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Title

Hiswelókë's Sindarin dictionary

Compiled, edited and annotated by Didier Willis

Edition

Edition 1.9.1

Lexicon 0.9952

2455 entries (1821 unique entries).

2411 word forms (279 deduced, 0 normalized, 0 coined) in unique entries.

Publication

1999-2008, Didier Willis and The Sindarin Dictionary Project

Availability

Status: free.

License: This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share-Alike License, version 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/).

Additional limitation of scope: Sindarin, as one of the languages invented by J.R.R. Tolkien, is his artistic and intellectual property. The editor does not claim any intellectual property on the Sindarin language itself and, as a whole, on this dictionary, beyond the editorial annotations, the arrangement of entries and the encyclopaedic discussions or interpretations appended to these entries. The above-mentioned license applies to such elements only.

J.R.R. Tolkien's texts and books are copyrighted by the Tolkien Estate and/or Tolkien's publishers. As of yet, this material is not approved by the Tolkien Estate or Tolkien's publishers, and is henceforth an unauthorized Sindarin dictionary. This material is however provided under the editor's assumption that compiling, arranging, analyzing, normalizing and annotating entries in order to produce a dictionary for a language, even if it is an invented one, does not violate the copyright of the inventor.

Shall any third party include this material in a derived work, under the above-mentioned license or under any other applicable license, the editor will not be liable for possible infringement of copyright on the derived work. Every derived use of this material is left under the sole responsability of the third party.

Notwithstanding, this material is neither a verbatim reproduction of information from Tolkien's published works, nor a simple rearrangement of such information in a different order. Many entries are deduced from indirect evidences (such as compounds, inflected forms, etc.) or are normalized according to our current knowledge of the Sindarin phonology and morphology. As a consequence, some deductions, as presented by the editor or by other contributors to the dictionary, might actually prove incorrect or inaccurate when new information is published.

Any violation of copyright regarding yet unpublished texts by J.R.R. Tolkien is unintended. The compiler does not have any access to hitherto unpublished texts. Would it be the case, such texts would not be used in the dictionary. Therefore, this dictionary only contains entries based on published texts, either from direct attestations or based on deductions and conclusions drawn from these texts by careful comparisons.

Notes

The editor would like to thank all the persons who made this work possible. This dictionary would not have existed without the efforts of many other peoples. Lisa Star (editor of Tyalië Tyelelliéva) and Helge Kåre Fauskanger (webmaster of Ardalambion) gave me precious advices and encouragements at the very beginning of the project. David Salo sent me his own lexicons and kindly answered some of my questions about them. Cédric Fockeu (webmaster of J.R.R. Tolkien en Version Française) offered his technical skill in scripting languages, as well as disk space to host the original on-line search engine. My thanks are also addressed to Ryszard Derdzinski, Dorothea Salo, B. Philip Jonsson, Sébastien Mallet and the members of the ELFLING mailing-list, for their support during the early phases of this long project; and later to Jim Allan (editor and co-author of An Introduction to Elvish), Bertrand Bellet, Carl Hostetter (editor of Vinyar Tengwar), Per Lindberg (from Mellonath Daeron), Elena Liria, Emanuele Vicentini, Patrick Wynne and all the other members of the Sindarin dictionary discussion group for their contributions and continual feedback, with a special mention for Javier Lorenzo for all the corrections he sent to the mailing-list.

The Dragon Flame application would not have existed without Benjamin Babut. Likewise, this revised edition of the dictionary would not have seen the light without Benjamin's work and enthousiasm for Dragon Flame and its set of related tools. I am also indebt to Sylvain Veyrié and Thomas Deniau for having ported Dragon Flame to other operating systems.

The German translation of this dictionary is based on the initial work of Christian Buzek, with further help and lots of improvements by Florian Dombach (Das Sindarin Lexikon) and other readers. Benjamin Babut and David Giraudeau contributed to the French translation. We also thank Stéphane Landais for all his corrections.

Last but not least, this work is dedicated to Christopher Tolkien and to the Vinyar Tengwar & Parma Eldalamberon editorial staffs, whose efforts to publish J.R.R. Tolkien's linguistic papers have made such a dictionary possible.

Source

This dictionary is based on J.R.R. Tolkien's works, extended with etymological notes, phonetics and other information.

Sindarin is the language of the Grey Elves, invented by J.R.R. Tolkien and exemplified in his masterful epic story The Lord of the Rings.

This work aims at being a complete Sindarin and Noldorin dictionary, addressing not only Tolkien's fans wishing to understand the elvish sentences from The Lord of the Rings or to build simple sentences in Sindarin, but also scholars wanting to study Sindarin for what it is: the complex linguistic invention of a philology professor, and also a beautiful piece of art.

The Sindarin dictionary project began on October 23, 1999, and is still under development. By no mean shall this version be regarded as definitive. The editor is all too well aware that the dictionary is not as perfect or complete as it might be. Nevertheless, it seems better to encourage the study of Sindarin by the provision of a working dictionary rather than delay the publication perhaps for years, until the editor's ideals are satisfied — a condition which might never be attained.

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Dictionary compiled and adapted from various sources.

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Sampling

Phonetics are transcribed using the X-SAMPA scheme for representing the IPA in 7-bit ASCII encoding.

Hypothetical words, either interpreted, reconstructed or deduced from mutated forms, are all marked as deduced.

Phonetics and special delimiters are rendered in Unicode (UTF-8) in the XHTML version. The Lucida Sans Unicode font is assumed, for the document to display correctly, as well a browser supporting Unicode.

Phonetics are rendered in IPA in the PDF version. Some symbols used as delimiters are rendered with glyphs available to the typesetter, and might differ from the XHTML version.

Correction

Status: high.

This document has been extensively checked, although a few casual errors or typos may still remain.

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XHTML version validated with Richard Tobin's RXP software, for compliance with XHTML 1.0 Transitional.

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Interpretation

Probable errors in the sources have been corrected and marked with the <corr> tag.

