. adlenc N. [ˈɑdlɛŋk] v. Arch., Poet. to loose, let loose, release ◇ VT/45:27

lordbrannon N. [brˈɑnnɔn] n. m. lord ◇ Ety/351hîr S., N. [hˈiːr] n. m. master, lord ◇ Ety/364, S/432, SD/129-31, Letters/382, LB/354, VT/45:22

loreangol II N. [ˈɑŋgɔl] n. Arch., Poet. deep lore, magic ◇ Ety/377ist N. [ˈist] n. lore, knowledge ◇ Ety/361

loud*brui S. [brˈuj] adj. loud, noisy ← Bruinen LotR/Index

love*mel- N. [mˈɛl] inf. melo N. [mˈɛlɔ] pa. t. melant N. [mˈɛlɑnt] v. to love ◇ VT/45:34meleth N. [mˈɛlɛθ] n. love ◇ Ety/372mîl N. [mˈiːl] n. love, affection ◇ Ety/372

lovelymelui S. [mˈɛluj] adj. lovely, sweet ◇ LotR/V:VIII, VT/42:18, RC/582This word only occurs in the place name Imloth Melui, a vale where roses grew

lovermelethril N. [mɛlˈɛθril̡] n. f. lover ◇ Ety/372melethron N. [mɛlˈɛθrɔn] n. m. lover ◇ Ety/372seron S. [sˈɛrɔn] n. lover ◇ PM/348

lovingmilui N. [mˈiluj] adj. friendly, loving, kind ◇ Ety/372

lowtofn N. [tˈɔvn] adj. lowlying, deep, low ◇ Ety/394

lowlyingtofn N. [tˈɔvn] adj. lowlying, deep, low ◇ Ety/394

lustmoel N. n. lust ◇ Ety/373, X/OE

lustfulmoelui N. adj. lustful ◇ Ety/373, X/OE

M

machinegaud N. [gˈɑud] n. device, contrivance, machine ◇ Ety/358

magicangol II N. [ˈɑŋgɔl] n. Arch., Poet. deep lore, magic ◇ Ety/377gûl S., N. [gˈuːl] n. 1. magic lore, long study (being used mostly of secret knowledge, especially such as possessed by artificers who made wonderful things) ○ 2. by ext., perverted or evil knowledge, sorcery, necromancy ◇ Ety/377, S/432, MR/350, WJ/383

magiciangollor N. [gˈɔllɔr] n. magician ◇ Ety/377

maidelleth S. [ˈɛl̡lɛθ] n. f. elf-maid ◇ WJ/148, WJ/256, WJ/363-364iell N. [jˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid ◇ Ety/385, Ety/400Stated to be an alteration of sell, remodelled after ion "son" (OS *jondo). It was "a change assisted by the loss of s in compounds and patronymics", hence the ending -iel in several feminine wordssell N. [sˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid (child) ◇ Ety/385

makecaro S. [kˈɑrɔ] v. imp. of car-, do! make! ◇ VT/44:21,25*echad- N. [ˈɛxɑd] inf. echedi N. [ˈɛxɛdi] pa. t. echant S., N. [ˈɛxɑnt] v. to fashion, make ◇ Ety/363, LotR/II:IV

makerceredir N. [kˈɛrɛdˌir] n. doer, maker ◇ Ety/354

making*cared N. [kˈɑrɛd] ger. of car-, making, doing ← ceredir Ety/354

maleanw N. adj. male ◇ Ety/360, X/WA literal interpretation of the Etymologies would class this word as a noun, but David Salo notes that the punctuation in The Etymologies is not always reliable. Noldorin anw cannot be cognate to the Quenya noun hanu (*3anû) because the final -u would drop. It must rather be cognate to the Quenya adjective hanwa (*3anwâ) attested under the stem INI, where it is also stated that inw, corresponding to Quenya inya "female", has been remodelled after anw. The combination of these two entries, along with the phonological evidences, clearly indicates that anw is actually an adjectivebenn N. [bˈɛnn] n. m. man, male ◇ Ety/352, VT/45:9

manabonnen S. [ɑbˈɔnnɛn] pl. ebœnnin S. [ɛbˈɛnnin] n. and adj. 1. born later, born after ○ 2. as a noun, man, one born later than the Elves, a human being (elvish name for men) ◇ WJ/387adan S. [ˈɑdɑn] pl. edain S. [ˈɛdɑjn] n. man, one of the Second People (elvish name for men) ◇ LotR/A(v), S/427, PM/324, WJ/387, Letters/282*adanadar S. [ɑdˈɑnɑdɑr] pl. edenedair S. [ɛdˈɛnɛdɑjr] n. man, one of the Fathers of Men ◇ MR/373adanath S. [ˈɑdɑnɑθ] n. coll. of adan, men ◇ MR/373aphadon S. [ˈɑffɑdɔn] pl. ephedyn S. [ˈɛffɛdyn] n. 1. follower ○ 2. Pop. by ext., man (elvish name for men) ◇ WJ/387aphadrim S. [ɑffˈɑdrim] n. class pl. of aphadon, Pop. followers, men (elvish name for men) ◇ WJ/387benn N. [bˈɛnn] n. m. man, male ◇ Ety/352, VT/45:9dîr N. [dˈiːr] n. m. Arch. man, referring to an adult male (elf, mortal, or of any other speaking race)Ety/354, Ety/352drû S. [drˈuː] pl. drúin S. [drˈuː.in] n. Pop. wild man, Wose, Púkel-Man ◇ UT/385In PE/11:31, an older Gnomish word drû, drui meant "wood, forest", and in PE/13:142, the early Noldorin word drú was assigned the meaning "dark". Drû pl. Drúin later came to be used for the name of the Woses, with other derivatives (Drúadan, etc.). "Wose" is actually the modernization of an Anglo-Saxon word wasa only found in the compound wudu-wasa "wild man of the woods", cf. UT/385 sq. In the drafts of the "Ride of the Rohirrim" in WR/343-346, the Woses first appeared as "the dark men of Eilenach". Though internally said to derive from drughu in their own tongue, Tolkien's choice for the Sindarin name of the Woses was apparently influenced by earlier meanings assigned to this word drúadan S. [drˈuːɑdɑn] pl. drúedain S. [drˈuːɛdɑjn] n. Pop. wild man, one of the Woses ◇ UT/385dúnadan S. [dˈuːnɑdɑn] pl. dúnedain S. [dˈuːnɛdɑjn] n. Pop. Man of the west, Númenórean ◇ LotR/I:XII, WJ/378, S/390forodrim N. [fɔrˈɔdrim] n. class pl. of forod, Pop. Northmen ◇ Ety/392forodwaith N. [fɔrˈɔdwɑjθ] (forodweith N.) n. class pl. of forod, 1. Pop. Northmen ○ 2. by ext., the lands of the North ◇ Ety/382, Ety/398, X/EI

managemaetha- II S. [mˈɑɛθɑ] v. to handle, wield, manage, deal with ◇ VT/47:6

manhoodgwaith S., N. [gwˈɑjθ] (gweith N.) n. 1. manhood ○ 2. by ext., man power, troop of able-bodied men, host, regiment, people ○ 3. by ext., region, wilderness ◇ Ety/398, VT/46:21, X/E1

mantle*coll III S. [kˈɔll] n. cloak, mantle ← Thingol S/421, MR/385

manylhaew N. adj. frequent, many ◇ VT/45:27, X/LH

mapletoss N. [tˈɔss] n. Bot. bush, low-growing tree (as maple, hawthorn, blackthorn, holly, etc.) ◇ Ety/379, Ety/395

marchgwaeron S. [gwˈɑɛrɔn] n. Cal. march (month) ◇ LotR/D

markandaith S. [ˈɑndɑjθ] (andeith N.) n. Ling. long-mark, sign used in writing alphabetic tengwar over a vowel, to indicate that it is lengthened. ◇ LotR/E, Ety/391, X/EIglandagol S. [glˈɑndɑgɔl] n. boundary mark ◇ VT/42:8,28*tagol S. [tˈɑgl̩] n. post, mark ← glandagol VT/42:8, VT/42:28teith N. n. mark ◇ Ety/391, X/EI

master*herdir S. [hˈɛrdir] n. m. master ← i-Cherdir SD/129-31heron N. [hˈɛrɔn] n. m. master ◇ VT/45:22hîr S., N. [hˈiːr] n. m. master, lord ◇ Ety/364, S/432, SD/129-31, Letters/382, LB/354, VT/45:22*orthor- N. [ˈɔrθɔr] inf. ortheri N. [ˈɔrθɛri] v. to master, conquer ◇ Ety/395

masterytûr N. [tˈuːr] n. mastery, victory ◇ Ety/395

maximlinnod S. [lˈinnɔd] n. 1. (?) a single verse used as a maxim ○ 2. (?) a chant of a certain metrical type, where each (half-)verse is composed of seven syllables ◇ LotR/A(iv)The word is not translated by Tolkien. The first meaning assumes that -od is a singulative affix (cf. filigod). The second meaning is proposed by Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne in Tolkien's Legendarium p. 132, based on the metrical characteristics of Gilraen's linnod

Maylothron S. [lˈɔθrɔn] n. Cal. the month of May ◇ LotR/D

mayorcondir S. [kˈɔndir] n. m. mayor ◇ SD/129-31

meenni S. [ˈɛnni] pron. 1st to me ◇ VT/41:11nin S. [nin] pron. me ◇ LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72

meagrethlein N. pl. thlîn N. adj. lean, thin, meagre ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

meanfoeg N. adj. mean, poor, bad ◇ Ety/387, X/OEthel- S. [θˈɛl̡] v. to intend, mean, purpose, resolve, will ◇ WJ/318-319

meaningind N. [ˈind] (inn N.) n. inner thought, meaning, heart ◇ Ety/361, X/ND1

meataes N. [ˈɑɛs] n. cooked food, meat ◇ Ety/349

meet*govad- S. [gˈɔvɑd] v. to meet ← mae govannen LotR/I:XII, Letters/308

mereoel N. pl. aelin S. [ˈɑɛlin] (oelin N.) n. Geog. lake, pool, mere ◇ Ety/349, S/427, X/OE

merrygelir S. [gˈɛlir] n. merry, happy, gay person ◇ SD/129-31

meshrem S. [rˈɛm] n. mesh, net (esp. for catching, hunter's or fisher's net) ◇ LotR/E, VT/42:29

metgovannen S. [gɔvˈɑnnɛn] pp. of govad-, met ◇ LotR/I:XII, Letters/308

metalcôl N. [kˈɔːl] n. gold (metal) ◇ Ety/365rhaud N. n. metal ◇ Ety/383, X/RHtinc N. [tˈiŋk] n. metal ◇ Ety/394

middleened S. [ˈɛnɛd] (enedh N.) n. core, centre, middle ◇ Ety/356, Ety/376, UT/450, Letters/224, VT/41:12,16While the word is written enedh in the Etymologies, it seems that Tolkien considered and reconsidered its form throughout his life. Late rough jottings (c. 1968), as well as the text of letter no. 168 and the fact that the toponym Enedwaith was never changed on the LotR map, seem to imply that ened is the (most) definitive form. See also the possibly related preposition ned, which has sometimes been suggested to mean "in" (while again a prefix nedh- is seen in the Etymologies)per- N. [pɛr] pref. half, divided in middle ◈ perin N. [pˈɛrin] adj. half, divided in middle ◇ Ety/380

mightybeleg S., N. [bˈɛlɛg] adj. great, mighty ◇ Ety/352, S/428taur III N. [tˈɑur] adj. mighty, vast, overwhelming, huge, awful, high, sublime ◇ Ety/395

militarydírnaith S. [dˈiːrnɑjθ] n. Mil. a military wedge-formation launched over a short distance against an enemy massing but not yet arrayed, or against a defensive formation on open ground ◇ UT/282

mine*sabar S. [sˈɑbɑr] n. delved mine ← Nornhabar, Anghabar WJ/209, WJ/419, S/380The unmutated form is reconstructed from the place name Nornhabar, assuming that the second word is mutated in composition. Though habar as the regular form might be possible as well, in the Qenyaqetsa we find the root SAPA "dig, excavate" (PE/12:82), so it seems most likely that Tolkien re-used this old base, and that the underlying form in those names would indeed be sabar

mirrorcenedril N. [kɛnˈɛdril̡] n. looking-glass, mirror ◇ TI/184, RS/466

misthîth S. [hˈiːθ] (hith N.) n. mist, fog ◇ Ety/364, S/432hithlain S. [hˈiθlɑjn] n. mist-thread (a substance used by the Elves of Lothlórien to make strong ropes) ◇ LotR/II:VIII, LotR/Indexmith I N. [mˈiθ] n. white fog, wet mist ◇ Ety/373

mockingiaew N. [jˈɑɛw] n. mocking, scorn ◇ Ety/400

moistenlhimmid N. pa. t. lhimmint N. v. to moisten ◇ Ety/369, X/LH

moneymirian S. [mˈiri.ɑn] n. piece of money, coin used in Gondor → canath IIPM/45

monsterúan N. [ˈuː.ɑn] n. monster ◇ Ety/351ulund N. (ulun N.) n. monster, deformed and hideous creature ◇ Ety/396, X/ND4

monstrousuanui N. [ˈu.ɑnuj] adj. monstrous, hideous ◇ Ety/351

monthcerveth S. [kˈɛrvɛθ] n. Cal. july (month) ◇ LotR/Dgirithron S. [girˈiθrɔn] n. Cal. december (month) ◇ LotR/Dgwaeron S. [gwˈɑɛrɔn] n. Cal. march (month) ◇ LotR/Dgwirith S. [gwˈiriθ] n. Cal. april (month) ◇ LotR/D, SD/129-31hithui S. [hˈiθuj] n. and adj. 1. foggy, misty ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of november ◇ LotR/Divanneth S. [ivˈɑnnɛθ] n. Cal. september (month) ◇ LotR/Dlothron S. [lˈɔθrɔn] n. Cal. the month of May ◇ LotR/Dnarbeleth S. [nˈɑrbɛlɛθ] n. Cal. october (month) ◇ LotR/Dnarwain S. [nˈɑrwɑjn] n. Cal. the month of January ◇ LotR/Dnínui S. [nˈiːnuj] n. and adj. 1. watery ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of february ◇ LotR/Dnórui S. [nˈɔːruj] n. and adj. 1. sunny, fiery ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of june ◇ LotR/Durui S. [ˈuruj] n. and adj. 1. hot ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of august ◇ LotR/D

mooncúran N. n. Astron. the crescent Moon ◇ Ety/365, X/Zcýron S. [kˈiːrɔn] (cýrawn S.) n. Astron. new moon ◇ VT/48:7ithil S., N. [ˈiθil̡] n. Astron. the (full) Moon, lit. 'The Sheen' ◇ Ety/361, Ety/385, Ety/392, LotR/E, LB/354, RC/232

morningaur S., N. [ˈɑur] n. day, sunlight, morning ◇ Ety/349, S/439

mortalfeir I S., N. pl. fîr S., N. [fˈiːr] n. mortal ◇ Ety/381, WJ/387, X/EIfíreb S. [fˈiːrɛb] pl. fírib S. [fˈiːrib] adj. mortal ◇ WJ/387firiath S. [fˈiri.ɑθ] n. coll. of feir I, mortals, human beings ◇ WJ/219, WJ/387fíriel S. [fˈiri.ɛl̡] (firiel N.) n. f. mortal maid ◇ Ety/382, PM/195, PM/232firieth S. [fˈiri.ɛθ] n. f. mortal woman ◇ WJ/387firion S. [fˈiri.ɔn] n. m. mortal man ◇ WJ/387

motheremel S. [ˈɛmɛl] (emmel S.) n. f. mother ◇ Emeldir S/155, VT/48:17emig S. [ˈɛmig] n. f. dim. of emel, 1. "litte mother" ○ 2. Biol. index finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,17emil N. [ˈɛmil] n. f. Poet. mother ◇ VT/45:5nana N. [nˈɑnɑ] n. hypo. mother, mummy ◇ Ety/348, Ety/374naneth N. [nˈɑnɛθ] n. mother ◇ Ety/348, Ety/374

moundcerin S., N. [kˈɛrin] n. 1. circular enclosure ○ 2. by ext., mound ◇ Ety/365, S/429coron S., N. [kˈɔrɔn] n. 1. globe, ball ○ 2. Geog. by ext., mound ◇ Ety/365, S/429cum N. [kˈum] (cumb N.) n. mound, heap ◇ Ety/365haudh S., N. [hˈɑuð] n. (burial) mound, grave, tomb ◇ Ety/363-364, S/432, LotR/A(iv)tund N. [tˈund] (tunn N.) n. Geog. hill, mound ◇ Ety/395, X/ND1

mountamon S., N. [ˈɑmɔn] pl. emyn S., N. [ˈɛmyn] (emuin N.) n. Geog. hill, steep-sided mount ◇ Ety/348, LotR/E, RC/334

mountainaeglir S. [ˈɑɛglir] (oeglir N.) n. Geog. range of mountain peaks ← Hithaeglir LotR, Ety/349, X/OEdôl N. [dˈɔːl] (dol S.) n. 1. head ○ 2. Geog. by ext., hill or mountain ◇ Ety/376, S/430, RC/268*menniath N. [m'ɛnni.ɑθ] n. coll. of ment, 1. many points ○ 2. Geog. by ext., range of mountains ← Mornvenniath TI/124, Lambengolmor/799oegas N. pl. oeges N. n. abst. of aeg, Geog. mountain peak ◇ Ety/349, X/OEorod S., N. [ˈɔrɔd] pl. ered S., N. [ˈɛrɛd] (eryd S., N., ereid N.) n. Geog. mountain ◇ Ety/379, S/435, Letters/263, TC/178, RC/621orodrim N. [ɔrˈɔdrim] n. class pl. of orod, Geog. range of mountains ◇ Ety/379taen I N. [tˈɑɛn] n. height, summit of high mountain ◇ Ety/389tarag N. [tˈɑrɑg] n. 1. horn ○ 2. by ext., steep mountain peak ◇ Ety/391, VT/46:17

mountaineerorodben S. [ɔrˈɔdbɛn] pl. œrydbin S. [ɛrˈydbin] n. mountaineer, one living in the mountains ◇ WJ/376

mouthethir I S., N. [ˈɛθir] n. Geog. mouth (of a river), estuary ◇ LotR/II:X, Ety/356, RC/350

moverhinc N. n. twitch, jerk, trick, sudden move ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

mummynana N. [nˈɑnɑ] n. hypo. mother, mummy ◇ Ety/348, Ety/374

muscle N. [tˈuː] n. muscle, sinew, vigour, physical strength ◇ Ety/394

mutatedprestannen N. [prɛstˈɑnnɛn] pp. of presta-, 1. affected ○ 2. Ling. mutated (of a mutated vowel) ◇ Ety/380

mutationprestanneth N. [prɛstˈɑnnɛθ] n. Ling. affection of vowels, mutation ◇ Ety/380

mynín S. [nˈiːn] adj. poss. 1st my ◇ UT/40, VT/44:22The acute accent in nín has sometimes been regarded as an error for a slanted macron in the manuscript, since all the other attested personal adjectives from Sauron defeated all have a circumflex accent. It was however noted that if the acute accent is confirmed, then this word is probably an enclitic, see HL/73. The acute accent is now confirmed by VT/44

myselfanim S. [ˈɑnim] pron. 1st for myself ◇ LotR/A(v)

