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Title

Hiswelókë's Sindarin dictionary

Compiled, edited and annotated by Didier Willis

Edition

Edition 1.9.1

Lexicon 0.9952

547 entries.

819 word forms (65 deduced, 62 normalized, 0 coined) in unique entries.

Publication

1999-2008, Didier Willis and The Sindarin Dictionary Project

Availability

Status: free.

License: This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share-Alike License, version 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/).

Additional limitation of scope: Sindarin, as one of the languages invented by J.R.R. Tolkien, is his artistic and intellectual property. The editor does not claim any intellectual property on the Sindarin language itself and, as a whole, on this dictionary, beyond the editorial annotations, the arrangement of entries and the encyclopaedic discussions or interpretations appended to these entries. The above-mentioned license applies to such elements only.

J.R.R. Tolkien's texts and books are copyrighted by the Tolkien Estate and/or Tolkien's publishers. As of yet, this material is not approved by the Tolkien Estate or Tolkien's publishers, and is henceforth an unauthorized Sindarin dictionary. This material is however provided under the editor's assumption that compiling, arranging, analyzing, normalizing and annotating entries in order to produce a dictionary for a language, even if it is an invented one, does not violate the copyright of the inventor.

Shall any third party include this material in a derived work, under the above-mentioned license or under any other applicable license, the editor will not be liable for possible infringement of copyright on the derived work. Every derived use of this material is left under the sole responsability of the third party.

Notwithstanding, this material is neither a verbatim reproduction of information from Tolkien's published works, nor a simple rearrangement of such information in a different order. Many entries are deduced from indirect evidences (such as compounds, inflected forms, etc.) or are normalized according to our current knowledge of the Sindarin phonology and morphology. As a consequence, some deductions, as presented by the editor or by other contributors to the dictionary, might actually prove incorrect or inaccurate when new information is published.

Any violation of copyright regarding yet unpublished texts by J.R.R. Tolkien is unintended. The compiler does not have any access to hitherto unpublished texts. Would it be the case, such texts would not be used in the dictionary. Therefore, this dictionary only contains entries based on published texts, either from direct attestations or based on deductions and conclusions drawn from these texts by careful comparisons.

Notes

The editor would like to thank all the persons who made this work possible. This dictionary would not have existed without the efforts of many other peoples. Lisa Star (editor of Tyalië Tyelelliéva) and Helge Kåre Fauskanger (webmaster of Ardalambion) gave me precious advices and encouragements at the very beginning of the project. David Salo sent me his own lexicons and kindly answered some of my questions about them. Cédric Fockeu (webmaster of J.R.R. Tolkien en Version Française) offered his technical skill in scripting languages, as well as disk space to host the original on-line search engine. My thanks are also addressed to Ryszard Derdzinski, Dorothea Salo, B. Philip Jonsson, Sébastien Mallet and the members of the ELFLING mailing-list, for their support during the early phases of this long project; and later to Jim Allan (editor and co-author of An Introduction to Elvish), Bertrand Bellet, Carl Hostetter (editor of Vinyar Tengwar), Per Lindberg (from Mellonath Daeron), Elena Liria, Emanuele Vicentini, Patrick Wynne and all the other members of the Sindarin dictionary discussion group for their contributions and continual feedback, with a special mention for Javier Lorenzo for all the corrections he sent to the mailing-list.

The Dragon Flame application would not have existed without Benjamin Babut. Likewise, this revised edition of the dictionary would not have seen the light without Benjamin's work and enthousiasm for Dragon Flame and its set of related tools. I am also indebt to Sylvain Veyrié and Thomas Deniau for having ported Dragon Flame to other operating systems.

The German translation of this dictionary is based on the initial work of Christian Buzek, with further help and lots of improvements by Florian Dombach (Das Sindarin Lexikon) and other readers. Benjamin Babut and David Giraudeau contributed to the French translation. We also thank Stéphane Landais for all his corrections.

Last but not least, this work is dedicated to Christopher Tolkien and to the Vinyar Tengwar & Parma Eldalamberon editorial staffs, whose efforts to publish J.R.R. Tolkien's linguistic papers have made such a dictionary possible.

Source

This dictionary is based on J.R.R. Tolkien's works, extended with etymological notes, phonetics and other information.

Sindarin is the language of the Grey Elves, invented by J.R.R. Tolkien and exemplified in his masterful epic story The Lord of the Rings.