In the XHTML version, corrections are rendered using a specific markup (misreadings, etc.).


A

a I S. [ɑ] (ar S.) conj. and ◇ LotR/II:IV, LotR/VI:IV, S/428, SD/129-31, LB/354, Letters/308See ah for the form that this conjunction might take before a vowel

a II S. [ɑ] interj. O! ◇ Letters/308See also ai I and ae

ab- S. [ɑb] pref. after, later ← Abonnen WJ/387

ablad S. [ˈɑblɑd] n. prohibition, refusal (with reference to the gesture one makes with the hand) ◇ VT/47:13

abonnen S. [ɑbˈɔnnɛn] pl. ebœnnin S. [ɛbˈɛnnin] n. and adj. 1. born later, born after ○ 2. as a noun, man, one born later than the Elves, a human being (elvish name for men) ◇ WJ/387ab-+onnen "after-born"

achad S. [ˈɑxɑd] n. Biol. neck (properly referring only to the bony vertebral part not including the throat) ◇ RC/537Q. axo

acharn S. [ˈɑxɑrn] n. vengeance ◇ WJ/254, WJ/301OS *akkʰarna, CE *atkarnâ "reaction"

*achas S. [ˈɑxɑs] n. dread, fear ← Daerachas WJ/187This might also be *gachas, mutated in composition

ad- N. [ɑd] pref. back, again, re- ◇ Ety/349, VT/45:6

ada N. [ˈɑdɑ] n. m. hypo. of adar, father, daddy ◇ Ety/349

adab N. [ˈɑdɑb] pl. edeb N. n. building, house ◇ Ety/390, WR/379-80, X/EI

adan S. [ˈɑdɑn] pl. edain S. [ˈɛdɑjn] n. man, one of the Second People (elvish name for men) ◇ LotR/A(v), S/427, PM/324, WJ/387, Letters/282Q. atanadanath S. n. coll.

*adanadar S. [ɑdˈɑnɑdɑr] pl. edenedair S. [ɛdˈɛnɛdɑjr] n. man, one of the Fathers of Men ◇ MR/373adan+adar

adanath S. [ˈɑdɑnɑθ] n. coll. of adan, men ◇ MR/373

adaneth S. [ˈɑdɑnɛθ] n. f. (mortal) woman ◇ MR/349adan+-eth

adar S., N. [ˈɑdɑr] pl. edair S. [ˈɛdɑjr] (eder N., edeir N.) n. m. father ◇ Ety/349, PM/324, MR/373, LotR/II:II, VT/44:21-22, X/EIada N. n. m. hypo.atheg S. n. m. dim.

adel N. [ɑdɛl̡] prep. behind, in rear (of) ◇ Ety/392

*adertha- S. [ɑdˈɛrθɑ] v. to reunite ← Aderthad S/409ad- + ertʰa- "to make one again", OS *atertʰa-aderthad S. ger.

aderthad S. [ɑdˈɛrθɑd] ger. of adertha-, reuniting, reunion ◇ S/409OS *atertʰata

*adleg- N. [ˈɑdlɛg] inf. adlegi N. [ˈɑdlɛgi] pa. t. adlenc N. [ˈɑdlɛŋk] v. Arch., Poet. to loose, let loose, release ◇ VT/45:27

adlegi N. inf.adleg-

adlenc N. pa. t.adleg-

aduial S. [ɑdˈuj.ɑl] n. the evening, time of star-opening, "evendim" ◇ LotR/Dad + uial "second twilight"

ae S. [ˈɑɛ] interj. O! ◇ VT/44:21,22See also ai I and a II

aear S. [ˈɑɛ.ɑr] n. Geog. sea ◈ Tolkien changed this word several times, see gaearaearon S. n. augm.

aearon S. [ˈɑɛ.ɑrɔn] n. augm. of aear, Geog. great sea, ocean ◈ Tolkien changed this word several times, see gaearon

*aeg S. [ˈɑɛg] n. point ← aeglir, aeglos, etc.The adjective oeg "sharp, pointed, piercing" from Ety/349 is perhaps rejected: Tolkien later decided that no cognate of Quenya aica "fell, terrible, dire" was used in Sindarin, "though aeg would have been its form if it had occurred" (PM/347). On the other hand, we have words such as aeglos and aeglir, so there must be a noun aeg "point"oegas N. n. abst.

aeglir S. [ˈɑɛglir] (oeglir N.) n. Geog. range of mountain peaks ← Hithaeglir LotR, Ety/349, X/OEaeg+lîr

aeglos S. [ˈɑɛglɔs] n. 1. Bot. snowthorn, a plant like furze (gorse), but larger and with white flowers ○ 2. Geol. icicle (a pendent spear of ice formed by the freezing of dripping water) ◇ UT/417, LotR/Indexaeg+loss

aelin S. pl.oel

aen S. [ˈɑɛn] unkn. (unknown meaning) ◇ SD/129-31Some scholars believe this word to be cognate to Quenya nai "may it be". Other think that it is the pronoun "they". The context in which this word occurs (The so-called "King's Letter") is not clear enough to intepret it with certainty

aer I S. [ˈɑɛr] n. Geog. sea ◈ Tolkien changed this word several times, see aear, gaear

aer II S. [ˈɑɛr] adj. holy ◇ VT/44:21,24

aerlinn S. [ˈɑɛrlinn] n. (unknown meaning, perhaps a song about the sea, or possibly holy song) ◇ RGEO/70, X/ND4aer+lind (?) "sea-song" or (?) "holy song", OS *airelinde

aes N. [ˈɑɛs] n. cooked food, meat ◇ Ety/349

aew S., N. [ˈɑɛw] n. Orn. (small) bird ◇ Ety/348, S/434

*aewen S. [ˈɑɛwɛn] adj. of birds ← Linaewen S/434

afarch N. adj. very dry, arid ◇ VT/45:5, X/PHa- (intensive prefix) + parch, *apparkâ, ON appʰarkʰaCf. parch