N

nailtaes N. [tˈɑɛs] n. nail ◇ Ety/390

nakedhell N. [hˈɛl̡l] adj. naked ◇ Ety/386lanc I S. [lˈɑŋk] n. naked ◇ UT/418

nameeneth S. [ˈɛnɛθ] n. name ◇ VT/44:21,24*esta- S. [ˈɛstɑ] v. to name ← estathar SD/129-31

narratorpethron N. [pˈɛθrɔn] n. narrator ◇ Ety/366

narrowagor II N. [ˈɑgr̩] (agr N.) adj. narrow ◇ Ety/348

neatpuig N. [pˈujg] adj. clean, tidy, neat ◇ Ety/382

neckachad S. [ˈɑxɑd] n. Biol. neck (properly referring only to the bony vertebral part not including the throat) ◇ RC/537iaeth N. [jˈɑɛθ] n. neck ◇ Ety/400

necklacesigil II N. [sˈigil̡] n. necklace ← Sigil Elu-naeth WJ/258

necromancygûl S., N. [gˈuːl] n. 1. magic lore, long study (being used mostly of secret knowledge, especially such as possessed by artificers who made wonderful things) ○ 2. by ext., perverted or evil knowledge, sorcery, necromancy ◇ Ety/377, S/432, MR/350, WJ/383morgul S. [mˈɔrgul] n. black arts, sorcery, necromancy ◇ Ety/377, S/432, WJ/383, MR/350, RC/482

needbaur N. [bˈɑur] n. need ◇ Ety/372bui N. v. impers. to need ◇ Ety/372, X/Zthang S., N. [θˈɑŋ] n. compulsion, duress, need, oppression ◇ Ety/388, S/438

neighboursamarad S. [sˈɑmɑrɑd] n. dual pl. of sammar, two neighbours ◇ VT/48:20sammar S. [sˈɑmmɑr] (ahamar S.) n. neighbour ◇ VT/48:20

netgwî N. [gwˈiː] n. net, web ◇ Ety/398raef S. [rˈɑɛv] (raew S. [rˈɑɛw]) n. net ◇ VT/42:12rem S. [rˈɛm] n. mesh, net (esp. for catching, hunter's or fisher's net) ◇ LotR/E, VT/42:29

netted*remmen S. [rˈɛmmɛn] pl. remmin S. [rˈɛmmin] pp. woven, netted, tangled ← galadhremmin LotR/E, LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

nettledraen S. [rˈɑɛn] adj. nettled, enlaced ◇ VT/42:11

newcîr S. [kˈiːr] (cýr S.) adj. renewed ◇ VT/48:7-8cîw S. [kˈiːw] adj. fresh, new ◇ VT/48:7-8eden N. [ˈɛdɛn] adj. new, begun again ◇ Ety/349*gwain S. [gwˈɑjn] pl. *gwîn S. [gwˈiːn] adj. new ← Narwain (Narvinyë) LotR/D, Cf. Ety/399sein N. pl. sîn N. [sˈiːn] adj. new ◇ Ety/385, X/EI

newssiniath N. [sˈini.ɑθ] n. coll. news, tidings ◇ Ety/385

nightdaw N. [dˈɑw] n. night-time, gloom ◇ Ety/354 S., N. [dˈuː] n. nightfall, late evening, night, dimness ◇ Ety/354, S/430, VT/45:9fuin S., N. [fˈujn] n. night, dead of night, gloom, darkness ◇ Ety/354, Ety/382, S/431môr S., N. [mˈɔːr] n. darkness, dark, night ◇ Ety/373, Letters/382tinnu N. [tˈinnu] (tindu N.) n. 1. dusk, twilight, early night (without Moon) ○ 2. by ext., starry twilight ◇ Ety/355, Ety/393, X/ND2

nightfall S., N. [dˈuː] n. nightfall, late evening, night, dimness ◇ Ety/354, S/430, VT/45:9

nightingaledúlinn N. [dˈuːlinn] (dúlind N., dúlin S., N.) n. Orn. nightingale ◇ Ety/354, Ety/369, S/430, X/ND4merilin N. [mˈɛrilˌin] (mœrilind N.) n. Orn. nightingale ◇ Ety/394, X/ND4

nineneder S., N. [nˈɛdɛr] adj. num. card. nine ◇ Ety/376, VT/42:25, VT/48:6, PE/17:95

ninthnedrui S. [nˈɛdruj] adj. num. ord. ninth ◇ VT/42:25nerthui S. [nˈɛrθuj] adj. num. ord. ninth ◇ VT/42:10

noal- N. [ɑl] pref. no, not ◇ Ety/367ú S. [ˈuː] pref. no, not (negative prefix or particle) ◇ WJ/369, LotR/A(v)

nobleara- S. [ɑrɑ] (ar- S.) pref. high, noble, royal ◇ S/428arod S. [ˈɑrɔd] adj. noble ◇ PM/363, VT/41:9arphen S. [ˈɑrfɛn] pl. erphin S. [ˈɛrfin] n. a noble ◇ WJ/376*arth S. [ˈɑrθ] adj. (unknown meaning, perhaps (?) noble, lofty, exalted) ← Arthedain LotRbrand N. [brˈɑnd] (brann N.) adj. 1. lofty, noble, fine ○ 2. high (in size) ◇ Ety/351, TAI/150, X/ND1rodwen S. [rˈɔdwɛn] n. high virgin noble ◇ WJ/317

noiseglam S. [glˈɑm] (glamm S., N., glamb S., N.) n. 1. barbarous speech, shouting, confused noise ○ 2. din, uproar, the confused yelling and bellowing of beasts ○ 3. Pop. by ext., as a coll. noun, any body of Orcs ◇ Ety/358, Ety/377, WJ/390, WJ/416

noisy*brui S. [brˈuj] adj. loud, noisy ← Bruinen LotR/Index

noosehniof N. n. noose ◇ Ety/387, X/IU

northforn S., N. [fˈɔrn] n. right, north ◇ Ety/382, UT/426, S/431forod S., N. [fˈɔrɔd] n. north ◇ Ety/382, S/431, LotR/Eforven N. [fˈɔrvɛn] n. north ◇ Ety/382fuir S. [fˈujr] adj. north ◇ VT/42:20

northernforodren N. [fɔrˈɔdrɛn] adj. northern ◇ Ety/382

nosebund N. [bˈund] (bunn N.) n. 1. Biol. snout, nose ○ 2. Geog. by ext., cape (of land) ◇ Ety/372, X/ND2nem N. [nˈɛm] (nemb N.) n. Biol. nose ◇ Ety/376

notal- N. [ɑl] pref. no, not ◇ Ety/367ú S. [ˈuː] pref. no, not (negative prefix or particle) ◇ WJ/369, LotR/A(v)

notioninc N. [ˈiŋk] n. guess, idea, notion ◇ Ety/361

novelsinnarn N. [sˈinnɑrn] n. novel tale ◇ Ety/385

novemberhithui S. [hˈiθuj] n. and adj. 1. foggy, misty ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of november ◇ LotR/D

nowsi S. [si] adv. now ◇ LotR/IV:X, LB/354

numbergwanod N. [gwˈɑnɔd] n. tale, number ◇ Ety/378lhae N. n. great number ◇ VT/45:27, X/LH

numberlessarnediad N. [ɑrnˈɛdi.ɑd] (arnœdiad S., N.) adj. innumerable, countless, endless, without reckoning, numberless ◇ Ety/349, Ety/378, S/428, VT/46:6

numerousrhem N. (rhemb N.) adj. frequent, numerous ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

O

oakdoron N. [dˈɔrɔn] pl. deren N. (dœrœn N.) n. Bot. oak ◇ Ety/355, VT/45:11

oathgwaedh N. [gwˈɑɛð] n. bond, troth, compact, oath ◇ Ety/397gwest N. [gwˈɛst] n. oath ◇ Ety/397

obliqueatlant N. adj. oblique, slanting ◇ Ety/390, X/TL

obscuredoll N. [dˈɔll] (dolt N.) adj. dark, dusky, obscure ◇ Ety/355, Ety/376, Tengwestie/20031207gwathra- S. [gwˈɑθrɑ] v. to overshadow, dim, veil, obscure ◇ VT/42:9hethw N. adj. foggy, obscure, vague ◇ Ety/364, X/W

obstinatetarlanc N. [tˈɑrlɑŋk] adj. stiff-necked, obstinate ◇ Ety/390

occasionlhû N. n. a time, occasion ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

oceangaearon S. [gˈɑɛ.ɑrɔn] (gaeron S.) n. augm. of gaear, Geog. great sea, ocean ◇ PM/363, PM/348, RGEO/72-73

octobernarbeleth S. [nˈɑrbɛlɛθ] n. Cal. october (month) ◇ LotR/D

odourûl N. [ˈuːl] n. odour ◇ Ety/378

ofned S. [nɛd] prep. (uncertain meaning) in, of (about time, e.g. giving a date) ◇ SD/129-31[Another possible interpretation: "another, one more" (related to Q. net(e)), VT/47:40]o I S., N. [ɔ] (od S.) prep. from, of (preposition (as a proclitic) used in either direction, from or to the point of view of the speaker) ◇ Ety/360, WJ/366, WJ/369-70, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-31, RGEO/72According to WJ/366, the preposition "is normally o in all positions, though od appears occasionally before vowels, especially before o-". With a suffixed article, see also uinuin S. [ujn] prep. of the ◇ SD/129-31

offego S. [ˈɛgɔ] interj. be off! ◇ WJ/365

oldbrûn N. [brˈuːn] adj. old, that has long endured, or been established, or in use ◇ Ety/353gern N. [gˈɛrn] adj. worn, old, decripit (used of things only) ◇ Ety/360iaur S., N. [jˈɑur] adj. 1. ancient, old, original ○ 2. older, former ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, S/433, UT/384ifant N. adj. aged, having lived long, old (with no connotation of weakness) ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, VT/46:23, X/PHingem N. [ˈiŋgɛm] adj. old (of person, in mortal sense: decripit, suffering from old age) ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, Ety/400New word coined by the Elves after meeting with Men

olderiaur S., N. [jˈɑur] adj. 1. ancient, old, original ○ 2. older, former ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, S/433, UT/384

onbo S. [bɔ] prep. on ◇ VT/44:21,26erin S. [ɛrin] prep. on the ◇ SD/129-31

oneer- S., N. [ɛr] pref. alone, one ◇ VT/42:19mîn S. [mˈiːn] (min S., N. [mˈin]) adj. num. card. one (first of a series) ◇ Ety/373, VT/42:24-25, VT/48:6pen II S. [pɛn] pron. one, somebody, anybody ◇ WJ/376Usually enclitic and mutated as ben II

open*edra- S., N. [ˈɛdrɑ] v. to open ◈ edro S., N. [ˈɛdrɔ] v. imp. of edra-, open! ◇ Ety/357, LotR/II:IVlhaden N. pl. lhedin N. adj. open, cleared ◇ Ety/368, X/LH*panna- N. [pˈɑnnɑ] inf. panno N. [pˈɑnnɔ] v. to open, to enlarge ◇ Ety/380

openingdîn II N. [dˈiːn] n. opening, gap, pass in mountains ◇ Ety/354

oppress*baugla- N. [bˈɑuglɑ] inf. bauglo N. [bˈɑuglɔ] v. to oppress ◇ Ety/372

oppressionthang S., N. [θˈɑŋ] n. compulsion, duress, need, oppression ◇ Ety/388, S/438

oppressivebaug N. [bˈɑug] adj. tyrannous, cruel, oppressive ◇ Ety/372

oppressorbauglir N. [bˈɑuglir] n. tyrant, oppressor ◇ Ety/372

oregor S. [ˈɛgɔr] conj. or ◇ SD/129-31

orcglam S. [glˈɑm] (glamm S., N., glamb S., N.) n. 1. barbarous speech, shouting, confused noise ○ 2. din, uproar, the confused yelling and bellowing of beasts ○ 3. Pop. by ext., as a coll. noun, any body of Orcs ◇ Ety/358, Ety/377, WJ/390, WJ/416glamhoth S., N. [glˈɑm.hɔθ] n. class pl. of glam, Pop. barbaric host of Orcs ◇ Ety/358, Ety/364, Ety/377, UT/39, UT/54, WJ/390glamog S. [glˈɑmɔg] n. sing. of glam, Pop. an Orc, "a yelling one" ◇ WJ/390orch S., N. [ˈɔrx] pl. yrch S., N. [ˈyrx] (eirch N., erch N.) n. Pop. Goblin, Orc ◇ Ety/379, LR/406, WJ/390, LotR/II:VI, LotR/F, Letters/178orchoth S. [ˈɔrxɔθ] n. class pl. of orch, Pop. the Orcs (as a race) ◇ WJ/390urug S. [ˈurug] n. 1. Orc (rarely used) ○ 2. Arch. "bogey", anything that caused fear to the Elves, any dubious shape or shadow, or prowling creature ◇ WJ/390

orientamrûn S., N. [ˈɑmruːn] n. east, orient ◇ Ety/348, Ety/384, S/437, LotR/E

ourmín II S. [mˈiːn] (min S.) adj. poss. 1st pl. our ◇ VT/44:21,22,28

outed- N. [ɛd] pref. forth, out ◇ Ety/356

outcrycaun II S. [kˈɑun] n. outcry, clamor ◇ PM/361-362

outlinecant N. [kˈɑnt] pl. *caint S. [kˈɑjnt] n. outline, shape ← morchaint S/432, Ety/362, VT/42:28

overor N. [ɔr] prep. above, over ◇ Ety/379or- N. [ɔr] pref. above, over ◇ Ety/379thar- S., N. [θɑr] pref. across, athwart, over, beyond ◇ Ety/388, S/438

overshadowgwathra- S. [gwˈɑθrɑ] v. to overshadow, dim, veil, obscure ◇ VT/42:9

overwhelmingtaur III N. [tˈɑur] adj. mighty, vast, overwhelming, huge, awful, high, sublime ◇ Ety/395

owngarn N. [gˈɑrn] n. own, property ◇ Ety/360

P

painnaeg N. [nˈɑɛg] n. pain ◇ Ety/375*negra- N. inf. negro N. v. to pain ◇ Ety/375, X/Z

palegael N. [gˈɑɛl] adj. pale, glimmering ◇ Ety/358maidh N. [mˈɑjð] (meidh N.) adj. pale, fallow, fawn ◇ Ety/371, X/EImalw N. adj. fallow, pale ◇ Ety/386, X/Wnimp I N. [nˈimp] (nim- N.) adj. pale, white ◇ Ety/378thind S., N. [θˈind] (thinn N.) adj. grey, pale ◇ Ety/392, S/438

palisadecail S. [kˈɑjl] n. fence or palisade of spikes and sharp stakes ◇ UT/282

pallorniphred S. [nˈifrɛd] (nifred N.) n. pallor, fear ◇ Ety/378, S/435, X/PH

palmcamland N. n. Biol. palm of hand ◇ Ety/367, X/ND4dalf N. n. Biol. palm of hand ◇ Ety/353plad S. [plˈɑd] n. Biol. palm, flat of the hand, hand held upwards or forwards, flat and tensed (with fingers and thumb closed or spread) ◇ VT/47:9

parentodhril N. [ˈɔðril̡] n. f. parent ◇ Ety/379odhron N. [ˈɔðrɔn] n. m. parent ◇ Ety/379

passaglond N. (aglon N.) n. defile, pass between high walls ◇ Ety/348, X/ND4cîl I N. [kˈiːl] n. Geog. cleft, pass between hills, gorge ◇ Ety/365cirith S. [kˈiriθ] n. cleft, high climbing pass, narrow passage cut through earth or rock, ravine, defile ◇ S/387, UT/426, TC/181, RC/334-335dîn II N. [dˈiːn] n. opening, gap, pass in mountains ◇ Ety/354imrad S. [ˈimrɑd] n. Geog. a path or pass (between mountains, hills or trackless forest) ◇ VT/47:14

passagependrath N. [pˈɛndrɑθ] (pendrad N.) n. passage up or down slope, stairway ◇ Ety/380, X/ND3

pasturenadhor N. [nˈɑðr̩] n. pasture ◇ Ety/374nadhras N. [nˈɑðrɑs] n. abst. of nadhor, pasture ◇ Ety/374

pathlond S., N. [lˈɔnd] (lonn S., N., lhonn N.) n. 1. narrow path or strait ○ 2. by ext., entrance to harbour, land-locked haven ◇ Ety/348, Ety/370, S/434, UT/450, VT/42:10, X/LH, X/ND1râd N. [rˈɑːd] n. path, track ◇ Ety/383

pathwaybâd N. [bˈɑːd] n. beaten track, pathway ◇ Ety/351

pausedaur S. [dˈɑur] n. 1. pause, stop ○ 2. by ext., league (about 3 miles) ◇ UT/279, UT/285post N. [pˈɔst] n. pause, halt, rest, cessation, respite ◇ Ety/382

peacesîdh N. [sˈiːð] n. peace ◇ Ety/385

peakaeglir S. [ˈɑɛglir] (oeglir N.) n. Geog. range of mountain peaks ← Hithaeglir LotR, Ety/349, X/OEegnas N. [ˈɛgnɑs] n. 1. sharp point ○ 2. by ext., peak ◇ VT/45:12oegas N. pl. oeges N. n. abst. of aeg, Geog. mountain peak ◇ Ety/349, X/OEtarag N. [tˈɑrɑg] n. 1. horn ○ 2. by ext., steep mountain peak ◇ Ety/391, VT/46:17

pedlarbachor N. [bˈɑxr̩] n. pedlar ◇ Ety/372

pentegil S. [tˈɛgil̡] n. pen ◇ PM/318Sindarized form of Quenya tekil, not known to the Sindar until the coming of the Ñoldor (but see however tegol for a possible dialectal variant)tegol N. [tˈɛgl̩] (tegl N.) n. pen ◇ Ety/391It is stated in PM/318 that "tegil was a Sindarized form of Quenya tekil "pen", not known to the Sindar until the coming of the Ñoldor". It must be assumed therefore that tegol was either rejected by Tolkien, or that it may perhaps have been considered as a dialectal variant. For a similar case where both a true Sindarin/Noldorin word and a Sindarized form conceivably coexist, see magol and megil "sword" (it is unlikely that weapons were not known to the Sindar before the coming of the Ñoldor)

penetratingmaeg S. [mˈɑɛg] adj. sharp, piercing, penetrating, going deep in something ◇ S/434, WJ/337

peoplegwaith S., N. [gwˈɑjθ] (gweith N.) n. 1. manhood ○ 2. by ext., man power, troop of able-bodied men, host, regiment, people ○ 3. by ext., region, wilderness ◇ Ety/398, VT/46:21, X/E1

permissiondâf N. [dˈɑːv] n. permission ◇ Ety/353

pettyniben S. [nˈibɛn] pl. nibin S. [nˈibin] adj. 1. small, petty ○ 2. Biol. as a noun, little finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ S/435, WJ/388, WJ/408, VT/48:6

pickleutha- S. [lˈɛwθɑ] v. to pick up or out (with the fingers) ◇ VT/47:10,23

piercingmaeg S. [mˈɑɛg] adj. sharp, piercing, penetrating, going deep in something ◇ S/434, WJ/337

pilgrimrandír S. [rˈɑndiːr] (rhandir N.) n. m. wanderer, pilgrim ◇ Ety/383, VT/42:13, X/RH

pillarthafn N. [θˈɑvn] n. post, wooden pillar ◇ Ety/387

pillowpesseg N. [pˈɛssɛg] n. pillow ◇ Ety/366

pimpernelelanor S. [ˈɛlɑnɔr] n. Bot. a flower, a kind of enlarged pimpernel bearing golden and silver flowers ◇ LotR/VI:IX, UT/432, Letters/402

pintachol N. [tˈɑxl̩] (tachl N.) n. pin, brooch ◇ Ety/389

pinethôn S. [θˈɔːn] (thaun N.) n. Bot. pine-tree ◇ Ety/392, S/438, RC/384

pinion*roval S. [rˈɔvɑl] (rhofal N.) rhofel N. n. Biol. pinion, great wing (of eagle) ← Landroval LotR/VI:IV, Ety/382, X/RH

pipegalenas S. [gˈɑlɛnɑs] n. Bot. pipe-weed (leaf) or "westmansweed", a variety of Nicotiana ◇ LotR/V:VIII

pippincordof S. [kˈɔrdɔv] n. Bot. pippin (seed of certain fruits, or more probably small red apple) ◇ SD/129-31

pitdath N. [dˈɑθ] n. hole, pit, steep fall, abyss ◇ Ety/354, VT/45:8

pivotpelthaes N. [pˈɛl̡θɑɛs] n. pivot ◇ Ety/380, Ety/390

placedôr S. [dˈɔːr] (dor S., N.) n. Geog. land, dwelling-place, region where certain people live ◇ Ety/376, S/430, WJ/413, Letters/417, VT/45:38, RC/384The form dor in the Etymologies is a misreading, see VT/45. In composition and in toponyms, the word is nevertheless reduced to Dorsad S. [sˈɑd] n. limited area naturally or artificially defined, a place, spot ◇ UT/425, VT/42:19-20

plainlad S. [lˈɑd] n. Geog. plain, valley ◇ S/433talath S. [tˈɑlɑθ] (dalath N.) n. 1. flat surface, plane ○ 2. Geog. flat land, plain, (wide) valley ← Talath Dirnen UT/465, Ety/353, S/437

planetalath S. [tˈɑlɑθ] (dalath N.) n. 1. flat surface, plane ○ 2. Geog. flat land, plain, (wide) valley ← Talath Dirnen UT/465, Ety/353, S/437

plankpân I N. [pˈɑːn] pl. pein N. n. plank, fixed board (especially in floor) ◇ Ety/380, X/EI

plantaeglos S. [ˈɑɛglɔs] n. 1. Bot. snowthorn, a plant like furze (gorse), but larger and with white flowers ○ 2. Geol. icicle (a pendent spear of ice formed by the freezing of dripping water) ◇ UT/417, LotR/Indexgalas N. [gˈɑlɑs] n. abst. of gala-, Bot. growth, plant ◇ Ety/357seregon S. [sˈɛrɛgɔn] n. Bot. "Blood of Stone", a plant of the kind called in English "stonecrop", with deep red flowers, that grew on Amon Rûdh ◇ S/437

platformtalan S. [tˈɑlɑn] pl. telain S. [tˈɛlɑjn] n. wooden platform (in the trees of Lothlórien where the Galadhrim dwelt) ◇ UT/465, LotR/II:VI

play*ganna- N. [gˈɑnnɑ] inf. ganno N. [gˈɑnnɔ] v. to play a harp ◇ Ety/377*gannada- N. [gˈɑnnɑdɑ] inf. gannado N. [gˈɑnnɑdɔ] v. to play a harp ◇ Ety/377*telia- N. [tˈɛli.ɑ] (*teilia- N.) inf. telio N. [tˈɛli.ɔ] (teilio N.) v. to play ◇ Ety/395telien N. [tˈɛli.ɛn] (teilien N.) n. sport, play ◇ Ety/395

poemglaer N. [glˈɑɛr] n. long lay, narrative poem ◇ Ety/359, VT/45:15Written glær (with ae-ligature) in the Etymologies, rectified here according to VT/45:15glîr N. [glˈiːr] n. song, poem, lay ◇ Ety/359lhîr II N. n. song, poem, lay ◇ VT/45:28, X/LH