This work aims at being a complete Sindarin and Noldorin dictionary, addressing not only Tolkien's fans wishing to understand the elvish sentences from The Lord of the Rings or to build simple sentences in Sindarin, but also scholars wanting to study Sindarin for what it is: the complex linguistic invention of a philology professor, and also a beautiful piece of art.

The Sindarin dictionary project began on October 23, 1999, and is still under development. By no mean shall this version be regarded as definitive. The editor is all too well aware that the dictionary is not as perfect or complete as it might be. Nevertheless, it seems better to encourage the study of Sindarin by the provision of a working dictionary rather than delay the publication perhaps for years, until the editor's ideals are satisfied — a condition which might never be attained.

Encoding
Project declaration

Dictionary compiled and adapted from various sources.

Core file encoded manually in XML (TEI P4).

XHTML version automatically generated from the XML (TEI) source using XSLT.

XSL-FO version automatically generated from the XHTML version using XSLT.

PDF version automatically generated from the XSL-FO version using PassiveTeX.

Sampling

Phonetics are transcribed using the X-SAMPA scheme for representing the IPA in 7-bit ASCII encoding.

Hypothetical words, either interpreted, reconstructed or deduced from mutated forms, are all marked as deduced.

Phonetics and special delimiters are rendered in Unicode (UTF-8) in the XHTML version. The Lucida Sans Unicode font is assumed, for the document to display correctly, as well a browser supporting Unicode.

Phonetics are rendered in IPA in the PDF version. Some symbols used as delimiters are rendered with glyphs available to the typesetter, and might differ from the XHTML version.

Correction

Status: high.

This document has been extensively checked, although a few casual errors or typos may still remain.

XML file validated with Richard Tobin's RXP software, for conformance to a subset of the TEI P4 DTD.

XHTML version validated with Richard Tobin's RXP software, for compliance with XHTML 1.0 Transitional.

The XSL-FO version is not validated.

Interpretation

Probable errors in the sources have been corrected and marked with the <corr> tag.

In the XHTML version, corrections are rendered using a specific markup (misreadings, etc.).


1. The Physical World in Its Larger Aspects

1.1 World

ardhon S. [ˈɑrðɔn] n. augm. of ardh, 1. Geog. great region, province ○ 2. by ext., world ← Calenardhon S/386, PM/348

gardh S. [gˈɑrð] n. 1. Geog. bounded or defined region ○ 2. by ext., world ◇ WJ/402

1.21 Earth, Land

amar N. [ˈɑmɑr] (ambar N.) n. earth ◇ Ety/372

cae I *S. [kˈɑɛ] (coe N.) n. earth ◇ Ety/363, X/OEThis word is indeclinable, according to the Etymologies

ceven S. [kˈɛvɛn] n. Earth ◇ VT/44:21,27

1.212 Earth = Ground, Soil

cef N. [kˈɛv] pl. ceif N. [kˈɛjv] n. soil ◇ Ety/363

1.213 Dust

ast N. [ˈɑst] n. dust ◇ Ety/349

lith S., N. [lˈiθ] n. ash, sand, dust ◇ Ety/369, S/434, TC/178

1.215 Sand

lith S., N. [lˈiθ] n. ash, sand, dust ◇ Ety/369, S/434, TC/178

1.22 Mountain; Hill

aeglir S. [ˈɑɛglir] (oeglir N.) n. Geog. range of mountain peaks ← Hithaeglir LotR, Ety/349, X/OE

amon S., N. [ˈɑmɔn] pl. emyn S., N. [ˈɛmyn] (emuin N.) n. Geog. hill, steep-sided mount ◇ Ety/348, LotR/E, RC/334

dôl N. [dˈɔːl] (dol S.) n. 1. head ○ 2. Geog. by ext., hill or mountain ◇ Ety/376, S/430, RC/268