*agar S. [ˈɑgɑr] n. blood ← Agarwaen S/378

agarwaen S. [ɑgˈɑrwɑɛn] adj. bloodstained ◇ S/378agar+gwaen

aglar S., N. [ˈɑglɑr] n. glory, brilliance, splendour ◇ Ety/348, S/427, LotR/II:I, LotR/VI:IV, RGEO/73, VT/47:13

aglareb S., N. [ˈɑglɑrɛb] adj. glorious ◇ Ety/348, S/427, WJ/412

aglon N.aglond

aglond N. (aglon N.) n. defile, pass between high walls ◇ Ety/348, X/ND4

agor I S. irreg. pa. t.car-

agor II N. [ˈɑgr̩] (agr N.) adj. narrow ◇ Ety/348

agr N.agor II

ah S. [ɑh] prep. and conj. and, with ◇ MR/329The title Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth is translated as "converse of Finrod and Andreth", but some scholars actually believe this word to be unrelated with the conjunction a I, ar "and", and they render it as "with". Other scholars consider that "and" and "with" (in the comitative sense) are not exclusive of each other, and regard ah as the form taken by this conjunction before a vowel. That a, ar and ah are etymologically related has finally been confirmed in VT/43:29-30. Compare also with Welsh, where the coordination "and" also takes different forms whether it occurs before a vowel or a consonant (respectively ac and a). In written Welsh, a often triggers the aspirate mutation: bara a chaws "bread and cheese". This usage is seldom applied in colloquial Welsh (Modern Welsh §510)

ahamar S.sammar

ai I S. [ˈɑj] interj. ah! ◇ LotR/I:XIIThough attested in LotR, this word might relate to ae, with the regular change from ai to ae between Noldorin and Sindarin

ai II S. [ɑj] pron. rel. for those who ◇ VT/44:21,30

aith N. [ˈɑjθ] n. spearpoint ◇ Ety/355

al- N. [ɑl] pref. no, not ◇ Ety/367

alae S. [ˈɑlɑɛ] interj. (?) behold! ◇ UT/40Uncertain meaning, but compare with Quenya ela! "imperative exclamation directing sight to an actually visible object" (WJ/362)

alag N. [ˈɑlɑg] adj. rushing, impetuous ◇ Ety/348, VT/45:5

alagos N. [ˈɑlɑgɔs] n. storm of wind ◇ Ety/348

alf N.alph

alfirin S. [ˈɑlfirin] n. and adj. 1. immortal ○ 2. Bot. as a noun, name of a flower, bell-like and running through many soft and gentle colours ○ 3. Bot. as a noun, also used for another small white flower ◇ LotR/V:IX, Letters/402, UT/55, UT/303, UT/316, UT/417al-+firin

alph S. [ˈɑlf] (alf N.) pl. eilph S. [ˈɛjlf] n. Orn. swan ◇ Ety/348, S/427, LotR/E, VT/42:6-7, X/PH

am N. [ɑm] prep. up, upwards, upon ◇ Ety/348

amar N. [ˈɑmɑr] (ambar N.) n. earth ◇ Ety/372

amarth S. [ˈɑmɑrθ] (ammarth N.) n. fate, doom ◇ Ety/372, S/427, LotR/A(i), TC/183

amarthan N. [ɑmˈɑrθɑn] adj. fated ◇ VT/41:10

amath N. [ˈɑmɑθ] (ambath N.) n. Mil. shield ◇ VT/45:33

ambar N.amar

ambath N.amath

amben N.ambenn

ambend N.ambenn

ambenn N. [ˈɑmbɛnn] (ambend N., amben N.) adv. uphill, sloping upwards ◇ Ety/348, Ety/380, X/ND3, X/ND4am+pend

amdir S. [ˈɑmdir] n. hope based on reason ◇ MR/320am+tîr "looking up"

amloth S. [ˈɑmlɔθ] n. Mil. flower or floreate device used as crest fixed to the point of a tall helmet ◇ WJ/318am+loth "uprising flower"

amlug N. [ˈɑmlug] n. dragon ◇ Ety/349, Ety/370

ammarth N.amarth

ammen S. [ˈɑmmɛn] pron. 1st pl. of us, for us, toward us ◇ LotR/II:IV, LB/354, VT/44:21,27an+men

amon S., N. [ˈɑmɔn] pl. emyn S., N. [ˈɛmyn] (emuin N.) n. Geog. hill, steep-sided mount ◇ Ety/348, LotR/E, RC/334

amrûn S., N. [ˈɑmruːn] n. east, orient ◇ Ety/348, Ety/384, S/437, LotR/Eam+rhûn "uprising, sunrise"

an S. [ɑn] prep. to, towards, for ◇ LotR/II:IV, UT/39, SD/129-31With suffixed article and elision in aglar'ni Pheriannath

an- N. [ɑn] pref. with, by ◇ Ety/374

anann S. [ˈɑnɑnn] adv. long, for a long time ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308an+and, OS *ananda

anc N. [ˈɑŋk] n. Biol. jaw, row of teeth ◇ Ety/348, Ety/374

and S. [ˈɑnd] (ann N.) adj. long ◇ Ety/348, S/427, X/ND1

andabon N.annabon

andaith S. [ˈɑndɑjθ] (andeith N.) n. Ling. long-mark, sign used in writing alphabetic tengwar over a vowel, to indicate that it is lengthened. ◇ LotR/E, Ety/391, X/EIand+taith

andeith N.andaith

anfang N. [ˈɑnfɑŋ] pl. enfeng S., N. [ˈɛnfɛŋ] n. Pop. one of the Longbeards (a tribe of Dwarves) ◇ Ety/348, Ety/387, WJ/322and+fanganfangrim S. n. class pl.