point*aeg S. [ˈɑɛg] n. point ← aeglir, aeglos, etc.The adjective oeg "sharp, pointed, piercing" from Ety/349 is perhaps rejected: Tolkien later decided that no cognate of Quenya aica "fell, terrible, dire" was used in Sindarin, "though aeg would have been its form if it had occurred" (PM/347). On the other hand, we have words such as aeglos and aeglir, so there must be a noun aeg "point"ecthel N. [ˈɛkθɛl̡] (egthel N.) n. point (of spear) ◇ Ety/388egnas N. [ˈɛgnɑs] n. 1. sharp point ○ 2. by ext., peak ◇ VT/45:12ment N. [mˈɛnt] n. point ◇ Ety/373nass N. [nˈɑss] n. 1. point, (sharp) end ○ 2. angle or corner ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37nasta- N. [nˈɑstɑ] v. to prick, point, stick, thrust ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37thela N. [θˈɛlɑ] n. point (of spear) ◇ Ety/388till N. [tˈil̡l] (tild N.) n. horn, point ◇ Ety/393

pointed*megor S. [mˈɛgr̩] adj. sharp-pointed ← *megr WJ/337

poisonsaew N. [sˈɑɛw] n. poison ◇ Ety/385

pollenmâl N. [mˈɑːl] pl. meil N. (mely N.) n. pollen, yellow powder ◇ Ety/386, X/EI

ponderingidhren N. [ˈiðrɛn] adj. pondering, wise, thoughtful ◇ Ety/361

poolboth N. [bˈɔθ] n. puddle, small pool ◇ Ety/372lhîn N. n. pool ◇ Ety/369, X/LH*liniath N. [lˈini.ɑθ] n. coll. of lhîn, pools ← Hithliniath WJ/194loeg S. [lˈɔɛg] n. pool ◇ S/407, UT/450, LotR/Mapnen S., N. [nˈɛn] pl. nîn S., N. [nˈiːn] n. 1. water (used of a lake, pool or lesser river) ○ 2. Geog. by ext., waterland ◇ Ety/376, S/435, UT/457, RC/327-328oel N. pl. aelin S. [ˈɑɛlin] (oelin N.) n. Geog. lake, pool, mere ◇ Ety/349, S/427, X/OErhim II N. (rhimb N.) n. Geog. cold pool or lake (in mountains) ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

poorfoeg N. adj. mean, poor, bad ◇ Ety/387, X/OE

poplartulus N. [tˈulus] pl. tylys N. [ˈtylys] n. Bot. poplar-tree ◇ Ety/395

post*tagol S. [tˈɑgl̩] n. post, mark ← glandagol VT/42:8, VT/42:28thafn N. [θˈɑvn] n. post, wooden pillar ◇ Ety/387

pottercennan N. [kˈɛnnɑn] n. potter ◇ Ety/390

powdermâl N. [mˈɑːl] pl. meil N. (mely N.) n. pollen, yellow powder ◇ Ety/386, X/EI

powerbalan S., N. [bˈɑlɑn] pl. belain S. [bˈɛlɑjn] (belein N., belen N.) n. Theo. Vala, divine power, divinity ◇ Ety/350, S/439, Letters/427, X/EI

praise*egleria- S. [ɛglˈɛri.ɑ] v. to glorify, to praise ◈ eglerio S. [ɛglˈɛri.ɔ] v. imp. of egleria-, glorify! praise! ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308

precipicerhass N. [ɹ̥ˈɑss] n. precipice ◇ Ety/363

prickeitha- S. [ˈɛjθɑ] v. 1. to prick with a sharp point, to stab ○ 2. by ext., to treat with scorn, insult ◇ WJ/365*ercha- N. [ˈɛrxɑ] inf. ercho N. [ˈɛrxɔ] v. to prick ◇ Ety/356nasta- N. [nˈɑstɑ] v. to prick, point, stick, thrust ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37

prickleerch II N. [ˈɛrx] n. prickle ◇ Ety/356

prince*caun IV S. [kˈɑun] pl. conin S. [kˈɔnin] n. prince, ruler ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308cunn N. n. Arch. prince ◇ Ety/366, VT/45:24, X/ND1ernil II S. [ˈɛrnil̡] pl. ernil S. n. prince ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308, UT/428, RGEO/75

prisonband S., N. [bˈɑnd] (bann N.) n. duress, prison, custody, safe-keeping ◇ Ety/371, S/428, MR/350, X/ND1gador N. [gˈɑdr̩] (gadr N.) n. prison, dungeon ◇ Ety/358

privatesaid S. [sˈɑjd] adj. private, separate, not common, excluded ◇ VT/42:20

prohibitionablad S. [ˈɑblɑd] n. prohibition, refusal (with reference to the gesture one makes with the hand) ◇ VT/47:13

promontorynaith S., N. [nˈɑjθ] pl. natsai N. [nˈɑtsɑj] n. any formation or projection tapering to a point: a spearhead, triangle gore, wedge, narrow promontory ◇ Ety/387, UT/282, RC/307

pronedadbenn N. [dˈɑdbɛnn] (dadben N.) adv. 1. downhill, inclined ○ 2. by ext., inclined, prone (to do something) ◇ Ety/354, Ety/380, VT/46:8, X/ND4

proptulu N. [tˈulu] n. support, prop ◇ Ety/395

propertygarn N. [gˈɑrn] n. own, property ◇ Ety/360

protect*beria- N. [bˈɛri.ɑ] inf. berio N. [bˈɛri.ɔ] v. to protect ◇ Ety/351

provinceardhon S. [ˈɑrðɔn] n. augm. of ardh, 1. Geog. great region, province ○ 2. by ext., world ← Calenardhon S/386, PM/348

puddleboth N. [bˈɔθ] n. puddle, small pool ◇ Ety/372

puffchwest N. n. puff, breath, breeze ◇ Ety/388, X/HW

purposethel- S. [θˈɛl̡] v. to intend, mean, purpose, resolve, will ◇ WJ/318-319

Q

quarrelcost N. [kˈɔst] n. quarrel ◇ Ety/365

quartercanath II S. [kˈɑnɑθ] n. "quarter", silver coin used in Gondor, the fourth part of a "mirian" → mirianPM/45

queenbereth S., N. [bˈɛrɛθ] n. f. queen, spouse ◇ Ety/351, RGEO/74rhîn N. (rhien N.) n. and adj. 1. crowned ○ 2. as a noun, by ext., crowned lady, queen ◇ Ety/393, Ety/389, X/RHrhîs N. n. f. queen ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

quench*luithia- S. [lˈujθi.ɑ] v. to quench ← uluithiad SD/62Perhaps compare with Q. luita- "to flood, inundate, drench" and the root LUY - See VT/48:31

quenching*luithiad S. [lˈujθi.ɑd] ger. of luithia-, quenching ← uluithiad SD/62uluithiad S. [ulˈujθi.ɑd] adj. unquenchable, without quenching ◇ SD/62

quiettîn II S. [tˈiːn] adj. silent, quiet ◇ RC/551See also dîn I for a discussion regarding this word

quitefar N. [fˈɑr] adj. or adv. sufficient, enough, quite ◇ Ety/381

R

racenûr II N. [nˈuːr] n. race ◇ Ety/378

radiancegalad S. [gˈɑlɑd] n. light, radiance, glittering, reflection (from jewels, glass or polished metal, or water) ◇ VT/45:13, PM/347, Letters/425glaw N. [glˈɑw] n. radiance ◇ Ety/362glawar N. [glˈɑwɑr] n. Theo. sunlight, radiance (of the golden tree Laurelin) ◇ Ety/368, VT/45:15

radiantfoen N. adj. radiant, white ◇ Ety/381, X/OE

rainrhoss N. n. rain ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

rainboweilianw N. (eilian N.) n. rainbow ◇ Ety/360, Ety/400See ianw and iant for a discussionninniach S. [nˈinni.ɑx] n. rainbow ◇ S/387

raise*ortha- N. [ˈɔrθɑ] inf. ortho N. [ˈɔrθɔ] pa. t. orthant N. [ˈɔrθɑnt] v. to raise ◇ Ety/379

rangelhîr I N. n. row, range ◇ Ety/369, X/LH

ransomdanwedh S. [dˈɑnwɛð] n. ransom ◇ S/384

rapidlhagr N. pl. lhegrin N. adj. swift, rapid ◇ Ety/367, VT/45:25, Tengwestie/20050318, X/LHThe form lhegin in the published Etymologies might be a misreading for lhegrin, see VT/45:25. As noted by Bertrand Bellet, the two forms are listed side by side, and they may simply be doublets, but it is also possible that we have here a singular followed by its plural.

ratnâr N. [nˈɑːr] n. rat ◇ Ety/379

rathersennui S. [sˈɛnnuj] adv. (?) rather, (?) instead (used as an adverb?) ◇ SD/129-31

raven*craban S. [krˈɑbɑn] pl. crebain S. [krˈɛbɑjn] n. Orn. kind of crow of large size, raven ◇ LotR/II:III

ravinecirith S. [kˈiriθ] n. cleft, high climbing pass, narrow passage cut through earth or rock, ravine, defile ◇ S/387, UT/426, TC/181, RC/334-335*falch S. [fˈɑlx] n. Geog. deep cleft, ravine ← Orfalch Echor UT/468iau II N. [jˈɑu] n. Geog. ravine, cleft, gulf ◇ Ety/400, VT/46:22rhis N. (rhess N.) n. ravine ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

readinesshûr N. [hˈuːr] n. readiness for action, vigour, fiery spirit ◇ Ety/364

realmardh N. [ˈɑrð] n. realm, region ◇ Ety/360

reap*critha- N. [krˈiθɑ] inf. critho N. [krˈiθɔ] v. to reap ◇ Ety/365

rearadel N. [ɑdɛl̡] prep. behind, in rear (of) ◇ Ety/392tele N. [tˈɛlɛ] pl. telei N. [tˈɛlɛj] n. end, rear, hindmost part ◇ Ety/392

reciteglir- N. [glˈir] inf. gliri N. [glˈiri] v. to sing, trill, to recite a poem ◇ Ety/359, Ety/369, VT/45:15The form glin in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:15

reckon*genedia- S. [gɛnˈɛdi.ɑ] v. to reckon ← genediad SD/129-31gonod- N. [gˈɔnɔd] v. to count, count up, reckon, sum up ◇ Ety/378, Ety/399, VT/46:6

reckoninggenediad S. [gɛnˈɛdi.ɑd] ger. of genedia-, 1. reckoning ○ 2. by ext., calendar ◇ SD/129-31

recount*trenar- N. [trˈɛnɑr] inf. treneri N. [trˈɛnɛri] pa. t. trenor N. [trˈɛnɔr] (trener N.) v. to recount, to tell to end ◇ Ety/374

redborn S. [bˈɔrn] adj. hot, red ◇ Letters/426-27caran S., N. [kˈɑrɑn] adj. red ◇ Ety/362, S/429, LotR/Ecoll I N. [kˈɔll] adj. (golden) red ◇ Ety/365goer N. adj. red, copper-coloured, ruddy ◇ Ety/358, X/OEnaru N. [nˈɑru] (narw N.) adj. red ◇ Ety/374, X/Wruin S. [rˈujn] adj. (fiery) red ◇ PM/366

reekosp N. [ˈɔsp] n. reek, smoke ◇ Ety/396

reflectiongalad S. [gˈɑlɑd] n. light, radiance, glittering, reflection (from jewels, glass or polished metal, or water) ◇ VT/45:13, PM/347, Letters/425

refusalablad S. [ˈɑblɑd] n. prohibition, refusal (with reference to the gesture one makes with the hand) ◇ VT/47:13avad S. [ˈɑvɑd] ger. of ava-, refusal, reluctance ◇ WJ/371

refuseravar S. [ˈɑvɑr] pl. evair S. [ˈɛvɑjr] n. 1. refuser ○ 2. Pop. esp. in the pl., the Avari, Elves who refused the invitation of the Valar ◇ WJ/380, VT/47:12This plural name was known to the loremasters, but went out of daily use at the time of the Exile

regimentgwaith S., N. [gwˈɑjθ] (gweith N.) n. 1. manhood ○ 2. by ext., man power, troop of able-bodied men, host, regiment, people ○ 3. by ext., region, wilderness ◇ Ety/398, VT/46:21, X/E1

regionardh N. [ˈɑrð] n. realm, region ◇ Ety/360ardhon S. [ˈɑrðɔn] n. augm. of ardh, 1. Geog. great region, province ○ 2. by ext., world ← Calenardhon S/386, PM/348dôr S. [dˈɔːr] (dor S., N.) n. Geog. land, dwelling-place, region where certain people live ◇ Ety/376, S/430, WJ/413, Letters/417, VT/45:38, RC/384The form dor in the Etymologies is a misreading, see VT/45. In composition and in toponyms, the word is nevertheless reduced to Dorgardh S. [gˈɑrð] n. 1. Geog. bounded or defined region ○ 2. by ext., world ◇ WJ/402gwaith S., N. [gwˈɑjθ] (gweith N.) n. 1. manhood ○ 2. by ext., man power, troop of able-bodied men, host, regiment, people ○ 3. by ext., region, wilderness ◇ Ety/398, VT/46:21, X/E1

release*adleg- N. [ˈɑdlɛg] inf. adlegi N. [ˈɑdlɛgi] pa. t. adlenc N. [ˈɑdlɛŋk] v. Arch., Poet. to loose, let loose, release ◇ VT/45:27leithia- N. [lˈɛjθi.ɑ] (lheitho N.) v. to release ◇ Ety/368, X/LHleithian S., N. [lˈɛjθi.ɑn] (lheithian N.) n. release, freeing, release from bondage ◇ Ety/368, S/406, X/LH

reluctanceavad S. [ˈɑvɑd] ger. of ava-, refusal, reluctance ◇ WJ/371

remain*dar- N. [dˈɑr] inf. deri N. [dˈɛri] v. to stay, wait, stop, remain ◇ Ety/353dartha- N. [dˈɑrθɑ] v. to wait, stay, last, endure, remain ◇ Ety/353, VT/45:8

remembrancerîn S. [rˈiːn] n. remembrance ◇ PM/372

remotehae S., N. [hˈɑɛ] adj. far, remote, distant ← Gwahaedir PM/186, VT/45:21haered S. [hˈɑɛrɛd] n. remote distance, the remote ← na-chaered LotR/II:I, RGEO/72haeron S. [hˈɑɛrɔn] adj. far, remote, distant ◇ PM/273

rendnarcha- N. [nˈɑrxɑ] v. to rend ◇ Ety/374*rhista- N. inf. rhisto N. v. 1. to cut ○ 2. to rend, rip ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

renewalcîl II S. [kˈiːl] n. (?) renewal ◇ VT/48:8

replydangweth S. [dˈɑŋgwɛθ] n. answer, reply giving new information ◇ PM/395

reposeîdh S. [ˈiːð] n. rest, repose ◇ WJ/403

resolvethel- S. [θˈɛl̡] v. to intend, mean, purpose, resolve, will ◇ WJ/318-319

resonanttong N. [tˈɔŋ] adj. taut, tight (of strings), resonant ◇ Ety/394

respitepost N. [pˈɔst] n. pause, halt, rest, cessation, respite ◇ Ety/382

responsedambeth S. [dˈɑmbɛθ] n. answer, response ◇ PM/395In Tolkien's manuscript, this form was rejected in favor of dangweth, with a slightly different meaning. However, it may possibly be assumed that the word is valid per se (although it may be argued that this compound word does not show the regular mutation that one would have expected)

restîdh S. [ˈiːð] n. rest, repose ◇ WJ/403post N. [pˈɔst] n. pause, halt, rest, cessation, respite ◇ Ety/382*send S. [sˈɛnd] (*senn S.) n. (?) rest ← sennas RC/523

retain*heb- S. [hˈɛb] v. to retain, keep, do not give away or release, keep hold of ← *khep VT/41:6

reunionaderthad S. [ɑdˈɛrθɑd] ger. of adertha-, reuniting, reunion ◇ S/409

reunite*adertha- S. [ɑdˈɛrθɑ] v. to reunite ← Aderthad S/409

reunitingaderthad S. [ɑdˈɛrθɑd] ger. of adertha-, reuniting, reunion ◇ S/409

ride*nor- S. [nˈɔr] v. 1. to run ○ 2. by ext., to ride

riderrochon S. [rˈɔxɔn] n. (horse) rider ◇ UT/463

ridgeceber S., N. [kˈɛbɛr] pl. cebir S., N. [kˈɛbir] n. stake, spike, stone ridge ◇ Ety/363, LotR/II:VIII, S/437, RC/327penneth S. [pˈɛnnɛθ] n. coll. of pend, ridges, group of downs ◇ RC/525pinnath S. [pˈinnɑθ] n. coll. of pend, ridges, group of downs ◇ LotR/Index, RC/525

rigidtharn N. [θˈɑrn] adj. sapless, stiff, rigid, withered ◇ Ety/388

ringletlhaws N. n. hair ringlet ◇ Ety/370, X/LHlhoch N. n. ringlet ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

rip*rhista- N. inf. rhisto N. v. 1. to cut ○ 2. to rend, rip ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

rise*eria- N. [ˈɛri.ɑ] inf. erio N. [ˈɛri.ɔ] pa. t. erias N. [ˈɛri.ɑs] (Arch. oronte N.) v. to rise ◇ Ety/379, VT/46:7

risingorthad S. [ˈɔrθɑd] ger. of ortha-, rising ◇ MR/373

rivercelon N. [kˈɛlɔn] n. Geog. river ← Celon (name) Ety/363duin S. [dˈujn] n. Geog. (long and large) river (having strong current) ◇ S/430, LotR/F, TC/179, VT/48:24duirro N. [dˈujrrɔ] n. Geog. river-bank ◇ VT/46:10ethir I S., N. [ˈɛθir] n. Geog. mouth (of a river), estuary ◇ LotR/II:X, Ety/356, RC/350nen S., N. [nˈɛn] pl. nîn S., N. [nˈiːn] n. 1. water (used of a lake, pool or lesser river) ○ 2. Geog. by ext., waterland ◇ Ety/376, S/435, UT/457, RC/327-328sîr S., N. [sˈiːr] n. Geog. river ◇ Ety/385, S/437, RC/384sirion I N. [sˈiri.ɔn] n. augm. of sîr, Geog. great river ← Sirion Ety/385

riverbedrant S., N. [rˈɑnt] n. 1. lode, vein ○ 2. Geog. course, riverbed ◇ Ety/383, S/436rath S., N. [rˈɑθ] n. 1. course, riverbed ○ 2. street (in a city) ◇ Ety/383, LotR/Index, RC/523,551

roadmen II S. [mˈɛn] n. way, road ◇ UT/281

rockgond S. [gˈɔnd] (gonn N.) n. great stone, rock ◇ Ety/359, S/431, X/ND1

roof*orthel- N. [ˈɔrθɛl] inf. ortheli N. [ˈɔrθɛli] v. to roof, screen above ◇ Ety/391rond S. [rˈɔnd] (rhond N., rhonn N.) n. 1. cave roof ○ 2. vaulted or arched roof, as seen from below (and usually not visible from outside), or a (large) hall of chamber so roofed ◇ Ety/384, VT/46:12, S/437, WJ/414, X/RH, X/ND1telu N. [tˈɛlu] n. dome, high roof ◇ Ety/391*toba- N. [tˈɔbɑ] inf. tobo N. [tˈɔbɔ] v. to cover, roof over ◇ Ety/394tobas N. [tˈɔbɑs] n. abst. of toba-, roofing, roof ◇ Ety/394, VT/46:19

roofingtobas N. [tˈɔbɑs] n. abst. of toba-, roofing, roof ◇ Ety/394, VT/46:19

rootsolch N. [sˈɔlx] n. Bot. root (especially as edible) ◇ Ety/388thond S. [θˈɔnd] n. Bot. root ◇ LotR/E, Letters/178

ropehithlain S. [hˈiθlɑjn] n. mist-thread (a substance used by the Elves of Lothlórien to make strong ropes) ◇ LotR/II:VIII, LotR/Index*raph S. [rˈɑf] n. rope ← Udalraph UT/424

rosemeril S. [mˈɛril̡] n. Bot. rose (flower) ◇ SD/129-31

rottenthaw N. [θˈɑw] adj. corrupt, rotten ◇ Ety/393

roundcorn N. [kˈɔrn] adj. round, globed ◇ Ety/365

rowlhîr I N. n. row, range ◇ Ety/369, X/LH N. [tˈiː] n. line, row ◇ Ety/392

royalara- S. [ɑrɑ] (ar- S.) pref. high, noble, royal ◇ S/428*arn S. [ˈɑrn] adj. royal ← arn(a)gon-ath Letters/427arnen S. [ˈɑrnɛn] pl. ernin S. [ˈɛrnin] adj. (?) royal ← Emyn Arnen, Lonnath-Ernin LotR/V:I, WR/294, WR/370Originally, Lonnath-Ernin might have been intended to mean 'royal havens', assuming the second element to be a regular adjective. However, the second element in Emyn Arnen 'hills of Arnen' is singular, and Tolkien later decided that it should mean 'Hill beside the water', see VT/42:17 and HL/119-124. Nevertheless, this meaning cannot apply to Lonnath-Ernin (havens are near water by definition), so unless we entirely reject this earlier form, we may assume that an adjective 'royal' is still possible.