*menniath N. [m'ɛnni.ɑθ] n. coll. of ment, 1. many points ○ 2. Geog. by ext., range of mountains ← Mornvenniath TI/124, Lambengolmor/799

mindon N. [mˈindɔn] n. 1. Geog. isolated hill, especially a hill with a watch tower ○ 2. by ext., tower ◇ Ety/373, Ety/395

orod S., N. [ˈɔrɔd] pl. ered S., N. [ˈɛrɛd] (eryd S., N., ereid N.) n. Geog. mountain ◇ Ety/379, S/435, Letters/263, TC/178, RC/621

orodrim N. [ɔrˈɔdrim] n. class pl. of orod, Geog. range of mountains ◇ Ety/379

tund N. [tˈund] (tunn N.) n. Geog. hill, mound ◇ Ety/395, X/ND1

1.24 Valley

im II S., N. [ˈim] (imm N., imb N.) n. Arch. Geog. dell, deep vale ← imlad, imloth, imrath, imrad, VT/45:18, VT/47:14This word only survived in compounds (due to the clash with im I)

imlad S., N. [ˈimlɑd] n. Geog. deep valley, narrow valley with steep sides (but a flat habitable bottom) ◇ S/433, LotR/Index, VT/45:18, VT/47:14, RC/234,482

imloth S. [ˈimlɔθ] n. Geog. flower-valley, flowery vale ◇ LotR/V:VIII, VT/42:18, RC/582This word only occurs in the place name Imloth Melui, a vale where roses grew

imrad S. [ˈimrɑd] n. Geog. a path or pass (between mountains, hills or trackless forest) ◇ VT/47:14

imrath S. [ˈimrɑθ] n. Geog. long narrow valley with a road or watercourse running through it lengthwise ◇ UT/465, RC/558

lad S. [lˈɑd] n. Geog. plain, valley ◇ S/433

nan S. [nˈɑn] (nand S., N., nann N.) n. 1. Geog. wide grassland, land at foot of hills with many streams ○ 2. by ext., valley ◇ Ety/374, S/435, Letters/308, VT/45:36, X/ND1

talath S. [tˈɑlɑθ] (dalath N.) n. 1. flat surface, plane ○ 2. Geog. flat land, plain, (wide) valley ← Talath Dirnen UT/465, Ety/353, S/437

tum S., N. [tˈum] n. deep valley, under or among hills ◇ Ety/394, S/438

1.25 Island

tol S. [tˈɔl] (toll N.) pl. tyll N. [tˈyll] n. Geog. island, (steep) isle rising with sheer sides from the sea or from a river ◇ Ety/394, S/438, VT/47:13, RC/333-334

1.27 Shore

esgar N. [ˈɛsgɑr] n. Geog. shore ◇ VT/46:14

falas S., N. [fˈɑlɑs] pl. felais *S. [fˈɛlɑjs] (feles N.) n. 1. Geog. beach, wave-beaten shore, line of surf ○ 2. Geog. as a proper noun, the western coast of Beleriand ◇ Ety/381, S/431, RC/18, X/EI

faur N. [fˈɑur] n. Geog. beach, shore ◇ VT/46:15

1.31 Water

nen S., N. [nˈɛn] pl. nîn S., N. [nˈiːn] n. 1. water (used of a lake, pool or lesser river) ○ 2. Geog. by ext., waterland ◇ Ety/376, S/435, UT/457, RC/327-328

1.32 Sea

aear S. [ˈɑɛ.ɑr] n. Geog. sea ◈ Tolkien changed this word several times, see gaear

aearon S. [ˈɑɛ.ɑrɔn] n. augm. of aear, Geog. great sea, ocean ◈ Tolkien changed this word several times, see gaearon

aer I S. [ˈɑɛr] n. Geog. sea ◈ Tolkien changed this word several times, see aear, gaear

gaear S. [gˈɑɛ.ɑr] (oear N.) n. Geog. sea ◇ Ety/349, PM/363, RGEO/73

gaearon S. [gˈɑɛ.ɑrɔn] (gaeron S.) n. augm. of gaear, Geog. great sea, ocean ◇ PM/363, PM/348, RGEO/72-73

gaer III S. [gˈɑɛr] (oer N.) n. Geog. sea ◇ Ety/349, S/431, PM/363

1.33 Lake

ael *S. [ˈɑɛl] (oel N.) pl. aelin S. [ˈɑɛlin] (oelin N.) n. Geog. lake, pool, mere ◇ Ety/349, S/427, X/OE

S. [lˈɔː] n. Geog. shallow lake, fenland ◇ UT/263, VT/42:8-10

nen S., N. [nˈɛn] pl. nîn S., N. [nˈiːn] n. 1. water (used of a lake, pool or lesser river) ○ 2. Geog. by ext., waterland ◇ Ety/376, S/435, UT/457, RC/327-328

rim II *S. [rˈim] (rhim N., rhimb N.) n. Geog. cold pool or lake (in mountains) ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