anfangrim S. [ɑnfˈɑŋgrim] n. class pl. of anfang, Pop. the Longbeards (a tribe of Dwarves) ◇ WJ/322anfang+rim

ang S., N. [ˈɑŋ] n. iron ◇ Ety/348, S/428, PM/347

angerthas S. [ɑŋgˈɛrθɑs] n. Ling. runic alphabet, long rune-rows (extended version of the Certhas) ◇ S/427, LotR/Eand+certhas

*anglenna- S. [ɑŋglˈɛnnɑ] v. to approach ← anglennatha SD/129-31an+*glenna-, OS *añglenna-, CE *angledna-anglennatha S. v. fut. 3rd

anglennatha S. [ɑŋglˈɛnnɑθɑ] v. fut. 3rd of anglenna-, (he) will approach ◇ SD/129-31

angol I N. [ˈɑŋgɔl] n. stench ◇ Ety/378

angol II N. [ˈɑŋgɔl] n. Arch., Poet. deep lore, magic ◇ Ety/377

angren S., N. [ˈɑŋgrɛn] pl. engrin S., N. [ˈɛŋgrin] adj. of iron ◇ Ety/348, S/428

angwedh N. [ˈɑŋgwɛð] n. chain ◇ Ety/397ang+gwedh "iron-bond"

anim S. [ˈɑnim] pron. 1st for myself ◇ LotR/A(v)an+imCf. enni

aníra- S. [ɑnˈiːrɑ] v. to desire ◇ SD/129-31an+*íra- or *níra- (?) OS *anîra-

ann N.and

ann-thennath S. [ˈɑnn.θˈɛnnɑθ] n. pl. a verse mode, lit. "long-shorts" (alternance of long and short vowels, or rather alternance of long and short verse units, possibly of masculine and feminine rhymes) ◇ LotR/I:XIThe word is not translated by Tolkien. Refer to Tolkien's Legendarium p. 115 for a discussion of its probable meaning

*anna- N. [ˈɑnnɑ] inf. anno N. [ˈɑnnɔ] v. to give ◇ Ety/348anno S. v. imp.ónen S. irreg. pa. t. 1st

annabon N. [ˈɑnnɑbɔn] (andabon N.) n. Zool. elephant ◇ Ety/372, X/ND2and+*bond "long-snouted"

anno I N. inf.anna-

anno II S. [ˈɑnnɔ] v. imp. of anna-, give! ◇ VT/44:21,27

annon S., N. [ˈɑnnɔn] pl. ennyn S., N. [ˈɛnnyn] n. augm. great door or gate ◇ Ety/348, S/428, LotR/II:IV, TAI/150

annui S. [ˈɑnnuj] adj. western ◇ SD/129-31

annûn S., N. [ˈɑnnuːn] n. west, sunset ◇ Ety/376, S/428, LotR/VI:IV, LotR/E, LB/354, Letters/308

annúnaid S. [ɑnnˈuːnɑjd] n. Ling. the "Westron" language (one of the names for Common Speech) ◇ PM/316OS *andûneitèCf. falathren

Anor S., N. [ˈɑnɔr] n. Astron. sun ◇ Ety/348, RC/232

anrand N. n. cycle, age (100 Valian Years) ◇ Ety/382, X/ND4Helge Fauskanger noted that the element and "long" would normally be preserved before r-, but the -d is lost because there is another d in the word (VT/41:9); however, this second d later disappeared in the change from -nd to -nn, and it is unclear whether or not an- would then revert to and-and+*rand "long cycle"

ant N. [ˈɑnt] n. gift ◇ Ety/348

anw N. adj. male ◇ Ety/360, X/WA literal interpretation of the Etymologies would class this word as a noun, but David Salo notes that the punctuation in The Etymologies is not always reliable. Noldorin anw cannot be cognate to the Quenya noun hanu (*3anû) because the final -u would drop. It must rather be cognate to the Quenya adjective hanwa (*3anwâ) attested under the stem INI, where it is also stated that inw, corresponding to Quenya inya "female", has been remodelled after anw. The combination of these two entries, along with the phonological evidences, clearly indicates that anw is actually an adjective

anwar S. [ˈɑnwɑr] n. awe ◇ UT/418, VT/42:23

aphad- S. [ˈɑffɑd] v. to follow ◇ WJ/387In WJ/387, the verbal stem is given as aphad-, and the etymology as *ap-pata. If we follow the latter, the verb should perhaps read aphada-ab-+pad- "to walk behind, on a track or path"

aphadon S. [ˈɑffɑdɔn] pl. ephedyn S. [ˈɛffɛdyn] n. 1. follower ○ 2. Pop. by ext., man (elvish name for men) ◇ WJ/387aphadrim S. n. class pl.

aphadrim S. [ɑffˈɑdrim] n. class pl. of aphadon, Pop. followers, men (elvish name for men) ◇ WJ/387aphad-+rim

ar S.a I

âr N. [ˈɑːr] n. king (used of a lord or king of a specified region) ◇ Ety/389Cf. aran, taur I

ar- I S.ara-

ar- II N. [ɑr] pref. 1. Arch. etym. beside ○ 2. by ext., without ◇ Ety/349

ara- S. [ɑrɑ] (ar- S.) pref. high, noble, royal ◇ S/428Reduced form of aran, element in the names of the kings of Arnor and Arthedain

arad N. [ˈɑrɑd] n. daytime, a day ◇ Ety/349

aran S., N. [ˈɑrɑn] pl. erain S., N. [ˈɛrɑjn] n. king (used of a lord or king of a specified region) ◇ Ety/360, S/428, LotR/II:IV, LotR/VI:VII, SD/129-31, Letters/426Cf. âr, taur I

aranarth S. [ˈɑrɑnɑrθ] n. kingdom, "king-holding" ◇ VT/44:22,25In Tolkien's manuscript, this form was rejected in favor of arnad

aras S. [ˈɑrɑs] n. Zool. deer ◇ WJ/156-157

ardh N. [ˈɑrð] n. realm, region ◇ Ety/360ardhon S. n. augm.