ruddycrann N. [krˈɑnn] adj. ruddy (of face) ◇ Ety/362goer N. adj. red, copper-coloured, ruddy ◇ Ety/358, X/OEgruin N. [grˈujn] adj. ruddy ◇ Ety/384

ruler*caun IV S. [kˈɑun] pl. conin S. [kˈɔnin] n. prince, ruler ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308

ruling*conui S. [kˈɔnuj] adj. commanding, (?) ruling ← Argonui LotR/A(ii)

run*nor- S. [nˈɔr] v. 1. to run ○ 2. by ext., to ride

runeangerthas S. [ɑŋgˈɛrθɑs] n. Ling. runic alphabet, long rune-rows (extended version of the Certhas) ◇ S/427, LotR/Ecerth S. [kˈɛrθ] pl. cirth S. [kˈirθ] n. Ling. rune ◇ WJ/396, LotR/Ecerthas S. [kˈɛrθɑs] n. abst. of certh, Ling. runic alphabet, rune-rows ◇ LotR/E

running*cell S. [kˈɛl̡l] adj. 1. running ○ 2. by ext., flowing (of water) ← Celduin LotR/Map

rushingalag N. [ˈɑlɑg] adj. rushing, impetuous ◇ Ety/348, VT/45:5asgar N. [ˈɑsgɑr] (ascar N.) adj. violent, rushing, impetuous ◇ Ety/386

rustlingfloss N. (thloss N.) n. whisper or rustling sound ◇ Ety/386, X/LHthross N. n. whisper or rustling sound ◇ Ety/386, X/RH

S

saddem N. [dˈɛm] adj. sad, gloomy ◇ Ety/354No language indication in the Etymologies, but Noldorin from context and phonological evidencenoer N. adj. sad, lamentable ◇ Ety/375, X/OE*nûr III S. [nˈuːr] adj. sad ← Núrnen UT/458, RC/457For an earlier discussion, see Klockzo, 4th volume, p. 160 §147: The meaning of Núrnen long remained highly hypothetical. The current definition is based on Christopher Tolkien's index to UT and on the unfinished index of names published in RC. The Gnomish Lexicon listed nur- (nauri) "growl, grumble", nurn "plaint, lament, a complaint" and nurna- "bewail, lament, complain of" (PE/11:61). Likewise, the Qenyaqetsa included a root NURU- with several derivatives with similar meanings (PE/12:68). See also Q. nurrula "mumbling" (from nurru- "murmur, grumble") in the final version of the poem The Last Ark (MC/222-23). Patrick Wynne therefore noted: S. *nûr in Núrnen "Sad Water" is apparently "sad" in the sense "bewailing, lamenting, complaining, grumbling", no doubt a reference to the general mood of the hapless laborers in "the great slave-worked fields" beside the lake. (See Lambengolmor/856-860)

safeband S., N. [bˈɑnd] (bann N.) n. duress, prison, custody, safe-keeping ◇ Ety/371, S/428, MR/350, X/ND1

saganarn S., N. [nˈɑrn] pl. nern S. [nˈɛrn] n. a tale or a saga, that is told in verse to be spoken and not sung ◇ Ety/374, WJ/313, MR/373, S/412

sail*rhevia- N. inf. rhevio (corr. rhenio) N. v. 1. to fly, sail ○ 2. to wander ◇ Ety/382, X/RH

sailor*cirion S. [kˈiri.ɔn] n. m. shipman, sailor ← Cirion (name)

salveglaew N. [glˈɑɛw] n. salve ◇ Ety/369

sanctuaryiaun N. [jˈɑun] n. holy place, fane, sanctuary ◇ Ety/400

sandlith S., N. [lˈiθ] n. ash, sand, dust ◇ Ety/369, S/434, TC/178

saplesstharn N. [θˈɑrn] adj. sapless, stiff, rigid, withered ◇ Ety/388

savingedraith S. [ˈɛdrɑjθ] n. saving ◇ LotR/II:IV, TI/175

say*ped- S. [pˈɛd] pa. t. *pent S. [pˈɛnt] v. to speak, to say ← pedo, arphent LotR/II:IV, TL/21:09pedo S. [pˈɛdɔ] v. imp. of ped-, speak! say! ◇ LotR/II:IV, Letters/424

scionion S. [jˈɔn] (ionn N.) n. m. 1. son ○ 2. by ext., scion, male descendant ◇ Ety/400, MR/373, X/ND1, X/ND2For the second meaning, cf. Hadorion, a Húrin's epithet in WJ/294, Hurinionath referring to the house of Húrin the Steward in PM/202-3,218, and Gil-Galad's epithet Ereinion, cf. also the gloss of the old Qenya cognate yondo "descendant of" in PE/12:106, or the use of the same suffix in later Quenya names such as Isildurioni and Anárioni "Heirs of Isildur (resp. Anárion)" in PM/192,196

scorneitha- S. [ˈɛjθɑ] v. 1. to prick with a sharp point, to stab ○ 2. by ext., to treat with scorn, insult ◇ WJ/365iaew N. [jˈɑɛw] n. mocking, scorn ◇ Ety/400

scratch*thrib- N. inf. thribi N. v. to scratch ◇ Ety/387, X/RH

screenesgal S. [ˈɛsgɑl] n. veil, screen, cover that hides ◇ S/431haltha- N. [hˈɑlθɑ] v. to screen ◇ Ety/386*orthel- N. [ˈɔrθɛl] inf. ortheli N. [ˈɔrθɛli] v. to roof, screen above ◇ Ety/391

seaaear S. [ˈɑɛ.ɑr] n. Geog. sea ◈ Tolkien changed this word several times, see gaearaearon S. [ˈɑɛ.ɑrɔn] n. augm. of aear, Geog. great sea, ocean ◈ Tolkien changed this word several times, see gaearonaer I S. [ˈɑɛr] n. Geog. sea ◈ Tolkien changed this word several times, see aear, gaeargaear S. [gˈɑɛ.ɑr] (oear N.) n. Geog. sea ◇ Ety/349, PM/363, RGEO/73gaearon S. [gˈɑɛ.ɑrɔn] (gaeron S.) n. augm. of gaear, Geog. great sea, ocean ◇ PM/363, PM/348, RGEO/72-73gaer II S. [gˈɑɛr] (oer N.) n. Geog. sea ◇ Ety/349, S/431, PM/363

seashellhalf N. [hˈɑlv] n. seashell ◇ Ety/389

seasonechuir S. [ˈɛxujr] n. Cal. a season, the beginning of spring ◇ LotR/D, SD/129-31ethuil S. [ˈɛθujl] n. Cal. season of spring ◇ LotR/D, SD/129-31firith S. [fˈiriθ] n. Cal. season of fading ◇ LotR/Diavas S. [jˈɑvɑs] n. abst. of iau I, Cal. season of autumn ◇ LotR/Dlaer I S. [lˈɑɛr] n. Cal. season of summer ◇ LotR/Dlhasbelin N. n. Cal. season of autumn ◇ Ety/366-367, X/LHrhîw S. [ɹ̥ˈiːw] n. Cal. winter season ◇ LotR/D

seaweedoeruil N. n. Bot. seaweed ← gaer PM/363, Ety/396uil N. [ˈujl] n. Bot. seaweed ◇ Ety/396

secondedwen S. [ˈɛdwɛn] adj. num. ord. second ◇ SD/129-31tadeg S. [tˈɑdɛg] adj. num. ord. second ◇ VT/42:10tadui S. [tˈɑduj] adj. num. ord. second ◇ VT/42:25taid S. [tˈɑjd] adj. second (in the sense of supporting, second in command) ◇ VT/42:25

secretthurin N. [θˈurin] adj. secret, hidden ◇ LB/304, Ety/394

see*cen- N. [kˈɛn] v. to see ← cenedril TI/184*tíra- S. [tˈiːrɑ] v. to see ← tírad SD/129-31tírad S. [tˈiːrɑd] ger. of tíra-, to see, for the seing ◇ SD/129-31

seedcordof S. [kˈɔrdɔv] n. Bot. pippin (seed of certain fruits, or more probably small red apple) ◇ SD/129-31eredh N. [ˈɛrɛð] n. Bot. seed, germ ◇ Ety/356

seeing*cened N. [kˈɛnɛd] ger. of cen-, seeing, sight ← cenedril TI/184

seem*thia- N. [θˈi.ɑ] inf. thio N. [θˈi.ɔ] v. to appear, seem ◇ Ety/392

seingtírad S. [tˈiːrɑd] ger. of tíra-, to see, for the seing ◇ SD/129-31

sensiblenoen N. [nˈɔɛn] adj. wise, sensible ◇ VT/46:9

separatesaid S. [sˈɑjd] adj. private, separate, not common, excluded ◇ VT/42:20

septemberivanneth S. [ivˈɑnnɛθ] n. Cal. september (month) ◇ LotR/D

serpentlhimlug N. n. fish-dragon, sea-serpent ◇ Ety/370, X/LHlhûg S., N. [ɬˈuːg] n. Zool. snake, serpent ◇ Ety/370, S/434

serve*buia- N. [bˈuj.ɑ] inf. buio N. [bˈuj.ɔ] v. to serve, to hold allegiance to ◇ Ety/353

set*penia- N. [pˈɛni.ɑ] inf. penio N. [pˈɛni.ɔ] v. to fix, to set ◇ Ety/380

sevenodog S., N. [ˈɔdɔg] (odo S.) adj. num. card. seven ◇ Ety/379, VT/42:25, VT/47:42, VT/48:6, PE/17:95

seventhochui S. [ˈɔxuj] adj. num. ord. seventh ◇ VT/47:42odothui S. [ˈɔdɔθuj] adj. num. ord. seventh ◇ TI/312, WR/436, VT/42:25othui S. [ˈɔθuj] adj. num. ord. seventh ◇ VT/42:10,25

shadegwath S., N. [gwˈɑθ] n. 1. shade, shadow, dim light ○ 2. stain ◇ Ety/397, S/432lhum N. n. shade ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

shadowdae S., N. [dˈɑɛ] n. shadow ◇ Ety/354, S/430dúath S., N. [dˈuːɑθ] (dúwath N.) n. coll. of , 1. darkness, shadow ○ 2. nightshade ◇ Ety/354, S/430*guruthos S. [gˈuruθɔs] n. the shadow of death, death-horror ← di-nguruthos LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278gwath S., N. [gwˈɑθ] n. 1. shade, shadow, dim light ○ 2. stain ◇ Ety/397, S/432*morchant S. [mˈɔrxɑnt] pl. morchaint S. [mˈɔrxɑjnt] n. shadow (of objects, cast by light), dark shape ◇ S/432, VT/42:9

shadowedhall II N. [hˈɑll] adj. veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady ◇ Ety/386

shadowygwathren S. [gwˈɑθrɛn] pl. gwethrin S. [gwˈɛθrin] adj. shadowy, dim ← Ered Wethrin S/432, VT/42:9*gwathui S. [gwˈɑθuj] adj. shadowy ← Gwathuirim PM/330

shadyhall II N. [hˈɑll] adj. veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady ◇ Ety/386lhumren N. adj. shady ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

shapeauth II S. [ˈɑuθ] n. a dim shape, spectral or vague apparition ◇ VT/42:9cant N. [kˈɑnt] pl. *caint S. [kˈɑjnt] n. outline, shape ← morchaint S/432, Ety/362, VT/42:28

shapedcadw N. adj. shaped, formed ◇ Ety/362-363, X/W

shapelycadwor N. [kˈɑdwr̩] (cadwar N.) adj. shapely ◇ Ety/363maed I S. [mˈɑɛd] adj. shapely ◇ PM/366, VT/41:10

shaping*cannas N. [kˈɑnnɑs] n. abst. of cant, shaping ← Dorgannas WJ/192, WJ/206

sharplhaeg N. (lhoeg N.) adj. keen, sharp, acute ◇ Ety/367, VT/45:25, X/OE, X/LHmaeg S. [mˈɑɛg] adj. sharp, piercing, penetrating, going deep in something ◇ S/434, WJ/337*megor S. [mˈɛgr̩] adj. sharp-pointed ← *megr WJ/337

shavenparan S. [pˈɑrɑn] adj. smooth, shaven (often applied to hills without trees) ← Dol Baran RC/433

shehe N. [hɛ] (hen N., hene N.) pl. hîn N. [hiːn] pron. 3rd f. she ◇ Ety/385

shieldamath N. [ˈɑmɑθ] (ambath N.) n. Mil. shield ◇ VT/45:33*thand I S. [θˈɑnd] n. Mil. shield ← thangail UT/281-282thangail S. [θˈɑŋgɑjl] n. Mil. shield-fence, a battle formation of the Dúnedain ◇ UT/281-282

shinesíla- N. [sˈiːlɑ] v. to shine white

shipcair S. [kˈɑjr] (ceir N.) n. ship ◇ Ety/365, LotR/A(iv), X/EI

shipbuildercírdan S. [kˈirdɑn] (cirdan N., ceirdan N.) n. shipbuilder, shipwright ◇ Ety/365, Ety/390, LotR/VI:IX, RC/28

shipman*cirion S. [kˈiri.ɔn] n. m. shipman, sailor ← Cirion (name)

shipwrightcírdan S. [kˈirdɑn] (cirdan N., ceirdan N.) n. shipbuilder, shipwright ◇ Ety/365, Ety/390, LotR/VI:IX, RC/28

shire*trann S. [trˈɑnn] n. shire, administrative district, division of a realm ← i-Drann SD/129-31*trannail S. [trˈɑnnɑjl] adj. of the Shire ← genediad Drannail SD/129-31

shoehabad N. [hˈɑbɑd] pl. hebeid N. n. shoe ◇ Ety/386, VT/Errata, X/EIThe meaning "shore" in Ety/386 should actually read "shoe", see VT/Errata and Lambengolmor/735. Compare also with Early Qenya hyapa (PE/13:41) and Gnomish habin (PE/11:47), both glossed as "shoe"

shoreesgar N. [ˈɛsgɑr] n. Geog. shore ◇ VT/46:14falas S., N. [fˈɑlɑs] pl. feles N. n. 1. Geog. beach, wave-beaten shore, line of surf ○ 2. Geog. as a proper noun, the western coast of Beleriand ◇ Ety/381, S/431, RC/18, X/EIfalathren S., N. [fɑlˈɑθrɛn] n. and adj. 1. of the shore ○ 2. Ling. as a noun, Shore-language (one of the names for Common Speech) ◇ Ety/381, PM/32, PM/55faur N. [fˈɑur] n. Geog. beach, shore ◇ VT/46:15

shortestent S. [ˈɛstɛnt] adj. (very?) short ◇ UT/146, WJ/311, WJ/315The slash sign in minlamad thent/estent might indicate either variant forms of an adjective, or a sequence of two short verse units, possibly of alliterating half-lines, see Tolkien's Legendarium p. 122then S. [θˈɛn] adj. short ◇ VT/42:29thent S., N. [θˈɛnt] adj. short ◇ Ety/388, UT/146, WJ/311, WJ/315

shortnessthinnas N. [θˈinnɑs] n. abst. of thent, Ling. lit. "shortness" (name of a mark indicating short quality of vowel) ◇ Ety/388

shoutcan- S. [kˈɑn] v. to cry out, shout, call ◇ PM/361-362

shoutingglam S. [glˈɑm] (glamm S., N., glamb S., N.) n. 1. barbarous speech, shouting, confused noise ○ 2. din, uproar, the confused yelling and bellowing of beasts ○ 3. Pop. by ext., as a coll. noun, any body of Orcs ◇ Ety/358, Ety/377, WJ/390, WJ/416

shudder*gir- N. [gˈir] inf. giri N. [gˈiri] v. to shudder ◇ Ety/358

shudderinggirith S., N. [gˈiriθ] n. shuddering, horror ◇ Ety/358, S/431

sickcaeleb N. [kˈɑɛlɛb] adj. bedridden, sick ◇ Ety/363thlaew N. (thloew N., flaew N.) adj. sickly, sick, ill ◇ Ety/386, X/OE, X/LH

sicklecerch N. [kˈɛrx] n. sickle ◇ Ety/365

sicklygem N. [gˈɛm] (gemb N.) adj. sickly ◇ Ety/358thlaew N. (thloew N., flaew N.) adj. sickly, sick, ill ◇ Ety/386, X/OE, X/LH

sicknesscael N. [kˈɑɛl] n. lying in bed, sickness ◇ Ety/363fliw N. (thliw N.) n. sickness ◇ Ety/386, X/LHpaw N. [pˈɑw] n. sickness ◇ Ety/366

sideforvo S. [fˈɔrvɔ] n. 1. right hand ○ 2. by ext., right side ◇ VT/47:6harvo S. [hˈɑrvɔ] n. 1. left hand ○ 2. by ext., left side ◇ VT/47:6nef S. [nɛv] prep. on this side of ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

sight*cened N. [kˈɛnɛd] ger. of cen-, seeing, sight ← cenedril TI/184

signandaith S. [ˈɑndɑjθ] (andeith N.) n. Ling. long-mark, sign used in writing alphabetic tengwar over a vowel, to indicate that it is lengthened. ◇ LotR/E, Ety/391, X/EIgammas N. [gˈɑmmɑs] n. abst. of gamp, Ling. s-sign (special sign used to mark a final -s in Tengwar) ◇ VT/45:14gasdil N. [gˈɑsdil̡] n. Ling. "stopgap", name of a diacritic sign used to indicate that g had been lenited to zero ◇ Ety/354, Ety/357*taen III S. [tˈɑɛn] n. sign ← Taengyl, Tengyl MR/385têw S. [tˈɛːw] pl. tîw S., N. [tˈiːw] n. Ling. letter, written sign ◇ Ety/391, WJ/396, LotR/II:IV, LotR/E, Letters/427

silencedîn I S. [dˈiːn] n. silence ◇ S/430, LB/354Adjectival use seems to be attested in several place names (Amon Dín "Silent Hill", etc.), though an adjective dínen I is also attested (Rath Dínen "Silent Street"). When compared with other toponyms where lenition does occur (Taur-na-Chardhîn "Forest of the Southern Silence" in WJ/185,193 and Dor Dhínen in WJ/333,338), the forms dîn and dínen clearly seem to be unmutated. Absence of lenition in these examples from LotR was therefore tentatively explained by resistance to mutation (as in Nan Tathren, Ered Mithrin). However, Tolkien apparently changed his mind in his unfinished index of names from LotR, where he explains both words as mutated adjectives whose unlenited forms are respectively tîn II and tínen. Such hesitations between mutated and unmutated forms is not unusual, for instance a similar issue is met with gaear and aear. Of course, Taur-na-Chardhîn and Dor Dhínen would hardly be explainable in that alternate scenario

silentdínen I S. [dˈiːnɛn] adj. silent ◇ S/430, WJ/194See also dîn I for a discussion regarding this wordtîn II S. [tˈiːn] adj. silent, quiet ◇ RC/551See also dîn I for a discussion regarding this wordtínen S. [tˈiːnɛn] adj. silent ◇ RC/551See also dîn I for a discussion regarding this word

silmarilgolovir N. [gˈɔlɔvir] (golodhvir N.) n. Theo. Silmaril ◇ Ety/373mirion N. [mˈiri.ɔn] pl. miruin N. [mˈirujn] n. augm. of mîr, Theo. great jewel, Silmaril ◇ Ety/373silevril N. [silɛvril̡] n. Theo. Silmaril ◇ Ety/373

silverceleb S., N. [kˈɛlɛb] n. silver ◇ Ety/367, S/429, LotR/E, Letters/426celebren N. [kɛlˈɛbrɛn] pl. celebrin S. [kɛlˈɛbrin] adj. like silver (in hue or worth) ◇ Ety/367, S/429, VT/45:25celevon N. [kˈɛlɛvn̩] (celefn N.) adj. of silver ◇ Ety/367ithildin S. [iθˈil̡din] n. a silver-colored substance, which mirrors only starlight and moonlight ◇ LotR/II:IVmithril S. [mˈiθril̡] n. true-silver, a silver-like metal ◇ LotR

simbelmynëuilos S. [ˈujlɔs] n. and adj. 1. always white, ever white as snow ○ 2. Bot. as a noun, a small white everlasting flower also called simbelmynë or "evermind" ◇ RGEO/74, Letters/278, UT/55

sin*úgarth S. [ˈuːgɑrθ] pl. úgerth S. [ˈuːgɛrθ] n. bad deed, sin, trespass ◇ VT/44:21,28

sinew N. [tˈuː] n. muscle, sinew, vigour, physical strength ◇ Ety/394

singglir- N. [glˈir] inf. gliri N. [glˈiri] v. to sing, trill, to recite a poem ◇ Ety/359, Ety/369, VT/45:15The form glin in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:15*linna- S. [lˈinnɑ] v. to sing ← linnathon LotR/II:Ilinnathon S. [lˈinnɑθɔn] v. fut. 1st of linna-, I will sing, I will chant ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72linnon S. [lˈinnɔn] v. pres. 1st of linna-, I sing ◇ LB/354*liria- N. [lˈiri.ɑ] inf. lirio N. [lˈiri.ɔ] v. to sing ◇ VT/45:28

singleer S. [ɛr] adj. single ◇ VT/48:6erui S. [ˈɛruj] adj. 1. single, alone ○ 2. by ext., first (incorrect use by the Gondorians) ◇ TI/312, WR/436, VT/42:10The proper word for first in Sindarin was minuiminei N. adj. single, distinct, unique ◇ Ety/373, X/EI

sistergwathel N. [gwˈɑθɛl̡] pl. gwethil N. [gwˈɛθil̡] n. f. sister, associate ◇ Ety/392muinthel N. [mˈujnθɛl̡] pl. muinthil N. [mˈujnθil̡] n. f. sister ◇ Ety/392neth II S. [nˈɛθ] n. f. 1. hypo. of nîth II sister ○ 2. girl (in her teens, approaching the adult) ◇ VT/47:14-16,33, VT/48:6nethig S. [nˈɛθig] n. f. dim. of neth II, 1. "litte sister" ○ 2. Biol. ring finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/47:14, VT/47:38-39, VT/48:6,17First given in the manuscript as netheg in VT/47:14-15, but see especially VT/48:17 n. 13 for discussionnîth II S. [nˈiːθ] n. f. sister ◇ VT/47:14thêl N. [θˈɛːl] pl. thelei N. n. f. sister ◇ Ety/392