1.34 Gulf, Bay

côf S. [kˈɔːv] n. Geog. bay ◇ VT/42:15

hûb N. [hˈuːb] n. Geog. haven, harbour, small land-locked bay ◇ Ety/364

1.36 River; Stream; Brook

celon N. [kˈɛlɔn] n. Geog. river ← Celon (name) Ety/363

duin S. [dˈujn] n. Geog. (long and large) river (having strong current) ◇ S/430, LotR/F, TC/179, VT/48:24

nen S., N. [nˈɛn] pl. nîn S., N. [nˈiːn] n. 1. water (used of a lake, pool or lesser river) ○ 2. Geog. by ext., waterland ◇ Ety/376, S/435, UT/457, RC/327-328

oll N. [ˈɔld] (old N.) n. Geog. torrent, mountain-stream ◇ Ety/396

sîr S., N. [sˈiːr] n. Geog. river ◇ Ety/385, S/437, RC/384

sirion I N. [sˈiri.ɔn] n. augm. of sîr, Geog. great river ← Sirion Ety/385

1.37 Spring; Well

celu *S. [kˈɛlu] (celw N.) n. spring, source ◇ Ety/363, X/W

eithel S., N. [ˈɛjθɛl̡] pl. eithil S. [ˈɛjθil̡] n. issue of water, spring, well ◇ Ety/363, S/430, S/433, WJ/85, TC/187

1.41 Woods, Forest

eryn S. [ˈɛryn] n. wood ◇ UT/436, LotR/B

glad S. [glˈɑd] n. wood ← Methed-en-Glad UT/452

taur II S., N. [tˈɑur] n. great wood, forest ◇ Ety/391, S/420, S/438

tawar S., N. [tˈɑwɑr] n. 1. wood (as a material) ○ 2. by ext., great wood, forest ← Tawar-in-Drúedain UT/467, Ety/391

1.42 Tree

galadh S., N. [gˈɑlɑð] n. Bot. tree ◇ Ety/357, S/427, LotR/E, LB/354, RGEO/73, Letters/426

orn S., N. [ˈɔrn] pl. yrn N. [ˈyrn] n. Bot. (any large) tree ◇ Ety/379, S/435, Letters/426

1.43 Wood

tawar S., N. [tˈɑwɑr] n. 1. wood (as a material) ○ 2. by ext., great wood, forest ← Tawar-in-Drúedain UT/467, Ety/391

1.44 Stone; Rock

gond S. [gˈɔnd] (gonn N.) n. great stone, rock ◇ Ety/359, S/431, X/ND1

sarn S., N. [sˈɑrn] n. 1. stone (as a material) ○ 2. small stone ◇ Ety/385, S/437, UT/463, VT/42:11, RC/327Sern in UT/463 is a misprint, see VT/42:11

1.46 Cave

fela N. [fˈɛlɑ] pl. fili N. [fˈili] n. cave ◇ Ety/381

gath N. [gˈɑθ] n. cavern ◇ Ety/358

gathrod N. [gˈɑθrɔd] n. cave ◇ Ety/358

groth S. [grˈɔθ] n. 1. cave, tunnel, large excavation ○ 2. delving, underground dwelling ◇ WJ/415, S/431, VT/46:12

rond S. [rˈɔnd] (rhond N., rhonn N.) n. 1. cave roof ○ 2. vaulted or arched roof, as seen from below (and usually not visible from outside), or a (large) hall of chamber so roofed ◇ Ety/384, VT/46:12, S/437, WJ/414, X/RH, X/ND1

1.51 Sky, Heavens

menel S. [mˈɛnɛl̡] n. sky, high heaven, firmament, the region of the stars ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, LB/354, RGEO/72, VT/44:21,23-24

1.52 Sun

Anor S., N. [ˈɑnɔr] n. Astron. sun ◇ Ety/348, RC/232

1.53 Moon

cúron *S. [kˈuːrɑn] (cúran N.) n. Astron. the crescent Moon ◇ Ety/365, X/Z

cýron S. [kˈiːrɔn] (cýrawn S.) n. Astron. new moon ◇ VT/48:7

ithil S., N. [ˈiθil̡] n. Astron. the (full) Moon, lit. 'The Sheen' ◇ Ety/361, Ety/385, Ety/392, LotR/E, LB/354, RC/232