ardhon S. [ˈɑrðɔn] n. augm. of ardh, 1. Geog. great region, province ○ 2. by ext., world ← Calenardhon S/386, PM/348

*arn S. [ˈɑrn] adj. royal ← arn(a)gon-ath Letters/427Cf. arnen

arnad S. [ˈɑrnɑd] n. kingdom ◇ VT:44:21,25

arnediad N. [ɑrnˈɛdi.ɑd] (arnœdiad S., N.) adj. innumerable, countless, endless, without reckoning, numberless ◇ Ety/349, Ety/378, S/428, VT/46:6ar-+nediad

arnen S. [ˈɑrnɛn] pl. ernin S. [ˈɛrnin] adj. (?) royal ← Emyn Arnen, Lonnath-Ernin LotR/V:I, WR/294, WR/370Originally, Lonnath-Ernin might have been intended to mean 'royal havens', assuming the second element to be a regular adjective. However, the second element in Emyn Arnen 'hills of Arnen' is singular, and Tolkien later decided that it should mean 'Hill beside the water', see VT/42:17 and HL/119-124. Nevertheless, this meaning cannot apply to Lonnath-Ernin (havens are near water by definition), so unless we entirely reject this earlier form, we may assume that an adjective 'royal' is still possible.Cf. arn

arnœdiad S., N.arnediad

arod S. [ˈɑrɔd] adj. noble ◇ PM/363, VT/41:9

aronoded N. [ɑrˈɔnɔdɛd] adj. innumerable, countless, endless ◇ Ety/378ar-gonodedCf. arnediad

arphen S. [ˈɑrfɛn] pl. erphin S. [ˈɛrfin] n. a noble ◇ WJ/376ar-+pen

arphent S. pa. t. "and (he/she) said" ◇ TL/21:09ar+pent "and (he/she) said"

*arth S. [ˈɑrθ] adj. (unknown meaning, perhaps (?) noble, lofty, exalted) ← Arthedain LotRQ arta or OS *artʰa, CE *arâtâ

*arwen S. [ˈɑrwɛn] n. f. noble woman ← Arwen (name) LotRar-+gwend

ascar N.asgar

asgar N. [ˈɑsgɑr] (ascar N.) adj. violent, rushing, impetuous ◇ Ety/386

ast N. [ˈɑst] n. dust ◇ Ety/349

ath- N. [ɑθ] pref. on both sides, across ◇ Ety/349

athan S. [ɑθɑn] prep. beyond ◇ SD/62

atheg S. [ˈɑθɛg] n. m. dim. of adar, 1. "litte father" ○ 2. Biol. thumb (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,17

athelas S. [ˈɑθɛlɑs] n. Bot. "kingsfoil", a healing herb brought to Middle-earth by the Númenóreans ◇ LotR/V:VIIIQ athea "benefical, helpful" + CS las "leaf"

athra- S. [ɑθrɑ] pref. across ← Athrabeth MR/329

athrabeth S. [ˈɑθrɑbɛθ] n. debate, converse ◇ MR/329athra-+peth "cross-talk"

athrad S., N. [ˈɑθrɑd] pl. ethraid S. [ˈɛθrɑjd] n. (river-)crossing, ford, way ◇ Ety/349, Ety/383, UT/437, VT/42:7

*athrada- N. [ˈɑθrɑdɑ] inf. athrado N. [ˈɑθrɑdɔ] v. to cross, traverse ◇ Ety/383ath-+rada-

athrado N. inf.athrada-

atland N. adj. sloping, tilted ◇ Ety/390, X/TL, X/ND4

*atlanna- N. inf. atlanno N. v. to slope, slant ◇ Ety/390, X/TL

atlanno N. inf.atlanna-

atlant N. adj. oblique, slanting ◇ Ety/390, X/TL

aur S., N. [ˈɑur] n. day, sunlight, morning ◇ Ety/349, S/439Cf. calan

auth I N. [ˈɑuθ] n. war, battle ◇ Ety/365, Ety/379, VT/45:23

auth II S. [ˈɑuθ] n. a dim shape, spectral or vague apparition ◇ VT/42:9

ava- S. [ˈɑvɑ] aux. will not ◈ avad S. ger.avam S. v. pres. 1st pl.avo S. v. imp.avon S. v. pres. 1st

avad S. [ˈɑvɑd] ger. of ava-, refusal, reluctance ◇ WJ/371

avam S. [ˈɑvɑm] v. pres. 1st pl. of ava-, we won't ◇ WJ/371

avar S. [ˈɑvɑr] pl. evair S. [ˈɛvɑjr] n. 1. refuser ○ 2. Pop. esp. in the pl., the Avari, Elves who refused the invitation of the Valar ◇ WJ/380, VT/47:12This plural name was known to the loremasters, but went out of daily use at the time of the Exile

avo S. [ˈɑvɔ] v. imp. of ava-, don't! ◇ WJ/371Used as a negative adverb before an imperative: avo garo "don't do it!". Sometimes used as prefix: avgaro

avon S. [ˈɑvɔn] v. pres. 1st of ava-, I won't ◇ WJ/371

*avorn S. [ˈɑvɔrn] adj. staying, fast ← Baravorn Hamfast, SD/129-31

awarth N. [ˈɑwɑrθ] n. abandonment ◇ Ety/397

awartha- N. [ɑwˈɑrθɑ] v. to forsake, abandon ◇ Ety/397

B

bach N. [bˈɑx] n. article (for exchange), ware, thing ◇ Ety/372

bachor N. [bˈɑxr̩] n. pedlar ◇ Ety/372

bâd N. [bˈɑːd] n. beaten track, pathway ◇ Ety/351

badhor N. [bˈɑðr̩] n. judge ◇ Ety/350Cf. badhron

badhron N. [bˈɑðrɔn] n. judge ◇ Ety/350Cf. badhor

bair S. pl.bar

balan S., N. [bˈɑlɑn] pl. belain S. [bˈɛlɑjn] (belein N., belen N.) n. Theo. Vala, divine power, divinity ◇ Ety/350, S/439, Letters/427, X/EI

balch N. [bˈɑlx] adj. cruel ◇ Ety/377

band S., N. [bˈɑnd] (bann N.) n. duress, prison, custody, safe-keeping ◇ Ety/371, S/428, MR/350, X/ND1

banga- N. [bˈɑŋgɑ] v. to trade ◇ Ety/372

bann N.band

bar S. [bˈɑr] pl. bair S. [bˈɑjr] n. 1. dwelling, home ○ 2. by ext., inhabited land ◇ S/428, WR/379-80, SD/129-31mbair S. nasal mut. pl.mbar S. nasal mut.