sithaf- N. [hˈɑv] pa. t. hamp N. [hˈɑmp] (hafant N.) v. to sit ◇ VT/45:20

sixeneg S., N. [ˈɛnɛg] adj. num. card. six ◇ Ety/356, VT/42:25,31, VT/48:6,8

sixthenchui S. [ˈɛnxuj] (enegui S., Arch. encui S.) adj. num. ord. sixth ◇ VT/42:10,25,28enecthui S. [ɛnˈɛkθuj] adj. num. ord. sixth ◇ VT/42:25

skillcuru N. [kˈuru] (curw N.) n. craft, skill ◇ Ety/366, X/W

skilledmaed II S. [mˈɑɛd] (moed N.) adj. handy, skilled, skilful ◇ Ety/371, VT/47:6, X/OEmaen N. [mˈɑɛn] adj. skilled, clever ◇ Ety/371

skin*flâd S. [flˈɑːd] n. Biol. skin ← Fladrif LotR/E, TC/169, TC/173

skymenel S. [mˈɛnɛl̡] n. sky, high heaven, firmament, the region of the stars ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, LB/354, RGEO/72, VT/44:21,23-24

slaindangen N. [dˈɑŋgɛn] pp. of dag-, slain ◇ Ety/375

slant*atlanna- N. inf. atlanno N. v. to slope, slant ◇ Ety/390, X/TLpenna- S. [pˈɛnnɑ] v. to slant down ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

slantingatlant N. adj. oblique, slanting ◇ Ety/390, X/TL

slavemûl N. [mˈuːl] n. slave, thrall ◇ Ety/373

slay*dag- N. [dˈɑg] inf. degi N. [dˈɛgi] pa. t. danc N. [dˈɑŋk] (degant N.) v. to slay ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37

slayerdagnir S. [dˈɑgnir] n. 1. slayer ○ 2. by ext., bane ◇ S/430

slender*fim S. [fˈim] adj. slim, slender ← Fimbrethil LotR/Indexninn N. adj. slender ◇ Ety/378, X/ND1thlind N. (thlinn N.) adj. fine, slender ◇ Ety/386, X/LH, X/ND1trîw N. [trˈiːw] adj. fine, slender ◇ Ety/392

slim*fim S. [fˈim] adj. slim, slender ← Fimbrethil LotR/Index

slinghadlath N. [hˈɑdlɑθ] (haglath N.) n. Mil. sling ◇ Ety/363, Ety/368, X/TL

slippingtalt N. [tˈɑlt] adj. slipping, falling, insecure ◇ Ety/390

slope*atlanna- N. inf. atlanno N. v. to slope, slant ◇ Ety/390, X/TLpend N. [pˈɛnd] (penn S., N.) pl. *pind N. [pˈind] (pinn N.) n. declivity, slope ◇ Ety/380, RC/525, X/ND1talad N. [tˈɑlɑd] n. an incline, slope ◇ Ety/390

slopingatland N. adj. sloping, tilted ◇ Ety/390, X/TL, X/ND4

slotrhein II N. (rhœin N.) n. slot, spoor, track, footprint ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

smallmîw N. [mˈiːw] adj. small, tiny, frail ◇ VT/45:35niben S. [nˈibɛn] pl. nibin S. [nˈibin] adj. 1. small, petty ○ 2. Biol. as a noun, little finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ S/435, WJ/388, WJ/408, VT/48:6nimp II S. [nˈimp] adj. small and frail ◇ VT/48:18

smellthost N. [θˈɔst] n. smell ◇ VT/46:19

smith*mírdan S. [mˈiːrdɑn] pl. mírdain S. [mˈiːrdɑjn] n. jewel-smith ◇ S/401

smokeosp N. [ˈɔsp] n. reek, smoke ◇ Ety/396

smoothparan S. [pˈɑrɑn] adj. smooth, shaven (often applied to hills without trees) ← Dol Baran RC/433path N. [pˈɑθ] adj. smooth ◇ Ety/380

snakelhûg S., N. [ɬˈuːg] n. Zool. snake, serpent ◇ Ety/370, S/434lŷg (corr. lyg) S. [lˈyːg] n. Zool. snake ◇ LotR/E

snatch*rhitha- N. inf. rhitho N. v. to jerk, twitch, snatch ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

snoutbund N. [bˈund] (bunn N.) n. 1. Biol. snout, nose ○ 2. Geog. by ext., cape (of land) ◇ Ety/372, X/ND2

snowgloss S., N. [glˈɔss] adj. snow-white, dazzling-white ◇ Ety/359, RGEO/70, VT/42:18loss S. [lˈɔss] n. snow (especially fallen or long-lying snow) ◇ S/434, VT/42:18, RGEO/70

snowdropnínim N. [nˈiːnim] n. Bot. snowdrop (flower) ◇ Ety/367niphredil S. [nˈifrɛdil̡] (nifredil N.) n. Bot. a pale winter flower, snowdrop ◇ Ety/376, Ety/378, LotR/II:VI, Letters/402, X/PH

snowthornaeglos S. [ˈɑɛglɔs] n. 1. Bot. snowthorn, a plant like furze (gorse), but larger and with white flowers ○ 2. Geol. icicle (a pendent spear of ice formed by the freezing of dripping water) ◇ UT/417, LotR/Index

snowylossen S. [lˈɔssɛn] adj. snowy ◇ RGEO/70

soapglûdh N. [glˈuːð] n. soap ◇ Ety/369

sockettaew N. [tˈɑɛw] n. holder, socket, hasp, clasp, staple ◇ Ety/390, VT/46:17

softmoe N. [mˈɔɛ] adj. soft ◇ Ety/371

soilcef N. [kˈɛv] pl. ceif N. [kˈɛjv] n. soil ◇ Ety/363*gwatha- N. [gwˈɑθɑ] inf. gwatho N. [gwˈɑθɔ] v. to soil, stain ◇ Ety/397maw II N. [mˈɑw] (hmaw N.) n. soil, stain ◇ Ety/386, VT/46:14

soiledgwaur N. [gwˈɑur] adj. soiled, dirty ◇ Ety/397

soldierdaug N. [dˈɑug] n. warrior, soldier (chiefly used of Orcs) ◇ Ety/375

soletellen N. [tˈɛl̡lɛn] (tellein N., tellœin N.) n. Biol. sole of foot ◇ Ety/384, Ety/390, VT/46:12

sombredûr S., N. [dˈuːr] pl. duir S. [dˈujr] adj. dark, sombre ◇ Ety/354, S/430, UT/434

somebodypen II S. [pɛn] pron. one, somebody, anybody ◇ WJ/376Usually enclitic and mutated as ben II

sonion S. [jˈɔn] (ionn N.) n. m. 1. son ○ 2. by ext., scion, male descendant ◇ Ety/400, MR/373, X/ND1, X/ND2For the second meaning, cf. Hadorion, a Húrin's epithet in WJ/294, Hurinionath referring to the house of Húrin the Steward in PM/202-3,218, and Gil-Galad's epithet Ereinion, cf. also the gloss of the old Qenya cognate yondo "descendant of" in PE/12:106, or the use of the same suffix in later Quenya names such as Isildurioni and Anárioni "Heirs of Isildur (resp. Anárion)" in PM/192,196iôn S. [jˈɔːn] n. son ◇ WJ/337ionnath S. [jˈɔnnɑθ] n. coll. of ion, all the sons ◇ SD/129-31

songaerlinn S. [ˈɑɛrlinn] n. (unknown meaning, perhaps a song about the sea, or possibly holy song) ◇ RGEO/70, X/ND4glîr N. [glˈiːr] n. song, poem, lay ◇ Ety/359laer II S. [lˈɑɛr] (lhaer N.) n. song, long lay ← Laer Cú Beleg S/406, VT/45:28, X/LHlhîr II N. n. song, poem, lay ◇ VT/45:28, X/LH

sorcerygûl S., N. [gˈuːl] n. 1. magic lore, long study (being used mostly of secret knowledge, especially such as possessed by artificers who made wonderful things) ○ 2. by ext., perverted or evil knowledge, sorcery, necromancy ◇ Ety/377, S/432, MR/350, WJ/383guldur S. [gˈuldur] n. (dark) sorcery ◈ morgul S. [mˈɔrgul] n. black arts, sorcery, necromancy ◇ Ety/377, S/432, WJ/383, MR/350, RC/482

soundnella- N. [nˈɛl̡lɑ] v. to sound (of bells) ◇ Ety/379, VT/46:7rhomru N. n. sound of horns ◇ Ety/384, X/RHrhû N. n. Arch., Poet. loud-sound, trumpet-sound ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

soupsalff N. n. broth, liquid food, soup ◇ Ety/385, VT/46:12, X/PHThe form salf in the Etymologies is a misreading, see VT/45:12

sourcecelw N. n. spring, source ◇ Ety/363, X/W

southharad S., N. [hˈɑrɑd] n. south ◇ Ety/365, S/432, LotR/E

southerndúven N. [dˈuːvɛn] pl. dúvin N. [dˈuːvin] adj. (?) southern ◇ Ety/376, VT/45:38haradren N. [hɑrˈɑdrɛn] adj. southern ◇ Ety/365harn I N. [hˈɑrn] adj. southern ◇ Ety/365

southernersharadrim S. [hɑrˈɑdrim] n. class pl. of harad, Pop. southerners, "Southrons" ◇ LotR

sow*rhedh- N. inf. rhedhi N. v. to sow ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

spacelhand II N. adj. open space, level ◇ Ety/368, X/LH, X/ND1pathw N. n. level space, sward ◇ Ety/380, X/W

sparkgeil N. [gˈɛjl] pl. gîl N. n. Astron. star, bright spark ◇ Ety/358, VT/45:15gil S. [gˈil] Astron. star, bright spark ◇ LotR/E, S/431, RGEO/73In The Etymologies (Ety/358, corrected by VT/45:15), this word was given as geil, plural gîl. However, later in LotR/E and RGEO/73, Tolkien seems to consider gil as a singular (with no hints in the sources of what the plural would be, besides the collective plural giliath)gildin N. [gˈil̡din] n. silver spark ◇ Ety/393tint N. [tˈint] n. spark ◇ Ety/393tinw N. n. Astron. spark, small star ◇ Ety/393, X/W

sparklinglim II S. [lˈim] adj. clear, sparkling, light ◇ WJ/337míriel S. [mˈiːri.ɛl̡] part. sparkling like a jewel ◇ RGEO/64, LotR/II:I

speak*ped- S. [pˈɛd] pa. t. *pent S. [pˈɛnt] v. to speak, to say ← pedo, arphent LotR/II:IV, TL/21:09pedo S. [pˈɛdɔ] v. imp. of ped-, speak! say! ◇ LotR/II:IV, Letters/424

spearecthel N. [ˈɛkθɛl̡] (egthel N.) n. point (of spear) ◇ Ety/388hador S., N. [hˈɑdr̩] n. Mil. thrower (of spears and darts) ◇ Ety/363, WJ/234hadron N. [hˈɑdrɔn] n. m. Mil. thrower (of spears and darts) ◇ Ety/363thela N. [θˈɛlɑ] n. point (of spear) ◇ Ety/388

spearheadnaith S., N. [nˈɑjθ] pl. natsai N. [nˈɑtsɑj] n. any formation or projection tapering to a point: a spearhead, triangle gore, wedge, narrow promontory ◇ Ety/387, UT/282, RC/307

spearpointaith N. [ˈɑjθ] n. spearpoint ◇ Ety/355

speechglam S. [glˈɑm] (glamm S., N., glamb S., N.) n. 1. barbarous speech, shouting, confused noise ○ 2. din, uproar, the confused yelling and bellowing of beasts ○ 3. Pop. by ext., as a coll. noun, any body of Orcs ◇ Ety/358, Ety/377, WJ/390, WJ/416

speedhortha- N. [hˈɔrθɑ] v. to urge on, speed ◇ Ety/364

spelllhûth N. n. spell, charm ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

spiderthling N. n. spider, spider's web, cobweb ◇ Ety/386, X/LHthlingril N. n. spider ◇ Ety/386, X/LHungol S., N. [ˈuŋgl̩] n. Zool. spider ◇ Ety/366, WR/202, LotR, RC/490

spike*caraes N. [kˈɑrɑɛs] n. jagged hedge of spikes ← Helcharaes Ety/362carag N. [kˈɑrɑg] n. spike, tooth of rock ◇ Ety/362ceber S., N. [kˈɛbɛr] pl. cebir S., N. [kˈɛbir] n. stake, spike, stone ridge ◇ Ety/363, LotR/II:VIII, S/437, RC/327

spindriftgwing S., N. [gwˈiŋ] n. 1. spindrift, flying spray ○ 2. foam (properly a flying spume or spindrift blown off wavetops) ◇ Ety/398, PM/392

spineech N. [ˈɛx] n. spine ◇ Ety/355, VT/45:12The Etymologies as published gloss this word as "spear", but the correct reading is provided in VT/45

spiritfaer S. [fˈɑɛr] n. spirit ◇ MR/349mân N. [mˈɑːn] n. departed spirit ◇ Ety/371

spit*puia- N. [pˈuj.ɑ] inf. puio N. [pˈuj.ɔ] v. to spit ◇ Ety/382

splendouraglar S., N. [ˈɑglɑr] n. glory, brilliance, splendour ◇ Ety/348, S/427, LotR/II:I, LotR/VI:IV, RGEO/73, VT/47:13claur N. [klˈɑur] n. Poet. splendour, glory ◇ Ety/362

splitthanc S., N. [θˈɑŋk] adj. cleft, split, forked ← Orthanc S/415, Ety/388

spongehwand N. [ʍˈɑnd] (chwand N., chwann N.) n. Bot. sponge, fungus ◇ Ety/388, X/ND1, X/HW

spoorrhein II N. (rhœin N.) n. slot, spoor, track, footprint ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

sporttelien N. [tˈɛli.ɛn] (teilien N.) n. sport, play ◇ Ety/395

spotpeg N. [pˈɛg] n. small spot, dot ◇ Ety/382sad S. [sˈɑd] n. limited area naturally or artificially defined, a place, spot ◇ UT/425, VT/42:19-20

spousebereth S., N. [bˈɛrɛθ] n. f. queen, spouse ◇ Ety/351, RGEO/74

spraygwing S., N. [gwˈiŋ] n. 1. spindrift, flying spray ○ 2. foam (properly a flying spume or spindrift blown off wavetops) ◇ Ety/398, PM/392

spread*pelia- N. [pˈɛli.ɑ] inf. pelio N. [pˈɛli.ɔ] v. to spread ◇ Ety/380

springcelw N. n. spring, source ◇ Ety/363, X/Wechuir S. [ˈɛxujr] n. Cal. a season, the beginning of spring ◇ LotR/D, SD/129-31eithel S., N. [ˈɛjθɛl̡] pl. eithil S. [ˈɛjθil̡] n. issue of water, spring, well ◇ Ety/363, S/430, S/433, WJ/85, TC/187ethuil S. [ˈɛθujl] n. Cal. season of spring ◇ LotR/D, SD/129-31*tuia- N. [tˈuj.ɑ] inf. tuio N. [tˈuj.ɔ] v. 1. to sprout, spring ○ 2. to swell ◇ Ety/394-395

sprout*tuia- N. [tˈuj.ɑ] inf. tuio N. [tˈuj.ɔ] v. 1. to sprout, spring ○ 2. to swell ◇ Ety/394-395tuiw N. [tˈujw] (tui N.) n. Bot. a sprout, bud ◇ Ety/395

spyethir II S. [ˈɛθir] n. spy ◇ S/379, UT/418

stabeitha- S. [ˈɛjθɑ] v. 1. to prick with a sharp point, to stab ○ 2. by ext., to treat with scorn, insult ◇ WJ/365

staingwass N. [gwˈɑss] n. stain ◇ Ety/397gwath S., N. [gwˈɑθ] n. 1. shade, shadow, dim light ○ 2. stain ◇ Ety/397, S/432*gwatha- N. [gwˈɑθɑ] inf. gwatho N. [gwˈɑθɔ] v. to soil, stain ◇ Ety/397mael N. [mˈɑɛl] (hmael N.) n. and adj. 1. stain ○ 2. stained ◇ Ety/386maw II N. [mˈɑw] (hmaw N.) n. soil, stain ◇ Ety/386, VT/46:14

stained*gwaen S. [gwˈɑɛn] adj. stained ← Agarwaen S/378mael N. [mˈɑɛl] (hmael N.) n. and adj. 1. stain ○ 2. stained ◇ Ety/386

stairwaypendrath N. [pˈɛndrɑθ] (pendrad N.) n. passage up or down slope, stairway ◇ Ety/380, X/ND3

stakeceber S., N. [kˈɛbɛr] pl. cebir S., N. [kˈɛbir] n. stake, spike, stone ridge ◇ Ety/363, LotR/II:VIII, S/437, RC/327

stalwartthala N. [θˈɑlɑ] adj. stalwart, steady, firm ◇ Ety/388tolog N. [tˈɔlɔg] adj. stalwart, trusty ◇ Ety/395

stapletaew N. [tˈɑɛw] n. holder, socket, hasp, clasp, staple ◇ Ety/390, VT/46:17

starêl S. [ˈɛːl] pl. elin S. [ˈɛlin] n. Arch., Poet. Astron. star (little used except in verses) ◇ WJ/363, MR/373, RGEO/73, Letters/281elenath S. [ˈɛlɛnɑθ] n. coll. of êl, starry host, all the host of the stars of heaven ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/73-75, WJ/363geil N. [gˈɛjl] pl. gîl N. n. Astron. star, bright spark ◇ Ety/358, VT/45:15gil S. [gˈil] Astron. star, bright spark ◇ LotR/E, S/431, RGEO/73In The Etymologies (Ety/358, corrected by VT/45:15), this word was given as geil, plural gîl. However, later in LotR/E and RGEO/73, Tolkien seems to consider gil as a singular (with no hints in the sources of what the plural would be, besides the collective plural giliath)giliath S., N. [gˈili.ɑθ] n. coll. of gil/geil, all the host of stars ◇ Ety/358, RC/232tinw N. n. Astron. spark, small star ◇ Ety/393, X/W

starlightgilgalad N. [gˈil̡.gɑlɑd] n. starlight ◇ Ety/358

starryelenath S. [ˈɛlɛnɑθ] n. coll. of êl, starry host, all the host of the stars of heaven ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/73-75, WJ/363

stay*dar- N. [dˈɑr] inf. deri N. [dˈɛri] v. to stay, wait, stop, remain ◇ Ety/353dartha- N. [dˈɑrθɑ] v. to wait, stay, last, endure, remain ◇ Ety/353, VT/45:8*dortha- N. [dˈɔrθɑ] inf. dortho N. [dˈɔrθɔ] v. to dwell, stay ◇ Ety/376

staying*avorn S. [ˈɑvɔrn] adj. staying, fast ← Baravorn Hamfast, SD/129-31

steadfasthim I N. [hˈim] adj. 1. steadfast, abiding ○ 2. as an adverb, continually ◇ Ety/364

steadythala N. [θˈɑlɑ] adj. stalwart, steady, firm ◇ Ety/388

steepbaradh N. [bˈɑrɑð] adj. steep ◇ Ety/351

stemtelch N. [tˈɛl̡x] pl. tilch N. [tˈil̡x] n. stem ◇ Ety/391

stenchangol I N. [ˈɑŋgɔl] n. stench ◇ Ety/378thû N. [θˈuː] n. stench ◇ Ety/393

sticknasta- N. [nˈɑstɑ] v. to prick, point, stick, thrust ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37*nestag- N. [nˈɛstɑg] inf. nestegi N. [nˈɛstɛgi] pa. t. nestanc N. [nˈɛstɑŋk] v. to insert, stick in ◇ Ety/388

stickyhîw N. [hˈiːw] adj. sticky, viscous ◇ Ety/364

stiffdorn S. [dˈɔrn] adj. stiff, tough ◇ WJ/413tara N. [tˈɑrɑ] (tar- N.) adj. tough, stiff ◇ Ety/390tarch S. [tˈɑrx] adj. stiff, tough ← tarch-lang RC/536tharn N. [θˈɑrn] adj. sapless, stiff, rigid, withered ◇ Ety/388

stiffnesstarias N. [tˈɑri.ɑs] n. abst. stiffness, toughness, difficulty ◇ Ety/390

stink*thosta- N. [θˈɔstɑ] inf. thosto N. [θˈɔstɔ] v. to stink ◇ VT/46:19

stirrup*talraph S. [tˈɑlrɑf] n. stirrup ← Udalraph UT/424

stoneedhelharn S. [ɛðˈɛl̡hɑrn] n. elf-stone ◇ SD/128-129gond S. [gˈɔnd] (gonn N.) n. great stone, rock ◇ Ety/359, S/431, X/ND1gondrafn N. [gˈɔndrɑvn] n. hewn stone ◇ Ety/354gondram N. [gˈɔndrɑm] n. hewn stone ◇ Ety/354*gondren S. [gˈɔndrɛn] adj. (made) of stone ← Toll-ondren TI/268, TI/287sarn S., N. [sˈɑrn] n. 1. stone (as a material) ○ 2. small stone ◇ Ety/385, S/437, UT/463, VT/42:11, RC/327Sern in UT/463 is a misprint, see VT/42:11sarnas N. [sˈɑrnɑs] n. abst. of sarn, cairn, pile of stones ◇ LR/406