1.54 Star

êl S. [ˈɛːl] pl. elin S. [ˈɛlin] n. Arch., Poet. Astron. star (little used except in verses) ◇ WJ/363, MR/373, RGEO/73, Letters/281

geil N. [gˈɛjl] pl. gîl N. n. Astron. star, bright spark ◇ Ety/358, VT/45:15Cf. gil

gil S. [gˈil] Astron. star, bright spark ◇ LotR/E, S/431, RGEO/73In The Etymologies (Ety/358, corrected by VT/45:15), this word was given as geil, plural gîl. However, later in LotR/E and RGEO/73, Tolkien seems to consider gil as a singular (with no hints in the sources of what the plural would be, besides the collective plural giliath)

tinu *S. [tˈinu] (tinw N.) n. Astron. spark, small star ◇ Ety/393, X/W

1.61 Light (noun)

calad S., N. [kˈɑlɑd] ger. light ◇ Ety/362, UT/65

gail N. [gˈɑjl] n. bright light ◇ Ety/362

gal- N. [gɑl] pref. light ← galvorn, etc.

galad S. [gˈɑlɑd] n. light, radiance, glittering, reflection (from jewels, glass or polished metal, or water) ◇ VT/45:13, PM/347, Letters/425

glaur N. [glˈɑur] (glor- N.) n. Theo. golden light (of the golden tree Laurelin) ◇ Ety/358, Ety/368

1.62 Darkness

dúath S., N. [dˈuːɑθ] (dúwath N.) n. coll. of , 1. darkness, shadow ○ 2. nightshade ◇ Ety/354, S/430

fuin S., N. [fˈujn] n. night, dead of night, gloom, darkness ◇ Ety/354, Ety/382, S/431

môr S., N. [mˈɔːr] n. darkness, dark, night ◇ Ety/373, Letters/382

1.622 Dark, Murky

doll N. [dˈɔll] (dolt N.) adj. dark, dusky, obscure ◇ Ety/355, Ety/376, Tengwestie/20031207

dúath S., N. [dˈuːɑθ] (dúwath N.) n. coll. of , 1. darkness, shadow ○ 2. nightshade ◇ Ety/354, S/430

dûr S., N. [dˈuːr] pl. duir S. [dˈujr] adj. dark, sombre ◇ Ety/354, S/430, UT/434

morn S., N. [mˈɔrn] pl. myrn S. [mˈyrn] adj. black, dark ◇ Ety/373, Letters/382, Letters/427, WJ/368, WR/113, UT/65

1.63 Shade

dae S., N. [dˈɑɛ] n. shadow ◇ Ety/354, S/430

gwath S., N. [gwˈɑθ] n. 1. shade, shadow, dim light ○ 2. stain ◇ Ety/397, S/432

lum *S. [lˈum] (lhum N.) n. shade ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

*morchant S. [mˈɔrxɑnt] pl. morchaint S. [mˈɔrxɑjnt] n. shadow (of objects, cast by light), dark shape ◇ S/432, VT/42:9

1.71 Air

gwelu *S. [gwˈɛlu] (gwelw N.) n. air (as substance) ◇ Ety/398, X/W

gwelwen N. [gwˈɛl̡wɛn] n. air, lower air (distinct from the upper air of the stars, or the outer) ◇ Ety/398

gwilith N. [gwˈiliθ] n. air (as a region) ◇ Ety/398

1.72 Wind

gwaew N. [gwˈɑɛw] n. wind ◇ Ety/387

sûl I S. [sˈuːl] n. wind ◇ S/437

1.722 Storm

alagos N. [ˈɑlɑgɔs] n. storm of wind ◇ Ety/348

1.723 Breeze

hwest *S. [ʍˈɛst] (chwest N.) n. puff, breath, breeze ◇ Ety/388, X/HW

1.73 Cloud

fain S. [fˈɑjn] (fein N.) n. and adj. 1. white ○ 2. as a noun, cloud ◇ Ety/387, WR/288, RC/268, VT/46:15, X/EICf. faun, fân

fân S. [fˈɑːn] n. 1. veil ○ 2. by ext., cloud (applied to clouds, floating as veils over the blue sky or the sun or moon, or resting on hills) ◇ RGEO/74Cf. faun, fain

faun N. [fˈɑun] n. cloud ◇ Ety/387, VT/46:15Cf. fain, fân

1.74 Mist (Fog, Haze)

hîth S. [hˈiːθ] (hith N.) n. mist, fog ◇ Ety/364, S/432

hithu *S. [hˈiθu] (hithw N.) n. fog ◇ Ety/364, X/W

mith I N. [mˈiθ] n. white fog, wet mist ◇ Ety/373

1.75 Rain (noun)

ross I *S. [rˈɔss] (rhoss N.) n. rain ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