bara N. [bˈɑrɑ] adj. 1. fiery ○ 2. eager ◇ Ety/351

barad I N. [bˈɑrɑd] adj. doomed ◇ Ety/372

barad II S., N. [bˈɑrɑd] pl. beraid S. [bˈɛrɑjd] n. tower, fortress ◇ Ety/351, S/428, LotR/B

baradh N. [bˈɑrɑð] adj. steep ◇ Ety/351

baran I S., N. [bˈɑrɑn] adj. brown, swart, dark brown, golden brown, yellow brown ◇ Ety/351, LotR/F, TC/179, RC/343

baran II S. soft mut. of paranDol Baran RC/433

*bartha- N. [bˈɑrθɑ] inf. bartho N. [bˈɑrθɔ] v. to doom ◇ Ety/372

bartho N. inf.bartha-

basgorn N. [bˈɑsgɔrn] n. loaf (of bread) ◇ Ety/372, Ety/365bast+corn "round bread"

*bass S. [bˈɑss] n. bread ← besain, besoneth, imbas PM/404-405, VT/44:21In the Etymologies, the word for "bread" is given as bast, Quenya masta, but it seems that Tolkien later changed his mind and updated the word to bass, as shown in Quenya massánie, Sindarin besain, besoneth "bread-giver", and in the mutated form (i)mbas (apparently prefixed with the article). These latter Sindarin forms are however dubious, as we would rather have expected besain (as a regular cognate of Quenya massánie) and besoneth (without i-affection), and possibly a different mutation pattern after the article*mbas S. soft mut.

bast N. [bˈɑst] n. bread ◇ Ety/372Cf. bass

*batha- N. [bˈɑθɑ] inf. batho N. [bˈɑθɔ] v. to trample ◇ Ety/352

batho N. inf.batha-

baudh N. [bˈɑuð] n. judgement ◇ Ety/350

baug N. [bˈɑug] adj. tyrannous, cruel, oppressive ◇ Ety/372

*baugla- N. [bˈɑuglɑ] inf. bauglo N. [bˈɑuglɔ] v. to oppress ◇ Ety/372

bauglir N. [bˈɑuglir] n. tyrant, oppressor ◇ Ety/372

bauglo N. inf.baugla-

baul N. [bˈɑul] n. torment ◇ Ety/377

baur N. [bˈɑur] n. need ◇ Ety/372

baw S. [bˈɑw] interj. no, don't! ◇ WJ/371

bêd S. soft mut. of pêd

bein N. adj. beautiful, fair ◇ Ety/351, Ety/359, X/EI

belain S. pl.balan

beleg S., N. [bˈɛlɛg] adj. great, mighty ◇ Ety/352, S/428veleg S. soft mut.

belein N. pl.balan

belen N. pl.balan

bellas N. [bˈɛl̡lɑs] n. abst. of belt, bodily strength ◇ Ety/352

belt N. [bˈɛlt] adj. strong in body ◇ Ety/352, Tengwestie/20031207bellas N. n. abst.

ben I S. soft mut. of pen I

ben II S. soft mut. of pen II

ben III S. [bɛn] prep. according to the, in the ◇ SD/129-31OS *be, with suffixed article (?)

benn N. [bˈɛnn] n. m. man, male ◇ Ety/352, VT/45:9"husband"

bennas N. [bˈɛnnɑs] n. angle, corner ◇ Ety/352, Ety/375

beor N.bior

beraid S. pl.barad II

berein N. pl.bôr

beren I N. pl.bôr

beren II N. [bˈɛrɛn] adj. bold ◇ Ety/352

bereth S., N. [bˈɛrɛθ] n. f. queen, spouse ◇ Ety/351, RGEO/74

*beria- N. [bˈɛri.ɑ] inf. berio N. [bˈɛri.ɔ] v. to protect ◇ Ety/351

berio N. inf.beria-

*bertha- N. [bˈɛrθɑ] inf. bertho N. [bˈɛrθɔ] v. to dare ◇ Ety/352

bertho N. inf.bertha-

besain S. n. f. bread-giver ◇ PM/404-405, X/ZSee bass for a discussion regarding this word

besoneth S. n. f. bread-giver ◇ PM/404-405, X/ZSee bass for a discussion regarding this wordbass+oneth

bess S., N. [bˈɛss] n. f. 1. (young) woman ○ 2. wife ◇ Ety/352, SD/129-31

beth S. soft mut. of peth

bîn S. soft mut. of pînCûl Bîn RC/536

bior N. (beor N.) n. follower, vassal ◇ Ety/352, X/IU

blâb N. [blˈɑːb] v. pres. 3rd of blab-, (he) flaps, beats ◇ Ety/380The Etymologies seem to list this word as a noun, but it is clearly the third person singular of the verb