stop*dar- N. [dˈɑr] inf. deri N. [dˈɛri] v. to stay, wait, stop, remain ◇ Ety/353daro S., N. [dˈɑrɔ] v. imp. of dar-, halt! stop! ◇ Ety/353, LotR/II:VIdaur S. [dˈɑur] n. 1. pause, stop ○ 2. by ext., league (about 3 miles) ◇ UT/279, UT/285*dilia- N. [dˈili.ɑ] inf. dilio N. [dˈili.ɔ] pa. t. diliant N. [dˈili.ɑnt] v. to stop up ◇ Ety/354, VT/45:9

stopgapgasdil N. [gˈɑsdil̡] n. Ling. "stopgap", name of a diacritic sign used to indicate that g had been lenited to zero ◇ Ety/354, Ety/357

stopped*tafnen S. [tˈɑvnɛn] adj. closed, blocked, stopped ← uidavnen WR/341Orthography normalized to tafnen, as in lefnui

stopperdîl N. [dˈiːl] n. stopper, stopping, stuffing ◇ Ety/354

stoppingdîl N. [dˈiːl] n. stopper, stopping, stuffing ◇ Ety/354

stormalagos N. [ˈɑlɑgɔs] n. storm of wind ◇ Ety/348

straighttaer N. [tˈɑɛr] adj. straight ◇ Ety/392, VT/46:18Written tær (with ae-ligature) in the Etymologies, rectified here according to VT/46:18 (which also lists the ligature)tîr N. [tˈiːr] adj. straight, right ◇ Ety/391

straitlond S., N. [lˈɔnd] (lonn S., N., lhonn N.) n. 1. narrow path or strait ○ 2. by ext., entrance to harbour, land-locked haven ◇ Ety/348, Ety/370, S/434, UT/450, VT/42:10, X/LH, X/ND1

stray*mista- N. [mˈistɑ] inf. misto N. [mˈistɔ] v. to stray ◇ Ety/373*rhenia- N. inf. rhenio N. v. to stray ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

strayingmistrad N. n. straying, error ◇ Ety/373, X/Z

streetostrad N. n. street ◇ Ety/383, X/Zrath S., N. [rˈɑθ] n. 1. course, riverbed ○ 2. street (in a city) ◇ Ety/383, LotR/Index, RC/523,551

strengthbellas N. [bˈɛl̡lɑs] n. abst. of belt, bodily strength ◇ Ety/352 N. [tˈuː] n. muscle, sinew, vigour, physical strength ◇ Ety/394

strokedramm N. (dramb N.) n. heavy stroke, a blow (of axe, etc.) ◇ Ety/354, X/MBhast N. [hˈɑst] n. axe-stroke ◇ Ety/389

strongbelt N. [bˈɛlt] adj. strong in body ◇ Ety/352, Tengwestie/20031207

strongholdost S., N. [ˈɔst] n. 1. city, town with wall round ○ 2. citadel, fortress or stronghold, made or strenghtened by art ◇ Ety/379, S/435, WJ/414, RC/232othrond S., N. n. fortress or city in underground caves, underground stronghold ◇ Ety/379, Ety/384, WJ/414, X/ND4

studygûl S., N. [gˈuːl] n. 1. magic lore, long study (being used mostly of secret knowledge, especially such as possessed by artificers who made wonderful things) ○ 2. by ext., perverted or evil knowledge, sorcery, necromancy ◇ Ety/377, S/432, MR/350, WJ/383

stuffingdîl N. [dˈiːl] n. stopper, stopping, stuffing ◇ Ety/354

stuntnuitha- S. [nˈujθɑ] v. to stunt, to prevent from coming to completion, stop short, not allow to continue ◇ WJ/413

stuntednaug S., N. [nˈɑug] pl. noeg S. [nˈɔɛg] n. and adj. 1. stunted, dwarf ○ 2. Pop. as a noun, a Dwarf ◇ Ety/375, WJ/388, UT/100, UT/148

sublimetaur III N. [tˈɑur] adj. mighty, vast, overwhelming, huge, awful, high, sublime ◇ Ety/395

suddenbragol S. [brˈɑgɔl] adj. sudden ◇ S/429bregol N. [brˈɛgɔl] adj. violent, sudden, fierce ◇ Ety/352, Ety/373

suddennessbreged N. [brˈɛgɛd] n. violence, suddenness ◇ Ety/352

sufficefeira- N. [fˈɛjrɑ] v. to suffice ◇ VT/46:9

sufficientfar N. [fˈɑr] adj. or adv. sufficient, enough, quite ◇ Ety/381

sumgonod- N. [gˈɔnɔd] v. to count, count up, reckon, sum up ◇ Ety/378, Ety/399, VT/46:6

summerlaer I S. [lˈɑɛr] n. Cal. season of summer ◇ LotR/D

summittaen I N. [tˈɑɛn] n. height, summit of high mountain ◇ Ety/389

summon*toltha- N. [tˈɔlθɑ] inf. toltho N. [tˈɔlθɔ] v. to fetch, summon, make come ◇ Ety/395

sunAnor S., N. [ˈɑnɔr] n. Astron. sun ◇ Ety/348, RC/232

sunlightaur S., N. [ˈɑur] n. day, sunlight, morning ◇ Ety/349, S/439glawar N. [glˈɑwɑr] n. Theo. sunlight, radiance (of the golden tree Laurelin) ◇ Ety/368, VT/45:15

sunnynórui S. [nˈɔːruj] n. and adj. 1. sunny, fiery ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of june ◇ LotR/D

sunsetannûn S., N. [ˈɑnnuːn] n. west, sunset ◇ Ety/376, S/428, LotR/VI:IV, LotR/E, LB/354, Letters/308

superiororchal S., N. [ˈɔrxl̩] (orchall N., orchel N.) adj. 1. superior, lofty, eminent ○ 2. tall ◇ Ety/363, Ety/379, WJ/305In his article Probable errors in the Etymologies, Helge Fauskanger lists orchel as a misreading, following Christopher Tolkien's note admitting that the e is uncertain. However, though orchal is attested in WJ/305, it does not necessarily mean that the form orchel is incorrect. It might be constructed by analogy with words such as hathol "axe" (from WJ/234 and the name of a Númenórean, Hatholdir, UT:444), which is also found as hathal (in Hathaldir, name of a companion of Barahir, LR/433, untranslated but conceivably cognate) and hathel (LR/389). Without entering into the details, such words end with a syllabic consonant (as in English "people"), and several vocalizations are apparently possible in Sindarin. The epenthetical vowel is generally o, but it seems that a or e are also allowed. Regarding orchal, its origin is of course different, as it is a compound word where the second element clearly derives from KHAL, but it may have been assimilated, later, to this class of words by analogy. We may therefore consider that orchel is a perfectly valid dialectal variant

supporttulu N. [tˈulu] n. support, prop ◇ Ety/395

surfacepalath N. [pˈɑlɑθ] n. surface ◇ Ety/380talath S. [tˈɑlɑθ] (dalath N.) n. 1. flat surface, plane ○ 2. Geog. flat land, plain, (wide) valley ← Talath Dirnen UT/465, Ety/353, S/437

survival*bronad N. [brˈɔnɑd] ger. of brona-, survival ← bronadui Ety/353

survive*brona- N. [brˈɔnɑ] inf. brono N. [brˈɔnɔ] v. to last, to survive ◇ Ety/353

swallowtuilinn N. [tˈujlinn] (tuilind N., tuilin N.) n. Orn. swallow (bird) ◇ Ety/395, X/ND4

swampedloen S. [lˈɔɛn] adj. soaking wet, swamped ◇ VT/42:10

swanalph S. [ˈɑlf] (alf N.) pl. eilph S. [ˈɛjlf] n. Orn. swan ◇ Ety/348, S/427, LotR/E, VT/42:6-7, X/PH

swardparth S. [pˈɑrθ] n. Geog. field, enclosed grassland, sward ◇ UT/260, PM/330, RC/349pathw N. n. level space, sward ◇ Ety/380, X/Wsâdh S. [sˈɑːð] n. Bot. sward, turf ◇ VT/42:20

swartbaran I S., N. [bˈɑrɑn] adj. brown, swart, dark brown, golden brown, yellow brown ◇ Ety/351, LotR/F, TC/179, RC/343donn II N. [dˈɔnn] adj. swart, swarthy ◇ Ety/355, X/ND1

swarthydonn II N. [dˈɔnn] adj. swart, swarthy ◇ Ety/355, X/ND1

swear*gwesta- N. [gwˈɛstɑ] inf. gwesto N. [gwˈɛstɔ] v. to swear ◇ Ety/397

sweetlhend N. adj. tuneful, sweet ◇ Ety/369, X/LH, X/ND1melui S. [mˈɛluj] adj. lovely, sweet ◇ LotR/V:VIII, VT/42:18, RC/582This word only occurs in the place name Imloth Melui, a vale where roses grew

swell*tuia- N. [tˈuj.ɑ] inf. tuio N. [tˈuj.ɔ] v. 1. to sprout, spring ○ 2. to swell ◇ Ety/394-395

swiftceleg S., N. [kˈɛlɛg] adj. swift, agile, hasty ◇ Ety/366, PM/353, VT/41:10lhagr N. pl. lhegrin N. adj. swift, rapid ◇ Ety/367, VT/45:25, Tengwestie/20050318, X/LHThe form lhegin in the published Etymologies might be a misreading for lhegrin, see VT/45:25. As noted by Bertrand Bellet, the two forms are listed side by side, and they may simply be doublets, but it is also possible that we have here a singular followed by its plural.

swiftlylim I S. [lˈim] adv. swift, swiftly ← noro lim LotR/I:XII, RS/196, RC/195Untranslated in LotR, but written nora-lim and rendered as "ride on" in RS/196 (not a literal translation) and later translated as "run swift" in RC/195. Before the latter was published (confirming the exact translation of this adverb), Helios de Rosario Martinez had provided a thorough analysis of this word in his article "Musings on Limlight" (Tengwestie/20050107)

swoopingthôr II N. [θˈɔːr] adj. swooping, leaping down ◇ Ety/393

swordcrist N. [krˈist] n. Mil. cleaver, sword ◇ Ety/365lhang N. n. Mil. cutlass, sword ◇ Ety/367, X/LHmagol N. [mˈɑgl̩] (magl N.) n. Mil. sword ◇ Ety/371The word megil (q.v.), probably introduced by the Ñoldor, was also usedmegil S., N. [mˈɛgil̡] n. Mil. sword ◇ Ety/371The word was struck out in the Etymologies, but is well attested in late compounds such as Mormegil or Arvegil (with regular mutation). It is conceivably the Sindarinized form of Quenya makil, coexisting with magol (see tegil and tegol for a similar case)

swordsmanmagor S. [mˈɑgr̩] n. Mil. swordsman ← Menelvagor LotR/E, WJ/234

syruppeich N. n. juice, syrup ◇ Ety/382, X/EI

T

talegwanod N. [gwˈɑnɔd] n. tale, number ◇ Ety/378narn S., N. [nˈɑrn] pl. nern S. [nˈɛrn] n. a tale or a saga, that is told in verse to be spoken and not sung ◇ Ety/374, WJ/313, MR/373, S/412pent II N. [pˈɛnt] n. tale ◇ Ety/366sinnarn N. [sˈinnɑrn] n. novel tale ◇ Ety/385trenarn N. [trˈɛnɑrn] n. account, tale ◇ Ety/374

tallorchal S., N. [ˈɔrxl̩] (orchall N., orchel N.) adj. 1. superior, lofty, eminent ○ 2. tall ◇ Ety/363, Ety/379, WJ/305In his article Probable errors in the Etymologies, Helge Fauskanger lists orchel as a misreading, following Christopher Tolkien's note admitting that the e is uncertain. However, though orchal is attested in WJ/305, it does not necessarily mean that the form orchel is incorrect. It might be constructed by analogy with words such as hathol "axe" (from WJ/234 and the name of a Númenórean, Hatholdir, UT:444), which is also found as hathal (in Hathaldir, name of a companion of Barahir, LR/433, untranslated but conceivably cognate) and hathel (LR/389). Without entering into the details, such words end with a syllabic consonant (as in English "people"), and several vocalizations are apparently possible in Sindarin. The epenthetical vowel is generally o, but it seems that a or e are also allowed. Regarding orchal, its origin is of course different, as it is a compound word where the second element clearly derives from KHAL, but it may have been assimilated, later, to this class of words by analogy. We may therefore consider that orchel is a perfectly valid dialectal varianttond N. [tˈɔnd] (tonn N.) adj. tall ◇ Ety/395, X/ND1

tangled*remmen S. [rˈɛmmɛn] pl. remmin S. [rˈɛmmin] pp. woven, netted, tangled ← galadhremmin LotR/E, LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

tasktass N. [tˈɑss] (tars N.) n. labour, task ◇ Ety/391

tauttong N. [tˈɔŋ] adj. taut, tight (of strings), resonant ◇ Ety/394

tearnîn II N. [nˈiːn] n. tear ◇ Ety/376nîr N. [nˈiːr] n. tear, weeping ◇ Ety/376

tearfulnîd N. [nˈiːd] adj. damp, wet, tearful ◇ Ety/376níniel (corr. niniel) N. [nˈiːni.ɛl̡] adj. tearful ◇ Ety/376

tell*nara- N. [nˈɑrɑ] inf. naro N. [nˈɑrɔ] pa. t. narante N. [nɑrˈɑntɛ] v. Arch., Poet. to tell ◇ Ety/374, VT/45:36*trenar- N. [trˈɛnɑr] inf. treneri N. [trˈɛnɛri] pa. t. trenor N. [trˈɛnɔr] (trener N.) v. to recount, to tell to end ◇ Ety/374

temptationúthaes S. [ˈuːθɑɛs] n. inducement to do wrong, temptation ◇ VT/44:30

tencae S. [kˈɑɛ] (caen- S.) adj. num. card. ten ◇ PE/17:95caer N. [kˈɑɛr] adj. num. card. ten ◇ Ety/363pae S. [pˈɑɛ] adj. num. card. ten ◇ VT/42:25, VT/48:6

tenth*caenen S. [kˈɑɛnɛn] adj. num. ord. tenth ← nelchaenen SD/129-131caenui S. [kˈɑɛnuj] adj. num. ord. tenth ◇ VT/42:10paenui S. [pˈɑɛnuj] adj. num. ord. tenth ◇ VT/42:25

terrifygruitha- S. [grˈujθɑ] v. to terrify ◇ WJ/415

terrifyinggoeol S. [gˈɔɛ.ɔl] adj. dreadful, terrifying ◇ PM/363

terrorgoe S. [gˈɔɛ] n. terror, great fear ◇ PM/363gorgor S. [gˈɔrgɔr] n. extreme horror, terror, haunting fear ◇ WJ/415, RC/334-335groga- S. [grˈɔgɑ] v. to feel terror ◇ WJ/415

thatchtaus N. [tˈɑus] n. thatch ◇ Ety/395

thei S., N. [i] pl. in S., N. [in] art. and pron. rel. 1. the ○ 2. who ◇ Ety/361, SD/129-31, Letters/308, Letters/417

theele S. [lɛ] pron. 2nd to thee (reverential) ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-73, Letters/278, LB/354

them*ti S. [ti] pron. them ← i gohenam di ai VT/44:21,30

thereennas S. [ˈɛnnɑs] adv. there, in that place ◇ SD/129-31

thicktûg N. [tˈuːg] adj. thick, fat ◇ Ety/394

thintaen II N. [tˈɑɛn] adj. long (and thin) ◇ Ety/391thlein N. pl. thlîn N. adj. lean, thin, meagre ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

thingbach N. [bˈɑx] n. article (for exchange), ware, thing ◇ Ety/372nad N. [nˈɑd] n. thing ◇ Ety/374

thirdnail S. [nˈɑjl] (neil S.) adj. num. ord. third ◇ VT/42:25neleg II S. [nˈɛlɛg] adj. num. ord. third ◇ VT/42:10nelui S. [nˈɛluj] adj. num. ord. third ◇ VT/42:25

thirstyfaug N. [fˈɑug] adj. thirsty ◇ Ety/381

thirtiethnelchaenen S. [nɛl̡xˈɑɛnɛn] adj. num. ord. thirtieth ◇ SD/129-131

this*sen S. [sɛn] pl. *sin S. [sin] adj. dem. this ← i thiw hin LotR/II:IVThis demonstrative adjective is probably enclitic. We have suggested that this possibility could perhaps explain why the mutated form of tîw on the Doors of Durin is thiw instead of the expected thîw, see HL/69

thonglhath N. n. (?) thong of leather ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

thornêg N. [ˈɛːg] n. thorn ◇ Ety/355ereg S., N. [ˈɛrɛg] pl. erig N. [ˈɛrig] n. Bot. holly-tree, thorn ◇ Ety/356, S/431

thoughtind N. [ˈind] (inn N.) n. inner thought, meaning, heart ◇ Ety/361, X/ND1nauth N. [nˈɑuθ] n. thought ◇ Ety/378, VT/46:6

thoughtfulidhren N. [ˈiðrɛn] adj. pondering, wise, thoughtful ◇ Ety/361

thoughtfulnessidher N. n. thoughtfulness ◇ Ety/361, X/Z

thousand*meneg S. [mˈɛnɛg] adj. num. card. thousand ← Menegroth "thousand caves" S/409

thrallmûl N. [mˈuːl] n. slave, thrall ◇ Ety/373

threadhithlain S. [hˈiθlɑjn] n. mist-thread (a substance used by the Elves of Lothlórien to make strong ropes) ◇ LotR/II:VIII, LotR/Index*lain S. [lˈɑjn] n. thread ← hithlain LotR/II:VIII, LotR/Indexthlê N. n. fine thread, spider filament ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

threenêl II S. [nˈɛːl] adj. num. card. three ◇ VT/42:25neled S., N. [nˈɛlɛd] (neledh S., N.) adj. num. card. three ◇ Ety/376, TAI150, VT/48:6

thresholdfen S. [fˈɛn] (fend N., fenn N.) n. door, threshold ◇ Ety/381, LotR/V:IV, WR/341, RC/550, X/ND1

throatlhanc N. n. Biol. throat ◇ Ety/367, X/LH

throughgodrebh N. adv. through together ◇ TAI/150tre- N. [trɛ] (tri N.) pref. through (but denoting completeness when prefixed to verbs, cf. English idioms like "talk something through") ◇ Ety/392trî N. [trˈiː] prep. through ◇ Ety/392

throwerhador S., N. [hˈɑdr̩] n. Mil. thrower (of spears and darts) ◇ Ety/363, WJ/234hadron N. [hˈɑdrɔn] n. m. Mil. thrower (of spears and darts) ◇ Ety/363

thrustnasta- N. [nˈɑstɑ] v. to prick, point, stick, thrust ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37

thumbatheg S. [ˈɑθɛg] n. m. dim. of adar, 1. "litte father" ○ 2. Biol. thumb (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,17nawb S. [nˈɑwb] n. Biol. thumb ◇ VT/48:5nobad S. [nˈɔbɑd] n. dual pl. of nawb, Biol. the pair of fingers composed of the thumb and the index (grouped together as in the act of picking something) ◇ VT/48:5,16

thylín S. [lˈiːn] (lin S.) adj. poss. 2nd thy (reverential) ◇ VT/44:21,24

tidedannen II S. [dˈɑnnɛn] n. ebb, low tide ◇ VT/48:26duinen S. [ˈdujnɛn] n. flood, high tide ◇ VT/48:26

tidingssiniath N. [sˈini.ɑθ] n. coll. news, tidings ◇ Ety/385

tidypuig N. [pˈujg] adj. clean, tidy, neat ◇ Ety/382

tienud- N. v. to tie, bind ◇ Ety/378, X/Z*taetha- N. [tˈɑɛθɑ] inf. taetho N. [tˈɑɛθɔ] v. to fasten, tie ◇ Ety/389

tighttong N. [tˈɔŋ] adj. taut, tight (of strings), resonant ◇ Ety/394

tiltedatland N. adj. sloping, tilted ◇ Ety/390, X/TL, X/ND4

timeanann S. [ˈɑnɑnn] adv. long, for a long time ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308lhû N. n. a time, occasion ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

tinymîw N. [mˈiːw] adj. small, tiny, frail ◇ VT/45:35pigen N. [pˈigɛn] adj. tiny ◇ Ety/382tithen N. [tˈiθɛn] pl. tithin N. [tˈiθin] adj. little, tiny ◇ Ety/394

toan S. [ɑn] prep. to, towards, for ◇ LotR/II:IV, UT/39, SD/129-31With suffixed article and elision in aglar'ni Pheriannathheltha- N. [hˈɛl̡θɑ] v. to strip ◇ Ety/386, VT/46:14The form helta- in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/46:14na S., N. [nɑ] prep. 1. with, by (also used as a genitive sign) ○ 2. to, towards, at ◇ Ety/374, LotR/I:XIIo I S., N. [ɔ] (od S.) prep. from, of (preposition (as a proclitic) used in either direction, from or to the point of view of the speaker) ◇ Ety/360, WJ/366, WJ/369-70, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-31, RGEO/72According to WJ/366, the preposition "is normally o in all positions, though od appears occasionally before vowels, especially before o-". With a suffixed article, see also uin

todaysír S. [sˈiːr] adv. today ◇ VT/44:21,27

togethergo- N. [gɔ] pref. together ◇ Ety/399, WJ/367godrebh N. adv. through together ◇ TAI/150gwa- S., N. [gwɑ] pref. Arch. together (only in old compounds, the living form is go-) ◇ Ety/399, WJ/367

toil*muda- N. [mˈudɑ] inf. mudo N. [mˈudɔ] pa. t. mudas N. [mˈudɑs] v. to labour, toil ◇ Ety/373

tombhaudh S., N. [hˈɑuð] n. (burial) mound, grave, tomb ◇ Ety/363-364, S/432, LotR/A(iv)