1.752 Rainbow

eiliant *S. [ˈɛjli.ɑnt] (eilianw N., eilian N.) n. rainbow ◇ Ety/360, Ety/400See ianu and iant for a discussion

ninniach S. [nˈinni.ɑx] n. rainbow ◇ S/387

1.76 Snow (noun)

loss S. [lˈɔss] n. snow (especially fallen or long-lying snow) ◇ S/434, VT/42:18, RGEO/70

1.77 Ice

heleg N. [hˈɛlɛg] n. ice ◇ Ety/364

1.81 Fire

naur S., N. [nˈɑur] n. 1. flame ○ 2. fire ◇ Ety/374, S/435, LotR/II:IV

ûr I N. [ˈuːr] n. fire, heat ◇ Ety/396

1.82 Flame (noun)

lach *S. [lˈɑx] (lhach N.) n. (leaping) flame ◇ S/433, X/LH

naur S., N. [nˈɑur] n. 1. flame ○ 2. fire ◇ Ety/374, S/435, LotR/II:IV

1.83 Smoke (noun)

osp N. [ˈɔsp] n. reek, smoke ◇ Ety/396

1.84 Ashes

lith S., N. [lˈiθ] n. ash, sand, dust ◇ Ety/369, S/434, TC/178

1.86 Light (verb), Kindle

*lacha- S. [lˈɑxɑ] v. to flame

*nartha- N. [nˈɑrθɑ] inf. nartho N. [nˈɑrθɔ] v. to kindle ◇ VT/45:37

2. Mankind: Sex, Age, Family Relationship

2.21 Man² (vs. Woman)

benn N. [bˈɛnn] n. m. man, male ◇ Ety/352, VT/45:9

dîr N. [dˈiːr] n. m. Arch. man, referring to an adult male (elf, mortal, or of any other speaking race)Ety/354, Ety/352

2.22 Woman

bess S., N. [bˈɛss] n. f. 1. (young) woman ○ 2. wife ◇ Ety/352, SD/129-31

dess N. [dˈɛss] n. f. young woman ◇ Ety/375

N. [dˈiː] n. f. Poet. woman, lady ◇ Ety/352, Ety/354

2.26 Girl

iell N. [jˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid ◇ Ety/385, Ety/400Stated to be an alteration of sell, remodelled after ion "son" (OS *jondo). It was "a change assisted by the loss of s in compounds and patronymics", hence the ending -iel in several feminine words

neth II S. [nˈɛθ] n. f. 1. hypo. of nîth II sister ○ 2. girl (in her teens, approaching the adult) ◇ VT/47:14-16,33, VT/48:6

sell N. [sˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid (child) ◇ Ety/385

2.31 Husband

hervenn N. [hˈɛrvɛn] (herven N.) n. m. husband ◇ Ety/352, Ety/364, X/ND4

2.32 Wife

bess S., N. [bˈɛss] n. f. 1. (young) woman ○ 2. wife ◇ Ety/352, SD/129-31

hervess N. [hˈɛrvɛs] (herves N.) n. f. wife ◇ Ety/352, Ety/364

2.35 Father

ada N. [ˈɑdɑ] n. m. hypo. of adar, father, daddy ◇ Ety/349

adar S., N. [ˈɑdɑr] pl. edair S. [ˈɛdɑjr] (eder N., edeir N.) n. m. father ◇ Ety/349, PM/324, MR/373, LotR/II:II, VT/44:21-22, X/EI

2.36 Mother

emel S. [ˈɛmɛl] (emmel S.) n. f. mother ◇ Emeldir S/155, VT/48:17

emil N. [ˈɛmil] n. f. Poet. mother ◇ VT/45:5

nana N. [nˈɑnɑ] n. hypo. mother, mummy ◇ Ety/348, Ety/374

naneth N. [nˈɑnɛθ] n. mother ◇ Ety/348, Ety/374

2.37 Parents

odhril N. [ˈɔðril̡] n. f. parent ◇ Ety/379

odhron N. [ˈɔðrɔn] n. m. parent ◇ Ety/379

2.41 Son

ion S. [jˈɔn] (iond *S., ionn N.) n. m. 1. son ○ 2. by ext., scion, male descendant ◇ Ety/400, MR/373, X/ND1, X/ND2For the second meaning, cf. Hadorion, a Húrin's epithet in WJ/294, Hurinionath referring to the house of Húrin the Steward in PM/202-3,218, and Gil-Galad's epithet Ereinion, cf. also the gloss of the old Qenya cognate yondo "descendant of" in PE/12:106, or the use of the same suffix in later Quenya names such as Isildurioni and Anárioni "Heirs of Isildur (resp. Anárion)" in PM/192,196