*blab- N. [blˈɑb] inf. blebi N. [blˈɛbi] v. to beat, batter, flap (wings, etc.) ◇ Ety/380blâb N. v. pres. 3rd

blebi N. inf.blab-

bo S. [bɔ] prep. on ◇ VT/44:21,26

boda- S. [bˈɔdɑ] v. to ban, prohibit ◇ WJ/372

bôr N. [bˈɔːr] pl. bŷr N. [bˈyːr] (berein N., beren N.) n. steadfast, trusty man, faithful vassal ◇ Ety/353

born S. [bˈɔrn] adj. hot, red ◇ Letters/426-27

both N. [bˈɔθ] n. puddle, small pool ◇ Ety/372

bragol S. [brˈɑgɔl] adj. sudden ◇ S/429

braig N. [brˈɑjg] (breig N.) adj. wild, fierce ◇ Ety/373, VT/45:34The form brerg in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:34

brand N. [brˈɑnd] (brann N.) adj. 1. lofty, noble, fine ○ 2. high (in size) ◇ Ety/351, TAI/150, X/ND1

brann N.brand

brannon N. [brˈɑnnɔn] n. m. lord ◇ Ety/351

brass N. [brˈɑss] n. white heat ◇ Ety/351

brassen N. [brˈɑssɛn] adj. white-hot ◇ Ety/351

breged N. [brˈɛgɛd] n. violence, suddenness ◇ Ety/352

bregol N. [brˈɛgɔl] adj. violent, sudden, fierce ◇ Ety/352, Ety/373bregolas N. n. abst.

bregolas N. [brˈɛgɔlɑs] n. abst. of bregol, fierceness ◇ Ety/352

breig N.braig

*breitha- N. [brˈɛjθɑ] inf. breitho N. [brˈɛjθɔ] v. to break out suddenly ◇ Ety/352

breitho N. inf.breitha-

*brenia- N. [brˈɛni.ɑ] inf. brenio N. [brˈɛni.ɔ] v. to endure ◇ Ety/353, VT/45:7The form bronio in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:7

brenio N. inf.brenia-

brennil N. [brˈɛnnil̡] n. f. lady ◇ Ety/351

brethel N.brethil II

brethil I S., N. pl.brethil II

brethil II S. [brˈɛθil̡] (brethel N.) pl. brethil S., N. n. Bot. beech, beech-tree, silver birch ◇ Ety/352, Ety/376, S/429

brith N. [brˈiθ] n. gravel ◇ Ety/353

brôg N. [brˈɔːg] n. Zool. bear ◇ Ety/374

*brona- N. [brˈɔnɑ] inf. brono N. [brˈɔnɔ] v. to last, to survive ◇ Ety/353*bronad N. ger.

*bronad N. [brˈɔnɑd] ger. of brona-, survival ← bronadui Ety/353

bronadui N. [brˈɔnɑduj] adj. enduring, lasting ◇ Ety/353

brono N. inf.brona-

bronwe S., N. [brˈɔnwɛ] n. endurance, lasting quality, faith ◇ Ety/353, SD/62

*brui S. [brˈuj] adj. loud, noisy ← Bruinen LotR/Index

brûn N. [brˈuːn] adj. old, that has long endured, or been established, or in use ◇ Ety/353

bui N. v. impers. to need ◇ Ety/372, X/Z

*buia- N. [bˈuj.ɑ] inf. buio N. [bˈuj.ɔ] v. to serve, to hold allegiance to ◇ Ety/353

buio N. inf.buia-

bund N. [bˈund] (bunn N.) n. 1. Biol. snout, nose ○ 2. Geog. by ext., cape (of land) ◇ Ety/372, X/ND2

bunn N.bund

bŷr N. pl.bôr

C

*cab- S. [kˈɑb] v. to leap ← cabed S/386, WJ/100cabed S. ger.

cabed S. [kˈɑbɛd] ger. of cab-, 1. leap ○ 2. by ext., deep gorge ◇ S/386, WJ/100Emended by Tolkien from earlier cabad. This is our sole late example that basic verbs should perhaps form their gerund in -ed, whereas derived verbs are well attested to use -ad (cf. aderthad)

cabor N. [kˈɑbr̩] (cabr N.) n. Zool. frog ◇ Ety/362MS *kabr, OS *kapro "leaper"

cabr N.cabor

cadw N. adj. shaped, formed ◇ Ety/362-363, X/W

cadwar N.cadwor

cadwor N. [kˈɑdwr̩] (cadwar N.) adj. shapely ◇ Ety/363

cae S. [kˈɑɛ] (caen- S.) adj. num. card. ten ◇ PE/17:95Cf. caer, pae

cael N. [kˈɑɛl] n. lying in bed, sickness ◇ Ety/363

caeleb N. [kˈɑɛlɛb] adj. bedridden, sick ◇ Ety/363

caen- S.cae

*caenen S. [kˈɑɛnɛn] adj. num. ord. tenth ← nelchaenen SD/129-131Cf. paenui, caenui

caenui S. [kˈɑɛnuj] adj. num. ord. tenth ◇ VT/42:10Cf. paenui, caenen

caer N. [kˈɑɛr] adj. num. card. ten ◇ Ety/363Cf. cae, pae

caew N. [kˈɑɛw] n. lair, resting-place ◇ Ety/363

cai S. [kˈɑj] n. hedge ◇ UT/282

cail S. [kˈɑjl] n. fence or palisade of spikes and sharp stakes ◇ UT/282

*caint S. pl.cant

cair S. [kˈɑjr] (ceir N.) n. ship ◇ Ety/365, LotR/A(iv), X/EI

calad S., N. [kˈɑlɑd] ger. light ◇ Ety/362, UT/65

calan S. [kˈɑlɑn] n. day, period of actual daylight ◇ aLotR/DAttested in the first edition of LotR, but omitted from the second.Cf. aur

calar S. [kˈɑlɑr] n. (portable) lamp ← celerdain LotR/V:I, WR/287, RC/523

calardan S. [kɑlˈɑrdɑn] pl. celerdain S. [kɛlˈɛrdɑjn] n. lampwright ◇ LotR/V:I, WR/287, RC/523calar+tân

calben S. [kˈɑlbɛn] pl. celbin S. [kˈɛl̡bin] n. 1. Pop. Elf of the Great Journey (lit. "light person") ○ 2. Pop. by ext., all Elves but the Avari ◇ WJ/362, WJ/376-377, WJ/408-409