tonguelam I S. [lˈɑm] (lhamb N., lham N.) n. Biol. physical tongue ◇ Ety/367, WJ/394, X/LH

toothanc N. [ˈɑŋk] n. Biol. jaw, row of teeth ◇ Ety/348, Ety/374carach S. [kˈɑrɑx] n. Biol. jaw, row of teeth ◇ S/429, RC/607carag N. [kˈɑrɑg] n. spike, tooth of rock ◇ Ety/362carch S., N. [kˈɑrx] n. Biol. tooth, fang ◇ Ety/362, S/429naglath N. [nˈɑglɑθ] n. coll. of nagol, Biol. the teeth ◇ WR/122*nagol N. [nˈɑgl̩] n. Biol. tooth ← naglath WR/122nêl I N. [nˈɛːl] (neleg N.) pl. nelig S. [nˈɛlig] n. Biol. tooth ◇ Ety/376, WR/113, VT/46:3

topcaw N. [kˈɑw] n. top ◇ Ety/362

tormentbaul N. [bˈɑul] n. torment ◇ Ety/377

torrentoll N. [ˈɔld] (old N.) n. Geog. torrent, mountain-stream ◇ Ety/396thórod N. [θˈɔːrɔd] n. torrent ◇ Ety/393

toughdorn S. [dˈɔrn] adj. stiff, tough ◇ WJ/413tara N. [tˈɑrɑ] (tar- N.) adj. tough, stiff ◇ Ety/390tarch S. [tˈɑrx] adj. stiff, tough ← tarch-lang RC/536

toughnesstarias N. [tˈɑri.ɑs] n. abst. stiffness, toughness, difficulty ◇ Ety/390

towardsan S. [ɑn] prep. to, towards, for ◇ LotR/II:IV, UT/39, SD/129-31With suffixed article and elision in aglar'ni Pheriannathna S., N. [nɑ] prep. 1. with, by (also used as a genitive sign) ○ 2. to, towards, at ◇ Ety/374, LotR/I:XII

towerbarad II S., N. [bˈɑrɑd] pl. beraid S. [bˈɛrɑjd] n. tower, fortress ◇ Ety/351, S/428, LotR/Bminas S. [mˈinɑs] (minnas N.) n. abst. 1. tower ○ 2. by ext., fort, city with a citadel and central watch-tower ◇ Ety/373, S/434, VT/42:24mindon N. [mˈindɔn] n. 1. Geog. isolated hill, especially a hill with a watch tower ○ 2. by ext., tower ◇ Ety/373, Ety/395

towngobel N. [gˈɔbɛl̡] n. walled house or village, town ◇ Ety/380ost S., N. [ˈɔst] n. 1. city, town with wall round ○ 2. citadel, fortress or stronghold, made or strenghtened by art ◇ Ety/379, S/435, WJ/414, RC/232

trackbâd N. [bˈɑːd] n. beaten track, pathway ◇ Ety/351râd N. [rˈɑːd] n. path, track ◇ Ety/383rhein II N. (rhœin N.) n. slot, spoor, track, footprint ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

tradebanga- N. [bˈɑŋgɑ] v. to trade ◇ Ety/372

trample*batha- N. [bˈɑθɑ] inf. batho N. [bˈɑθɔ] v. to trample ◇ Ety/352

traverse*athrada- N. [ˈɑθrɑdɑ] inf. athrado N. [ˈɑθrɑdɔ] v. to cross, traverse ◇ Ety/383*trevad- N. [trˈɛvɑd] inf. trevedi N. [trˈɛvɛdi] pa. t. trevant N. [trˈɛvɑnt] v. to traverse ◇ Ety/352

treasuremîr S., N. [mˈiːr] n. jewel, precious thing, treasure ◇ Ety/373, LotR/E, S/434, PM/348, LB/354, RGEO/73

treatygowest N. [gˈɔwɛst] n. contract, compact, treaty ◇ Ety/397, Ety/399

treebrethil II S. [brˈɛθil̡] (brethel N.) pl. brethil S., N. n. Bot. beech, beech-tree, silver birch ◇ Ety/352, Ety/376, S/429ereg S., N. [ˈɛrɛg] pl. erig N. [ˈɛrig] n. Bot. holly-tree, thorn ◇ Ety/356, S/431eregdos N. [ɛrˈɛgdɔs] n. Bot. holly, holly-tree ◇ Ety/356, Ety/379, Ety/395fêr N. [fˈɛːr] pl. ferin N. [fˈɛrin] n. Bot. beech-tree ◇ Ety/352, Ety/381galadh S., N. [gˈɑlɑð] n. Bot. tree ◇ Ety/357, S/427, LotR/E, LB/354, RGEO/73, Letters/426lalf N. [lˈɑlv] pl. lelf N. [lˈɛl̡v] n. Bot. elm-tree ◇ Ety/348lalven N. [lˈɑlvɛn] pl. lelvin N. [lˈɛl̡vin] n. Bot. elm-tree ◇ Ety/348lebethron S. [lɛbˈɛθrɔn] n. Bot. a tree - its black wood was used by the woodwrights of Gondor ◇ LotR/IV:VII, LotR/VI:V, WR/176In the original manuscript, one of the earlier (rejected) form of this name was lebendron. Didier Willis proposed the etymology lebed+doron "finger-oak", actually a real tree name (Finger Oak or Quercus digitata)lhalorn N. n. Bot. elm-tree ◇ Ety/367, X/LHlhalwen N. pl. lelwin N. [lˈɛl̡win] n. Bot. elm-tree ◇ Ety/367, X/LHmallorn S. [mˈɑɬɔrn] (Arch. malhorn S., Arch. malthorn S.) pl. mellyrn S. [mˈɛl̡lyrn] n. Bot. golden tree of Lothlórien ◇ S/435, LotR/II:IV, VT/42:27, Tengwestie/20031207orn S., N. [ˈɔrn] pl. yrn N. [ˈyrn] n. Bot. (any large) tree ◇ Ety/379, S/435, Letters/426tathar S. [tˈɑθr̩] (tathor N.) n. Bot. willow-tree ◇ Ety/391, S/438thôn S. [θˈɔːn] (thaun N.) n. Bot. pine-tree ◇ Ety/392, S/438, RC/384toss N. [tˈɔss] n. Bot. bush, low-growing tree (as maple, hawthorn, blackthorn, holly, etc.) ◇ Ety/379, Ety/395tulus N. [tˈulus] pl. tylys N. [ˈtylys] n. Bot. poplar-tree ◇ Ety/395

trespass*úgarth S. [ˈuːgɑrθ] pl. úgerth S. [ˈuːgɛrθ] n. bad deed, sin, trespass ◇ VT/44:21,28

tressfîn S. [fˈiːn] (find S., finn- S.) n. a tress ◇ PM/361-362

tressurecathrae S. [kˈɑθrɑɛ] n. tressure, net for combining the hair ◇ VT/42:12

trianglenaith S., N. [nˈɑjθ] pl. natsai N. [nˈɑtsɑj] n. any formation or projection tapering to a point: a spearhead, triangle gore, wedge, narrow promontory ◇ Ety/387, UT/282, RC/307nelthil N. [nˈɛl̡θil] n. triangle ◇ Ety/376, Ety/393

trickrhinc N. n. twitch, jerk, trick, sudden move ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

trillglir- N. [glˈir] inf. gliri N. [glˈiri] v. to sing, trill, to recite a poem ◇ Ety/359, Ety/369, VT/45:15The form glin in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:15

triumphgell N. [gˈɛl̡l] n. joy, triumph ◇ Ety/359

triumphantgellui N. [gˈɛl̡luj] adj. triumphant ◇ Ety/359

trolltorog S. [tˈɔrɔg] n. Pop. Troll ◇ LotR/F

troopgwaith S., N. [gwˈɑjθ] (gweith N.) n. 1. manhood ○ 2. by ext., man power, troop of able-bodied men, host, regiment, people ○ 3. by ext., region, wilderness ◇ Ety/398, VT/46:21, X/E1herth N. [hˈɛrθ] n. Mil. household, troop under a "hîr" (master, lord) ◇ Ety/364

trothgwaedh N. [gwˈɑɛð] n. bond, troth, compact, oath ◇ Ety/397

trouble*presta- N. [prˈɛstɑ] inf. presto N. [prˈɛstɔ] v. to affect, trouble, disturb ◇ Ety/380trasta- N. [trˈɑstɑ] v. to harass, trouble ◇ Ety/391

truethand II N. [θˈɑnd] (thann N.) adj. firm, true, abiding ◇ Ety/388, VT/46:16Misreading thenid, thenin rectified according to VT/46:16

trumpetrhû N. n. Arch., Poet. loud-sound, trumpet-sound ◇ Ety/384, X/RHrom S. [rˈɔm] (rhom N.) n. horn, trumpet ◇ Ety/384, WJ/400, X/RH

trustestel S. [ˈɛstɛl̡] n. hope, trust, a temper of mind, steady fixed in purpose, and difficult to dissuade and unlikely to fall into despair or abandon its purpose ◇ WJ/318-319, LotR/A(v), MR/320

trustytolog N. [tˈɔlɔg] adj. stalwart, trusty ◇ Ety/395

tunelhind N. (lhinn N.) n. air, tune ◇ Ety/369, X/LH, X/ND1

tunefullhend N. adj. tuneful, sweet ◇ Ety/369, X/LH, X/ND1

tunnelgroth S. [grˈɔθ] n. 1. cave, tunnel, large excavation ○ 2. delving, underground dwelling ◇ WJ/415, S/431, VT/46:12

turfsâdh S. [sˈɑːð] n. Bot. sward, turf ◇ VT/42:20

twelveimp S. [ˈimp] adj. num. card. twelve ◇ PE/17:95ýneg S. [ˈyːnɛg] (yneg S., yneb S., inib S.) adj. num. card. twelve ◇ VT/47:41, VT/48:6,8,12

twilighttinnu N. [tˈinnu] (tindu N.) n. 1. dusk, twilight, early night (without Moon) ○ 2. by ext., starry twilight ◇ Ety/355, Ety/393, X/ND2uial S., N. [ˈuj.ɑl] n. twilight ◇ Ety/400, S/439, LotR/D

twingwanûn S. [gwˈɑnuːn] n. a pair of twins ◇ WJ/367gwanunig S. [gwˈɑnunig] n. sing. of gwanûn, a twin (one of a pair of twins) ◇ WJ/367gwanur N. [gwˈɑnur] n. 1. a pair of twins ○ 2. brother or kinsman, kinswoman ◇ Ety/378, Ety/392, VT/46:6, LotR/A(iv)gwenyn S. [gwˈɛnyn] n. pl. twins ◇ PM/353, PM/365

twirl*chwinia- N. inf. chwinio N. v. to twirl, whirl, eddy ◇ Ety/388

twirlingchwind N. (chwinn N.) adj. twirling, whirling ◇ Ety/388, X/ND1, X/HW

twistednorn N. [nˈɔrn] pl. nyrn S. [nˈyrn] adj. 1. twisted, knotted, crabbed, contorted ○ 2. hard ◇ Ety/387

twitchrhinc N. n. twitch, jerk, trick, sudden move ◇ Ety/383, X/RH*rhitha- N. inf. rhitho N. v. to jerk, twitch, snatch ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

twotâd S., N. [tˈɑːd] (tad S., N.) adj. num. card. two ◇ Ety/349, Ety/391, WJ/388, VT/42:25-27, VT/48:6

tyrannousbaug N. [bˈɑug] adj. tyrannous, cruel, oppressive ◇ Ety/372

tyrantbauglir N. [bˈɑuglir] n. tyrant, oppressor ◇ Ety/372

U

underdi- S. [di] pref. beneath, under ← di-nguruthos LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278, VT/45:37The only known usage of this word is as prefix, but VT/45:37 lists it as a unitary word dinu S., N. [nu] (no N.) prep. under ◇ Ety/378, etc.With suffixed article, see also nuinnuin S., N. [nujn] prep. under the ◇ Ety/378, etc.

understand*henia- N. [hˈɛni.ɑ] inf. henio N. [hˈɛni.ɔ] v. to understand ◇ Ety/363

understandinghannas N. [hˈɑnnɑs] n. abst. of hand, understanding, intelligence ◇ Ety/363heniad N. [hˈɛni.ɑd] ger. of henia-, understanding, intelligence ◇ VT/45:21

union*erthad S. [ˈɛrθɑd] ger. of ertha-, union, uniting ← Aderthad S/409

uniqueminei N. adj. single, distinct, unique ◇ Ety/373, X/EI

unite*ertha- S. [ˈɛrθɑ] v. to unite ← Aderthad S/409

uniting*erthad S. [ˈɛrθɑd] ger. of ertha-, union, uniting ← Aderthad S/409

unquenchableuluithiad S. [ulˈujθi.ɑd] adj. unquenchable, without quenching ◇ SD/62

untamedrhaw III N. [ɹ̥ˈɑw] adj. wild, untamed ◇ Ety/382, X/RH, VT/46:10Meaning rectified according to VT/46:10

upam N. [ɑm] prep. up, upwards, upon ◇ Ety/348

uphillambenn N. [ˈɑmbɛnn] (ambend N., amben N.) adv. uphill, sloping upwards ◇ Ety/348, Ety/380, X/ND3, X/ND4

uponam N. [ɑm] prep. up, upwards, upon ◇ Ety/348

uproarglam S. [glˈɑm] (glamm S., N., glamb S., N.) n. 1. barbarous speech, shouting, confused noise ○ 2. din, uproar, the confused yelling and bellowing of beasts ○ 3. Pop. by ext., as a coll. noun, any body of Orcs ◇ Ety/358, Ety/377, WJ/390, WJ/416

upwardsam N. [ɑm] prep. up, upwards, upon ◇ Ety/348ambenn N. [ˈɑmbɛnn] (ambend N., amben N.) adv. uphill, sloping upwards ◇ Ety/348, Ety/380, X/ND3, X/ND4

urgehortha- N. [hˈɔrθɑ] v. to urge on, speed ◇ Ety/364

usammen S. [ˈɑmmɛn] pron. 1st pl. of us, for us, toward us ◇ LotR/II:IV, LB/354, VT/44:21,27men I S., N. [mˈɛn] pron. 1st pl. us ← ammen LotR/II:IV, LB/354, tiro men VT/45:37mín I S. [mˈiːn] pron. us ◇ VT/44:21,28

useiuith N. [jˈujθ] n. use ◇ Ety/400*iuitha- N. [jˈujθɑ] inf. iuitho N. [jˈujθɔ] v. to employ, to use ◇ Ety/400, VT/46:23The gloss was hardly legible and Christopher Tolkien read "to enjoy" in Ety/400, but the meaning "to employ", much more probable (Cf. iuith), was later confirmed in VT/45:23

usefulmaer N. [mˈɑɛr] adj. useful, fit, good (of things) ◇ Ety/371

V

vaguehethw N. adj. foggy, obscure, vague ◇ Ety/364, X/W

valeim II S., N. [ˈim] (imm N., imb N.) n. Arch. Geog. dell, deep vale ← imlad, imloth, imrath, imrad, VT/45:18, VT/47:14This word only survived in compounds (due to the clash with im I)

valleyimlad S., N. [ˈimlɑd] n. Geog. deep valley, narrow valley with steep sides (but a flat habitable bottom) ◇ S/433, LotR/Index, VT/45:18, VT/47:14, RC/234,482imloth S. [ˈimlɔθ] n. Geog. flower-valley, flowery vale ◇ LotR/V:VIII, VT/42:18, RC/582This word only occurs in the place name Imloth Melui, a vale where roses grewimrad S. [ˈimrɑd] n. Geog. a path or pass (between mountains, hills or trackless forest) ◇ VT/47:14imrath S. [ˈimrɑθ] n. Geog. long narrow valley with a road or watercourse running through it lengthwise ◇ UT/465, RC/558lad S. [lˈɑd] n. Geog. plain, valley ◇ S/433nan S. [nˈɑn] (nand S., N., nann N.) n. 1. Geog. wide grassland, land at foot of hills with many streams ○ 2. by ext., valley ◇ Ety/374, S/435, Letters/308, VT/45:36, X/ND1tum S., N. [tˈum] n. deep valley, under or among hills ◇ Ety/394, S/438

valourcaun III N. [kˈɑun] n. valour ◇ Ety/362*gorn II S. [gˈɔrn] n. valor ← Aragorn PM/xii

vassalbior N. (beor N.) n. follower, vassal ◇ Ety/352, X/IUbôr N. [bˈɔːr] pl. bŷr N. [bˈyːr] (berein N., beren N.) n. steadfast, trusty man, faithful vassal ◇ Ety/353

vasttaur III N. [tˈɑur] adj. mighty, vast, overwhelming, huge, awful, high, sublime ◇ Ety/395

veilesgal S. [ˈɛsgɑl] n. veil, screen, cover that hides ◇ S/431fân S. [fˈɑːn] n. 1. veil ○ 2. by ext., cloud (applied to clouds, floating as veils over the blue sky or the sun or moon, or resting on hills) ◇ RGEO/74gwathra- S. [gwˈɑθrɑ] v. to overshadow, dim, veil, obscure ◇ VT/42:9

veiledhall II N. [hˈɑll] adj. veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady ◇ Ety/386

veinrant S., N. [rˈɑnt] n. 1. lode, vein ○ 2. Geog. course, riverbed ◇ Ety/383, S/436

vengeanceacharn S. [ˈɑxɑrn] n. vengeance ◇ WJ/254, WJ/301

verseann-thennath S. [ˈɑnn.θˈɛnnɑθ] n. pl. a verse mode, lit. "long-shorts" (alternance of long and short vowels, or rather alternance of long and short verse units, possibly of masculine and feminine rhymes) ◇ LotR/I:XIThe word is not translated by Tolkien. Refer to Tolkien's Legendarium p. 115 for a discussion of its probable meaninglinnod S. [lˈinnɔd] n. 1. (?) a single verse used as a maxim ○ 2. (?) a chant of a certain metrical type, where each (half-)verse is composed of seven syllables ◇ LotR/A(iv)The word is not translated by Tolkien. The first meaning assumes that -od is a singulative affix (cf. filigod). The second meaning is proposed by Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne in Tolkien's Legendarium p. 132, based on the metrical characteristics of Gilraen's linnod

vesselcalf N. n. water-vessel ◇ Ety/362, X/PHylf S. [ˈylv] n. drinking-vessel ◇ WJ/416

victorytûr N. [tˈuːr] n. mastery, victory ◇ Ety/395

vigilancetirith S., N. [tˈiriθ] n. watch, guard (abstract noun), vigilance ◇ Ety/394, S/437, Letters/158, VT/42:11

vigourgorf N. [gˈɔrv] n. impetus, vigour ◇ Ety/359hûr N. [hˈuːr] n. readiness for action, vigour, fiery spirit ◇ Ety/364 N. [tˈuː] n. muscle, sinew, vigour, physical strength ◇ Ety/394

villagegobel N. [gˈɔbɛl̡] n. walled house or village, town ◇ Ety/380

vine*gwîn II S., N. [gwˈiːn] n. wine, vine ← Dorwinion LotR/Map, LB/11,26,17,112, LR/334,338, H/IXThe wine of Dor-Winion occurs in the Lay of the children of Húrin and a place located either in the "burning South" in the first version, or probably east of the Blue Mountains in the second. Then we have Dorwinion as a meadow-land in Tol Eressëa at the end of the Quenta Silmarillion. It reappears in The Hobbit, and was finally placed North-West of the Sea of Rhûn in the decorated map by Pauline Baynes (see HL/115-117 for discussion). The meaning of this name is unknown and has been largely discussed. What do we have indeed in this "Winion", or rather gwinion since the initial w- must come from lenition? According to Christopher Tolkien, the Lay was begun c. 1918 and was composed during his father's stay at Leeds, a date meaning that the word can be Gnomish, possibly Early Noldorin, or in an indigenous language of Beleriand. In Gnomish and later in Doriathrin and Ilkorin, there is a genitive plural ending -ion which may very well be contained in this word. Then we would segment gwin-ion "of gwin". The context calls for "wine", "vine" or something similar. It can hardly be a coincidence that gwin is precisely the Welsh word for "wine", a loan from the Latin vinum, as the English "wine" itself

violencebreged N. [brˈɛgɛd] n. violence, suddenness ◇ Ety/352

violentasgar N. [ˈɑsgɑr] (ascar N.) adj. violent, rushing, impetuous ◇ Ety/386bregol N. [brˈɛgɔl] adj. violent, sudden, fierce ◇ Ety/352, Ety/373

virginrodwen S. [rˈɔdwɛn] n. high virgin noble ◇ WJ/317

virginitygweneth N. [gwˈɛnɛθ] n. virginity ◇ Ety/398

viscoushîw N. [hˈiːw] adj. sticky, viscous ◇ Ety/364

voiceconath S. [kˈɔnɑθ] n. coll. of caun II, 1. many voices ○ 2. by ext., lamentation ◇ PM/361-362lamath S. [lˈɑmɑθ] n. coll. of lam I, echoing voices ◇ PM/349

voidcofn N. [kˈɔvn] (caun N.) adj. empty, void ◇ Ety/366gaw N. [gˈɑw] n. void ◇ Ety/358 S. [jˈɑː] (ia N.) n. 1. gulf ○ 2. abyss, void ◇ Ety/400, S/432, Letters/383

