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Gothic
Gothic belongs to the Eastern Germanic languages, a now extinct branch of the Germanic language family that also included Vandalic and Burgundian. It was the oldest Germanic language to be attested in writing, if runic inscriptions are excepted. It was spoken by the Goths, a Germanic people that probably originated in Sweden, and that under its later subdivisions into Wisigoths and Ostrogoths was to play a most important role during the late Antiquity. Wisigoths and Ostrogoths finally settled in Spain and Italy respectively. Gothic is mostly known through a translation of the Bible made by the missionary bishop Wulfila in the 4th century, of which substantial parts have come to us. It is the first language that Tolkien studied for his own pleasure, and it may have given an impulsion in the first development of Qenya. Some names from the Rhovanion region in the Third Age, like Vidumavi or Vidugavia, are of Gothic origin.

Atta unsar Pater noster.
Fagino Marja Ave Maria.
Bagme bloma Flower of the trees, a poem by J. R. R. Tolkien in a reconstructed form of Gothic.
Apostil to Thucydides – A young Tolkien scribbles on his books. Letters, n° 272.

The works of John Ronald Reuel and Christopher Tolkien are under the copyright of their authors and/or rights holders, including their publishers and the Tolkien Estate.
Quotations from other authors, editors and translators mentioned in the bibliography are under the copyright of their publishers, except for those whose copyright term has ended.
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