iôn S. [jˈɔːn] n. son ◇ WJ/337

2.42 Daughter

iell N. [jˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid ◇ Ety/385, Ety/400Stated to be an alteration of sell, remodelled after ion "son" (OS *jondo). It was "a change assisted by the loss of s in compounds and patronymics", hence the ending -iel in several feminine words

sell N. [sˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid (child) ◇ Ety/385

2.43 Child (Son or Daughter)

hên II S. [hˈɛːn] pl. hîn S. [hˈiːn] n. child (mostly used as a prefix in patronymics or metronymics) ◇ WJ/403

2.44 Brother

hanar S. [hˈɑnɑr] n. m. brother ◇ VT/47:14

hawn S. [hˈɑwn] n. m. Arch. brother ◇ VT/47:14Cf. hanar

muindor N. [mˈujndɔr] pl. muindyr N. [mˈujndyr] n. m. brother ◇ Ety/394

tôr N. [tˈɔːr] pl. teryn *S. [tˈɛryn] (terein N.) n. m. Arch. brother ◇ Ety/394, X/ZThe word muindor is more usual

2.45 Sister

muinthel N. [mˈujnθɛl̡] pl. muinthil N. [mˈujnθil̡] n. f. sister ◇ Ety/392

neth II S. [nˈɛθ] n. f. 1. hypo. of nîth II sister ○ 2. girl (in her teens, approaching the adult) ◇ VT/47:14-16,33, VT/48:6

nîth II S. [nˈiːθ] n. f. sister ◇ VT/47:14

thêl N. [θˈɛːl] pl. thelei N. n. f. sister ◇ Ety/392

2.82 Family

noss S., N. [nˈɔss] (nos N.) n. kindred, family, clan ◇ Ety/378, PM/320

nost S. [nˈɔst] n. kindred, family, house ◇ PM/360Cf. noss

nothlir N. [nˈɔθlir] n. family line (esp. as family tree, genealogical tree) ◇ WR/234, WR/237, WR/309

3. Animals

3.11 Animal

lavan S. [lˈɑvɑn] pl. levain S. [lˈɛvɑjn] n. Zool. animal (usually applied to four-footed beasts, and never to reptiles or birds) ◇ WJ/388, WJ/416

*tad-dal S. [tˈɑd.dɑl] pl. tad-dail S. [tˈɑd.dɑjl] n. and adj. Zool. biped, two-legged animal ◇ WJ/388

3.12 Male (adj.)

anu *S. [ˈɑnu] (anw N.) adj. male ◇ Ety/360, X/WA literal interpretation of the Etymologies would class this word as a noun, but David Salo notes that the punctuation in The Etymologies is not always reliable. Noldorin anw cannot be cognate to the Quenya noun hanu (*3anû) because the final -u would drop. It must rather be cognate to the Quenya adjective hanwa (*3anwâ) attested under the stem INI, where it is also stated that inw, corresponding to Quenya inya "female", has been remodelled after anw. The combination of these two entries, along with the phonological evidences, clearly indicates that anw is actually an adjective

3.13 Female

inu *S. [ˈinu] (inw N.) adj. female ◇ Ety/361, X/W

3.17 Pasture (noun)

nadhor N. [nˈɑðr̩] n. pasture ◇ Ety/374

nadhras N. [nˈɑðrɑs] n. abst. of nadhor, pasture ◇ Ety/374

3.21 Bull

mund S. [mˈund] n. Zool. bull ◇ Letters/422-423

3.41 Horse (Generic)

lobor N. [lˈɔbr̩] n. Zool. horse ◇ VT/45:28Cf. roch

roch S., N. [rˈɔx] n. Zool. horse, swift horse for riding ◇ Ety/384, S/436, Letters/178, Letters/282, Letters/382

