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English and Welsh
English
Welsh
Manuscript

caws bobi
caws bobi
Welsh rabbit (literally "toasted cheese")
iaith gyflawn o ddawn a buddugoliaeth
iaith gyflawn o ddawn a buddugoliaeth
a language full of talents and triumphs (spelt buddygoliaeth in the essay)
eglwys
eglwys
church
Sae#on
Saeson
the English
Cymry
Cymry
the Welsh
Sais
Sais
an Englishman
Harlech
Harlech
a town in Northwest Wales
Mabinogi
Mabinogi
one of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi, a cycle of mediaeval Welsh tales
Cymraeg
Cymraeg
the Welsh language
pen
pen
head
ciwdod, ciwed, gem, pader, y#gol, ffydd, #wydd
ciwdod, ciwed, gem, pader, ysgol, ffydd, swydd
nation, rabble, gem, the Lord’s prayer, ladder, faith, job
Arthur
Arthur
Arthur
Kulhwch ac Olwen
Kulhwch ac Olwen
Kulhwch and Olwen, a mediaeval Welsh tale
Twrch Trwyth
Twrch Trwyth
Twrch Trwyth, a bewitched boar and prominent character in Kulhwch and Olwen
Gwrhyr Gwal#tawt Ieithoed
Gwrhyr Gwalstawt Ieithoed
Gwrhyr Interpreter of Tongues, a character in Kulhwch and Olwen (modern orthography: Gwrhyr Gwalstawd Ieithoedd)
bydd, byddwn, byddant
bydd, byddwn, byddant
will be, (we) will be, (they) will be
hongian, cu#an, betws
hongian, cusan, betws
to hang, a kiss, a chapel (spelt bettws in the essay)
tincian, mwmlian
tincian, mwmlian
to tinkle, to mumble
tatws, #mitio, #ment
tatws, smitio, sment
potatoes, to submit, cement
Lludd a Llefelys
Lludd a Llefelys
Lludd and Llefelys, a mediaeval Welsh tale
adeiladwyd 1887
adeiladwyd 1887
built in 1887
nef, wybren
nef, wybren
heaven, sky
adar, alarch, eryr
adar, alarch, eryr
birds, swan, eagle
tân, dwfr, awel, gwynt, niwl, glaw
tân, dwfr, awel, gwynt, niwl, glaw
fire, water, breeze, wind, mist, rain
haul, lloer, #êr
haul, lloer, sêr
sun, moon, star
arglwydd, gwas, morwyn, dyn
arglwydd, gwas, morwyn, dyn
lord, lad, maid, man
cadarn, gwan, caled, meddal, garw, llyfn, llym, #wrth
cadarn, gwan, caled, meddal, garw, llyfn, llym, swrth
strong, weak, hard, soft, rough, smooth, sharp, inert
glas, melyn, brith
glas, melyn, brith
blue, yellow, spotted
annealladwy, dideimladrwydd, amhechadurus, atgyfodiad
annealladwy, dideimladrwydd, amhechadurus, atgyfodiad
incomprehensible, insensibility, impeccable, resurrection
nant, meddiant, afon, llawenydd, cenfigen, gwanwyn, gwenyn, crafanc
nant, meddiant, afon, llawenydd, cenfigen, gwanwyn, gwenyn, crafanc
brook, possession, river, joy, jealousy, spring, bees, claw
gogoniant
gogoniant
glory
Lloegr
Lloegr
England
Sae#neg
Saesneg
English






Dy#gwn y llon Frythoneg!
Dysgwn y llon Frythoneg!
Let us learn the merry British!
Doeth yw ei dy#g, da iaith deg.
Doeth yw ei dysg, da iaith deg.
Wise is its learning, good and fair langage.

Commentary
Tolkien quoted various Welsh words and phrases in his lecture English and Welsh, republished as an essay in the collection The Monsters and the Critics. Since the sounds and patterns of Welsh words, and the pleasure Tolkien found in them, are an important topic of this lecture, we have thought it useful to record all Welsh quotes it contains, in order to provide readers unfamiliar with the language of Heaven (iaith y nefoedd) with an acoustic impression. The Welsh Gloria Patri given near the end is recorded separately.

The text’s transcription emulates the Gothic minuscule, a common style of the Latin alphabet in the second half of the Middle Ages. We made use of Pia Frauss’ typeface _a e i o u.

References
Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel. The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays. Edited by Christopher Tolkien. London: HarperCollins, 2006. 256 p. ISBN 0-261-10263-X.
Thomas R. J., Bevan Gareth A., Donovan Patrick J. (editors). Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: A Dictionary of the Welsh Language. Cardiff/Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru/University of Wales Press, 1967-2002. 4 vol. ISBN 978-0-7083-1806-5. 🌍 Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru.

The works of John Ronald Reuel and Christopher Tolkien are under the copyright of their authors and/or rights holders, including their publishers and the Tolkien Estate.
Quotations from other authors, editors and translators mentioned in the bibliography are under the copyright of their publishers, except for those whose copyright term has ended.
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