calen S., N. [kˈɑlɛn] pl. celin S. [kˈɛlin] adj. green ◇ Ety/362, S/429, Letters/282, RC/349, VT/42:19Etym. "bright-coloured"

calf N. n. water-vessel ◇ Ety/362, X/PH

callon N. [kˈɑllɔn] n. hero ◇ Ety/362

cam S., N. [kˈɑm] (camb N., camm N.) n. Biol. hand ◇ Ety/361, Ety/371, S/429

camb N.cam

camland N. n. Biol. palm of hand ◇ Ety/367, X/ND4cam+land

camm N.cam

can- S. [kˈɑn] v. to cry out, shout, call ◇ PM/361-362

canad S., N. [kˈɑnɑd] (canath N.) adj. num. card. four ◇ Ety/362, VT/42:24,25, VT/48:6, VT/46:3

canath I N.canad

canath II S. [kˈɑnɑθ] n. "quarter", silver coin used in Gondor, the fourth part of a "mirian" → mirianPM/45mirian S. n.

canhui S. Arch.canthui

cann N. adj. bold ◇ Ety/362, X/ND1

*cannas N. [kˈɑnnɑs] n. abst. of cant, shaping ← Dorgannas WJ/192, WJ/206

cant N. [kˈɑnt] pl. *caint S. [kˈɑjnt] n. outline, shape ← morchaint S/432, Ety/362, VT/42:28*cannas N. n. abst.

canthui S. [kˈɑnθuj] (Arch. cantui S., Arch. canhui S.) adj. num. ord. fourth ◇ VT/42:10, VT/42:25,27

cantui S. Arch.canthui

car N. [kˈɑr] (cardh N.) n. house, building ◇ Ety/362

*car- S. [kˈɑr] irreg. pa. t. agor S. [ˈɑgɔr] v. to do ← avo garo WJ/371, WJ/415*cared N. ger.caro S. v. imp.cerir S. v. pres. 3rd pl.

carab S. [kˈɑrɑb] n. hat ◇ WJ/187

carach S. [kˈɑrɑx] n. Biol. jaw, row of teeth ◇ S/429, RC/607

*caraes N. [kˈɑrɑɛs] n. jagged hedge of spikes ← Helcharaes Ety/362

carag N. [kˈɑrɑg] n. spike, tooth of rock ◇ Ety/362

caran S., N. [kˈɑrɑn] adj. red ◇ Ety/362, S/429, LotR/E

caras S., N. [kˈɑrɑs] n. 1. circular earthwall with dike ○ 2. city (built above ground) ◇ Ety/362, LotR/II:VII, RC/311

carch S., N. [kˈɑrx] n. Biol. tooth, fang ◇ Ety/362, S/429

cardh I N.car

cardh II N.carth

*cared N. [kˈɑrɛd] ger. of car-, making, doing ← ceredir Ety/354

caro S. [kˈɑrɔ] v. imp. of car-, do! make! ◇ VT/44:21,25

carth N. [kˈɑrθ] (cardh N.) n. deed, feat ◇ Ety/362Cf. úgarth

*cast S. [kˈɑst] n. Geog. cape, headland ← Angast VT/42:28

cathrae S. [kˈɑθrɑɛ] n. tressure, net for combining the hair ◇ VT/42:12

caul S. [kˈɑul] n. great burden, affliction ◇ VT/39:10

caun I N.cofn

caun II S. [kˈɑun] n. outcry, clamor ◇ PM/361-362conath S. n. coll.

caun III N. [kˈɑun] n. valour ◇ Ety/362

*caun IV S. [kˈɑun] pl. conin S. [kˈɔnin] n. prince, ruler ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308MS *kaun, Q. cáno

caw N. [kˈɑw] n. top ◇ Ety/362

ceber S., N. [kˈɛbɛr] pl. cebir S., N. [kˈɛbir] n. stake, spike, stone ridge ◇ Ety/363, LotR/II:VIII, S/437, RC/327

cebir S., N. pl.ceber

cef N. [kˈɛv] pl. ceif N. [kˈɛjv] n. soil ◇ Ety/363

ceif N. pl.cef

ceir N.cair

ceirdan N.círdan

celbin S. pl.calben

celeb S., N. [kˈɛlɛb] n. silver ◇ Ety/367, S/429, LotR/E, Letters/426

celebren N. [kɛlˈɛbrɛn] pl. celebrin S. [kɛlˈɛbrin] adj. like silver (in hue or worth) ◇ Ety/367, S/429, VT/45:25

celebrin S. pl.celebren

celefn N.celevon

celeg S., N. [kˈɛlɛg] adj. swift, agile, hasty ◇ Ety/366, PM/353, VT/41:10

celeir N. adj. brilliant ◇ Ety/362, X/EI

celerdain S. pl.calardan

celevon N. [kˈɛlɛvn̩] (celefn N.) adj. of silver ◇ Ety/367

celin S. pl.calen

*cell S. [kˈɛl̡l] adj. 1. running ○ 2. by ext., flowing (of water) ← Celduin LotR/Map

celon N. [kˈɛlɔn] n. Geog. river ← Celon (name) Ety/363

celw N. n. spring, source ◇ Ety/363, X/W

*cen- N. [kˈɛn] v. to see ← cenedril TI/184*cened N. ger.

*cened N. [kˈɛnɛd] ger. of cen-, seeing, sight ← cenedril TI/184

cenedril N. [kɛnˈɛdril̡] n. looking-glass, mirror ◇ TI/184, RS/466cened+rill

cennan N. [kˈɛnnɑn] n. potter ◇ Ety/390cêf+tân

cerch N. [kˈɛrx] n. sickle ◇ Ety/365

ceredir N. [kˈɛrɛdˌir] n. doer, maker ◇ Ety/354cared+dîr

cerin S., N. [kˈɛrin] n. 1. circular enclosure ○ 2. by ext., mound ◇ Ety/365, S/429