W

wain*rach I S. [rˈɑx] pl. *raich S. [rˈɑjx] n. wain ← Gondraich UT/465Since this word is attested in a compound only, its unmutated form is uncertain. It could also be *grach or *rhach

wait*dar- N. [dˈɑr] inf. deri N. [dˈɛri] v. to stay, wait, stop, remain ◇ Ety/353dartha- N. [dˈɑrθɑ] v. to wait, stay, last, endure, remain ◇ Ety/353, VT/45:8

walk*pada- S. [pˈɑdɑ] v. to walk ← Aphadon (*ap-pata), Tharbad (*thara-pata) WJ/387, S/438

wallram S. [rˈɑm] (rham N., rhamb N.) n. wall ◇ Ety/382, S/436, X/RH

wander*rhevia- N. inf. rhevio (corr. rhenio) N. v. 1. to fly, sail ○ 2. to wander ◇ Ety/382, X/RH

wandererrandír S. [rˈɑndiːr] (rhandir N.) n. m. wanderer, pilgrim ◇ Ety/383, VT/42:13, X/RH

wanderingmist N. [mˈist] n. error, wandering ◇ Ety/373rain S. [rˈɑjn] (rein S.) n. erratic wandering ◇ VT/42:13

warauth I N. [ˈɑuθ] n. war, battle ◇ Ety/365, Ety/379, VT/45:23

warebach N. [bˈɑx] n. article (for exchange), ware, thing ◇ Ety/372

warmlhaug N. adj. warm ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

warriordaug N. [dˈɑug] n. warrior, soldier (chiefly used of Orcs) ◇ Ety/375maethor N. [mˈɑɛθr̩] n. warrior ◇ Ety/371

wash*iôl S. [jˈɔːl] n. Geog. wash, flood-water ← Onodiôl RC/334, VT/48:33

wasteeru N. [ˈɛru] n. waste, desert ◇ Ety/356

watch*tir- N. [tˈir] inf. tiri N. [tˈiri] v. to watch, to gaze, look at ◇ Ety/394*tiria- N. [tˈiri.ɑ] inf. tirio N. [tˈiri.ɔ] pa. t. tiriant N. [tˈiri.ɑnt] v. to watch, to gaze, look at ◇ Ety/394tirith S., N. [tˈiriθ] n. watch, guard (abstract noun), vigilance ◇ Ety/394, S/437, Letters/158, VT/42:11

watcher*tirn N. [tˈirn] n. watcher ← heledirn Ety/394

waterlhorn N. n. 1. quiet water ○ 2. by ext., anchorage, harbour ◇ VT/45:29, X/LHnen S., N. [nˈɛn] pl. nîn S., N. [nˈiːn] n. 1. water (used of a lake, pool or lesser river) ○ 2. Geog. by ext., waterland ◇ Ety/376, S/435, UT/457, RC/327-328

waterfalllanthir S. [lˈɑnθir] n. waterfall ◇ S/406, PM/349

waterlandnen S., N. [nˈɛn] pl. nîn S., N. [nˈiːn] n. 1. water (used of a lake, pool or lesser river) ○ 2. Geog. by ext., waterland ◇ Ety/376, S/435, UT/457, RC/327-328

waterynend N. [nˈɛnd] (nenn N.) adj. watery ◇ Ety/376, X/ND1nîn III S. [nˈiːn] adj. wet, watery ← Nindalf TC/195, S/435nínui S. [nˈiːnuj] n. and adj. 1. watery ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of february ◇ LotR/D

wayathrad S., N. [ˈɑθrɑd] pl. ethraid S. [ˈɛθrɑjd] n. (river-)crossing, ford, way ◇ Ety/349, Ety/383, UT/437, VT/42:7men II S. [mˈɛn] n. way, road ◇ UT/281othlond N. (othlon N.) n. paved way ◇ Ety/370, X/ND4*pâd S. [pˈɑːd] n. way ← Aphadon (*ap-pata), Tharbad (*thara-pata) WJ/387, S/438*rada- N. [rˈɑdɑ] inf. rado N. [rˈɑdɔ] v. to make a way, find a way ◇ Ety/383 N. [tˈɛː] n. line, way ◇ Ety/391tharbad S. [θˈɑrbɑd] n. cross-way ◇ S/438

wearylhom N. adj. weary ◇ VT/45:29, X/LH

weavernathron N. [nˈɑθrɔn] n. weaver, webster ◇ Ety/375

webgwî N. [gwˈiː] n. net, web ◇ Ety/398nath N. [nˈɑθ] n. web ◇ Ety/375thling N. n. spider, spider's web, cobweb ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

websternathron N. [nˈɑθrɔn] n. weaver, webster ◇ Ety/375

wedgenaith S., N. [nˈɑjθ] pl. natsai N. [nˈɑtsɑj] n. any formation or projection tapering to a point: a spearhead, triangle gore, wedge, narrow promontory ◇ Ety/387, UT/282, RC/307

weedgalenas S. [gˈɑlɛnɑs] n. Bot. pipe-weed (leaf) or "westmansweed", a variety of Nicotiana ◇ LotR/V:VIII

weeklhevnar N. n. Cal. week (of five days) ◇ VT/45:27, X/LH, X/Z

weepingnîr N. [nˈiːr] n. tear, weeping ◇ Ety/376

welleithel S., N. [ˈɛjθɛl̡] pl. eithil S. [ˈɛjθil̡] n. issue of water, spring, well ◇ Ety/363, S/430, S/433, WJ/85, TC/187mae S. [mˈɑɛ] adv. well ◇ LotR/I:XII, Letters/308

werewolfgaur N. [gˈɑur] n. werewolf ◇ Ety/377gaurhoth S. [gˈɑur.hɔθ] n. class pl. of gaur, group of werewolves ◇ LotR/II:IV

westannûn S., N. [ˈɑnnuːn] n. west, sunset ◇ Ety/376, S/428, LotR/VI:IV, LotR/E, LB/354, Letters/308dûn S., N. [dˈuːn] n. west ◇ Ety/376, S/428, LotR/E-F

westernannui S. [ˈɑnnuj] adj. western ◇ SD/129-31

westmansweedgalenas S. [gˈɑlɛnɑs] n. Bot. pipe-weed (leaf) or "westmansweed", a variety of Nicotiana ◇ LotR/V:VIII

westronannúnaid S. [ɑnnˈuːnɑjd] n. Ling. the "Westron" language (one of the names for Common Speech) ◇ PM/316

wetlhimp N. adj. wet ◇ Ety/369, X/LHloen S. [lˈɔɛn] adj. soaking wet, swamped ◇ VT/42:10mesg N. [mˈɛsg] (mesc N.) adj. wet ◇ Ety/373nîd N. [nˈiːd] adj. damp, wet, tearful ◇ Ety/376nîn III S. [nˈiːn] adj. wet, watery ← Nindalf TC/195, S/435

whatman S. [mɑn] pron. (?) what? ◇ TL/21:09

whenir S. [ˈir] conj. (?) when ◇ LB/354This word is not translated. It could be related to Quenya íre "when". Some scholars also consider that it could be the form taken by the article i before a vowel, on a pattern similar to ah. To this respect, it might be interesting to note the ir was the allative/dative form of the article in the old Gnomish lexicon, PE/11:9

whirl*chwinia- N. inf. chwinio N. v. to twirl, whirl, eddy ◇ Ety/388

whirlingchwind N. (chwinn N.) adj. twirling, whirling ◇ Ety/388, X/ND1, X/HWchwiniol N. part. of chwinia-, whirling, giddy, fantastic ◇ Ety/388

whisperfloss N. (thloss N.) n. whisper or rustling sound ◇ Ety/386, X/LHthross N. n. whisper or rustling sound ◇ Ety/386, X/RH

whitebrassen N. [brˈɑssɛn] adj. white-hot ◇ Ety/351fain S. [fˈɑjn] (fein N.) n. and adj. 1. white ○ 2. as a noun, cloud ◇ Ety/387, WR/288, RC/268, VT/46:15, X/EIfoen N. adj. radiant, white ◇ Ety/381, X/OE*glân I S. [glˈɑːn] adj. bright, shining white ← Curunír 'Lân UT/390The word is deduced from its mutated form, but it is worth mentioning that a stem GALÁN "bright", with glan "daylight" (and later "clear") as derivative, is listed in the Etymologies (not included in the published text, but see VT/45:13). Most of the words meaning "white" in the Indo-Eureopean languages come from the original notion of "brightness", e.g. Greek leukós "white" is cognate with Latin lucere "to shine", lux "light". This association of sense is also found in Gnomish, PE/11:39 (glan "clean, pure", from "bright" originally) and in Early Noldorin (PE/13:144, glann "clean"). The similarity with Welsh glan (where the vowel, incidentally, is also long, though this is concealed by Welsh orthographic convention) is also strikinggloss S., N. [glˈɔss] adj. snow-white, dazzling-white ◇ Ety/359, RGEO/70, VT/42:18nimp I N. [nˈimp] (nim- N.) adj. pale, white ◇ Ety/378silivren S. [silˈivrɛn] adj. (white) glittering ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72uilos S. [ˈujlɔs] n. and adj. 1. always white, ever white as snow ○ 2. Bot. as a noun, a small white everlasting flower also called simbelmynë or "evermind" ◇ RGEO/74, Letters/278, UT/55

whitennimmid N. pa. t. nimmint N. [nˈimmint] v. to whiten ◇ Ety/378, X/Z

whoai II S. [ɑj] pron. rel. for those who ◇ VT/44:21,30i S., N. [i] pl. in S., N. [in] art. and pron. rel. 1. the ○ 2. who ◇ Ety/361, SD/129-31, Letters/308, Letters/417

wickedogol S. [ˈɔgl̩] adj. wicked, evil ◇ VT/48:32

wideland S. [lˈɑnd] (lhand N., lhann N.) adj. wide, broad ← Landroval LotR/VI:IV, Ety/367, X/LH, X/ND1pann II N. [pˈɑnn] adj. wide ◇ Ety/380ûr II N. [ˈuːr] n. wide ◇ Ety/396

wieldmaetha- II S. [mˈɑɛθɑ] v. to handle, wield, manage, deal with ◇ VT/47:6*tortha- N. [tˈɔrθɑ] inf. tortho N. [tˈɔrθɔ] v. to wield, control ◇ Ety/395

wifebess S., N. [bˈɛss] n. f. 1. (young) woman ○ 2. wife ◇ Ety/352, SD/129-31hervess N. [hˈɛrvɛs] (herves N.) n. f. wife ◇ Ety/352, Ety/364

wildbraig N. [brˈɑjg] (breig N.) adj. wild, fierce ◇ Ety/373, VT/45:34The form brerg in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:34*rhavan S. [ɹ̥ˈɑvɑn] pl. rhevain S. [ɹ̥ˈɛvɑjn] n. wild man ◇ WJ/219rhaw III N. [ɹ̥ˈɑw] adj. wild, untamed ◇ Ety/382, X/RH, VT/46:10Meaning rectified according to VT/46:10

wildernessgwaith S., N. [gwˈɑjθ] (gweith N.) n. 1. manhood ○ 2. by ext., man power, troop of able-bodied men, host, regiment, people ○ 3. by ext., region, wilderness ◇ Ety/398, VT/46:21, X/E1*rhovan S. [ɹ̥ˈɔvɑn] (rhofan N.) n. wilderness ← Rhovanion LotR/Map, VT/46:10

willinnas S. [ˈinnɑs] n. abst. of ind, will ◇ VT/44:21,26

willowtathar S. [tˈɑθr̩] (tathor N.) n. Bot. willow-tree ◇ Ety/391, S/438tathren S., N. [tˈɑθrɛn] adj. of willow, having willows ◇ Ety/391, S/438

wilycorw N. adj. cunning, wily ◇ Ety/366, X/W

windgwaew N. [gwˈɑɛw] n. wind ◇ Ety/387sûl I S. [sˈuːl] n. wind ◇ S/437

windowhenneth S. [hˈɛnnɛθ] n. window ◇ S/428

windygwaeren S. [gwˈɑɛrɛn] adj. windy ◇ VT/42:15

wine*gwîn II S., N. [gwˈiːn] n. wine, vine ← Dorwinion LotR/Map, LB/11,26,17,112, LR/334,338, H/IXThe wine of Dor-Winion occurs in the Lay of the children of Húrin and a place located either in the "burning South" in the first version, or probably east of the Blue Mountains in the second. Then we have Dorwinion as a meadow-land in Tol Eressëa at the end of the Quenta Silmarillion. It reappears in The Hobbit, and was finally placed North-West of the Sea of Rhûn in the decorated map by Pauline Baynes (see HL/115-117 for discussion). The meaning of this name is unknown and has been largely discussed. What do we have indeed in this "Winion", or rather gwinion since the initial w- must come from lenition? According to Christopher Tolkien, the Lay was begun c. 1918 and was composed during his father's stay at Leeds, a date meaning that the word can be Gnomish, possibly Early Noldorin, or in an indigenous language of Beleriand. In Gnomish and later in Doriathrin and Ilkorin, there is a genitive plural ending -ion which may very well be contained in this word. Then we would segment gwin-ion "of gwin". The context calls for "wine", "vine" or something similar. It can hardly be a coincidence that gwin is precisely the Welsh word for "wine", a loan from the Latin vinum, as the English "wine" itself

wingrhafn N. n. wing (horn), extended point at side, etc. ◇ Ety/382, X/RH*roval S. [rˈɔvɑl] (rhofal N.) rhofel N. n. Biol. pinion, great wing (of eagle) ← Landroval LotR/VI:IV, Ety/382, X/RH

winterrhîw S. [ɹ̥ˈiːw] n. Cal. winter season ◇ LotR/D

wisegoll N. [gˈɔll] adj. wise ◇ Ety/377golwen N. [gˈɔlwɛn] adj. wise, learned in deep arts ◇ Ety/377idhren N. [ˈiðrɛn] adj. pondering, wise, thoughtful ◇ Ety/361noen N. [nˈɔɛn] adj. wise, sensible ◇ VT/46:9sael S. [sˈɑɛl] adj. wise ← Saelon WJ/233, MR/305, SD/129-31

wishiest N. [jˈɛst] n. wish ◇ Ety/400

withah S. [ɑh] prep. and conj. and, with ◇ MR/329The title Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth is translated as "converse of Finrod and Andreth", but some scholars actually believe this word to be unrelated with the conjunction a I, ar "and", and they render it as "with". Other scholars consider that "and" and "with" (in the comitative sense) are not exclusive of each other, and regard ah as the form taken by this conjunction before a vowel. That a, ar and ah are etymologically related has finally been confirmed in VT/43:29-30. Compare also with Welsh, where the coordination "and" also takes different forms whether it occurs before a vowel or a consonant (respectively ac and a). In written Welsh, a often triggers the aspirate mutation: bara a chaws "bread and cheese". This usage is seldom applied in colloquial Welsh (Modern Welsh §510)an- N. [ɑn] pref. with, by ◇ Ety/374na S., N. [nɑ] prep. 1. with, by (also used as a genitive sign) ○ 2. to, towards, at ◇ Ety/374, LotR/I:XII

witheredtharn N. [θˈɑrn] adj. sapless, stiff, rigid, withered ◇ Ety/388

withering*peleth S. [pˈɛlɛθ] n. fading, withering ← Narbeleth LotR/D*pelin N. [pˈɛlin] n. fading, withering ← Lhasbelin Ety/366

withoutar- II N. [ɑr] pref. 1. Arch. etym. beside ○ 2. by ext., without ◇ Ety/349*pen I S. [pɛn] prep. without, lacking, -less ← Iarwain ben-adar LotR/II:II

wizardcurunír S. [kˈurunˌiːr] (curunir N.) n. m. man of craft, wizard ◇ Ety/366, LotR/III:VIII, LotR/B, VT/45:24ithron S. [ˈiθrɔn] pl. ithryn S. [ˈiθryn] n. wizard ◇ UT/448, Letters/448

woenaeth S., N. [nˈɑɛθ] n. 1. biting ○ 2. by ext., woe (gets sense of gnashing teeth in grief) ← Elu-naeth WJ/258, Ety/374-375

wolfdraug S., N. [drˈɑug] n. Zool. wolf ◇ Ety/354, S/430garaf N. [gˈɑrɑv] n. Zool. wolf ◇ Ety/377gaul N. [gˈɑul] n. wolf-howl ◇ Ety/377gaurwaith S. [gˈɑur.wɑjθ] n. class pl. of gaur, wolf-men ◇ UT/85, UT/90

womanadaneth S. [ˈɑdɑnɛθ] n. f. (mortal) woman ◇ MR/349*arwen S. [ˈɑrwɛn] n. f. noble woman ← Arwen (name) LotRbess S., N. [bˈɛss] n. f. 1. (young) woman ○ 2. wife ◇ Ety/352, SD/129-31dess N. [dˈɛss] n. f. young woman ◇ Ety/375 N. [dˈiː] n. f. Poet. woman, lady ◇ Ety/352, Ety/354

wooderyn S. [ˈɛryn] n. wood ◇ UT/436, LotR/Bglad S. [glˈɑd] n. wood ← Methed-en-Glad UT/452taur II S., N. [tˈɑur] n. great wood, forest ◇ Ety/391, S/420, S/438tawar S., N. [tˈɑwɑr] n. 1. wood (as a material) ○ 2. by ext., great wood, forest ← Tawar-in-Drúedain UT/467, Ety/391

woodentawaren N. [tˈɑwɑrɛn] pl. tewerin N. [tˈɛwɛrin] adj. wooden ◇ Ety/391

woodpeckertavor N. [tˈɑvr̩] (tavr N., tafr N.) n. Orn. woodpecker (bird) ◇ Ety/390

wooltaw N. [tˈɑw] adj. of wool, woollen ◇ Ety/394

woollentaw N. [tˈɑw] adj. of wool, woollen ◇ Ety/394

wordpeth S., N. [pˈɛθ] n. word ◇ Ety/366, LotR/II:IV, RS/463

worldardhon S. [ˈɑrðɔn] n. augm. of ardh, 1. Geog. great region, province ○ 2. by ext., world ← Calenardhon S/386, PM/348gardh S. [gˈɑrð] n. 1. Geog. bounded or defined region ○ 2. by ext., world ◇ WJ/402

worngern N. [gˈɛrn] adj. worn, old, decripit (used of things only) ◇ Ety/360

wosedrû S. [drˈuː] pl. drúin S. [drˈuː.in] n. Pop. wild man, Wose, Púkel-Man ◇ UT/385In PE/11:31, an older Gnomish word drû, drui meant "wood, forest", and in PE/13:142, the early Noldorin word drú was assigned the meaning "dark". Drû pl. Drúin later came to be used for the name of the Woses, with other derivatives (Drúadan, etc.). "Wose" is actually the modernization of an Anglo-Saxon word wasa only found in the compound wudu-wasa "wild man of the woods", cf. UT/385 sq. In the drafts of the "Ride of the Rohirrim" in WR/343-346, the Woses first appeared as "the dark men of Eilenach". Though internally said to derive from drughu in their own tongue, Tolkien's choice for the Sindarin name of the Woses was apparently influenced by earlier meanings assigned to this word drúadan S. [drˈuːɑdɑn] pl. drúedain S. [drˈuːɛdɑjn] n. Pop. wild man, one of the Woses ◇ UT/385drúath S. [drˈuːɑθ] n. coll. of drû, Pop. the people of the Drû, the Woses ◇ UT/385

wound*harna- N. [hˈɑrnɑ] inf. harno N. [hˈɑrnɔ] v. to wound ◇ Ety/386harw N. n. wound ◇ Ety/386, X/W

woundedharn II N. [hˈɑrn] adj. wounded ◇ Ety/386

woven*remmen S. [rˈɛmmɛn] pl. remmin S. [rˈɛmmin] pp. woven, netted, tangled ← galadhremmin LotR/E, LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

wreath S. [rˈiː] (rhî N.) n. crown, wreath, garland ◇ Ety/383, PM/347, X/RH

wrightthavron N. [θˈɑvrɔn] n. carpenter, wright, builder ◇ Ety/388

wristmolif S. [mˈɔliv] n. Biol. wrist ◇ VT/47:6

write*teitha- N. [tˈɛjθɑ] inf. teitho N. [tˈɛjθɔ] pa. t. teithant N. [tˈɛjθɑnt] v. to write ◇ Ety/391, LotR/II:IV

wrong*neitha- S. [nˈɛjθɑ] v. to wrong, to deprive ← Neithan UT/456rhoeg N. adj. crooked, bent, wrong ◇ Ety/383, X/OE, X/RHúthaes S. [ˈuːθɑɛs] n. inducement to do wrong, temptation ◇ VT/44:30

wrongedneithan S. [nˈɛjθɑn] adj. deprived, wronged ◇ UT/456

Y

yardsant S. [sˈɑnt] n. garden, field, yard (or other place in private ownership whether enclosed or not) ◇ VT/42:20

yearennin II N. [ˈɛnnin] n. Cal. Valian year ◇ Ety/400idhrind N. (idhrin N.) n. Cal. year ◇ Ety/383, Ety/400, X/ND4în II N. [ˈiːn] n. Cal. year ◇ Ety/400penninar N. n. Cal. last day of the year ◇ Ety/400, X/Z

yellingglam S. [glˈɑm] (glamm S., N., glamb S., N.) n. 1. barbarous speech, shouting, confused noise ○ 2. din, uproar, the confused yelling and bellowing of beasts ○ 3. Pop. by ext., as a coll. noun, any body of Orcs ◇ Ety/358, Ety/377, WJ/390, WJ/416

yellowmalen N. [mˈɑlɛn] pl. melin N. [mˈɛlin] adj. yellow ◇ Ety/386

yokeianw N. n. (?) yoke ◇ Ety/400, X/WIt originally meant "bridge" in the Etymologies, but was apparently switched with iant

youngneth I N. [nˈɛθ] adj. young ◇ Ety/377

youthnîth I N. [nˈiːθ] n. youth ◇ Ety/377