3.61 Dog

N. [hˈuː] n. Zool. dog ◇ Ety/364

rŷn *S. [rˈyːn] (rhŷn N.) n. Zool. "chaser", hound of chase ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

3.64 Bird

aew S., N. [ˈɑɛw] n. Orn. (small) bird ◇ Ety/348, S/434

fileg N. [fˈilɛg] pl. filig N. [fˈilig] n. Orn. small bird ◇ Ety/381

3.65 Fish

hâl N. [hˈɑːl] n. Zool. fish ◇ VT/45:20Cf. lim III

lim III *S. [lˈim] (lhim N., lhimb N.) n. Zool. fish ◇ Ety/369, X/LHCf. hâl

3.71 Wolf

draug S., N. [drˈɑug] n. Zool. wolf ◇ Ety/354, S/430

garaf N. [gˈɑrɑv] n. Zool. wolf ◇ Ety/377

3.72 Lion

raw II *S. [rˈɑw] (rhaw N.) pl. roe *S. [rˈɔɛ] (rhui N.) n. Zool. lion ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

3.73 Bear

brôg N. [brˈɔːg] n. Zool. bear ◇ Ety/374

graw S. [grˈɑw] n. Zool. bear ◇ VT/47:12

medli *S. [mˈɛdli] (megli N.) n. Zool. bear ◇ Ety/369, Ety/371, X/DL

3.74 Fox

rusc S. [rˈusk] n. Zool. fox ◇ VT/41:10

3.75 Deer

aras S. [ˈɑrɑs] n. Zool. deer ◇ WJ/156-157

3.77 Elephant

annabon N. [ˈɑnnɑbɔn] (andabon N.) n. Zool. elephant ◇ Ety/372, X/ND2

3.79 Hunt (vb.)

*fara- N. [fˈɑrɑ] inf. faro N. [fˈɑrɔ] v. to hunt ◇ Ety/387

3.84 Worm

lhûg S., N. [ɬˈuːg] n. Zool. snake, serpent ◇ Ety/370, S/434

lŷg (corr. lyg) S. [lˈyːg] n. Zool. snake ◇ LotR/E

3.84 Snake

lhûg S., N. [ɬˈuːg] n. Zool. snake, serpent ◇ Ety/370, S/434

lŷg (corr. lyg) S. [lˈyːg] n. Zool. snake ◇ LotR/E

3.85 Swan

alph S. [ˈɑlf] (alf N.) pl. eilph S. [ˈɛjlf] n. Orn. swan ◇ Ety/348, S/427, LotR/E, VT/42:6-7, X/PH

3.91 Animals - other

cabor N. [kˈɑbr̩] (cabr N.) n. Zool. frog ◇ Ety/362

gwilwileth N. [gwˈil̡wilɛθ] n. Zool. butterfly ◇ Ety/398

ungol S., N. [ˈuŋgl̩] n. Zool. spider ◇ Ety/366, WR/202, LotR, RC/490

4. Parts of the Body; Bodily Functions and Conditions

4.13 Flesh

rhaw IV S. [ɹ̥ˈɑw] n. flesh, body ◇ MR/350, VT/47:12

4.14 Hair

fast N. [fˈɑst] n. shaggy hair ◇ Ety/381

finnel N. [fˈinnɛl̡] (findel N.) n. (braided) hair ◇ Ety/387, X/ND2

4.142 Beard

fang N. [fˈɑŋ] n. beard ◇ Ety/387

4.15 Blood

*agar S. [ˈɑgɑr] n. blood ← Agarwaen S/378

iâr N. [jˈɑːr] n. blood ◇ Ety/400

sereg S. [sˈɛrɛg] n. blood ◇ S/437

4.17 Horn

ras S. [rˈɑs] (rhas N.) pl. rais S. [rˈɑjs] n. horn (especially on living animal, but also applied to mountains) ◇ Ety/383, VT/46:10, LotR/E, S/436, X/RHThe form rhaes in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/46:10

rasg *S. [rˈɑsg] (rhasg N.) n. horn (especially on living animal, but also applied to mountains) ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

tarag N. [tˈɑrɑg] n. 1. horn ○ 2. by ext., steep mountain peak ◇ Ety/391, VT/46:17

4.20 Head

dôl N. [dˈɔːl] (dol S.) n. 1. head ○ 2. Geog. by ext., hill or mountain ◇ Ety/376, S/430, RC/268

4.204 Face

thîr S., N. [θˈiːr] n. look, face, expression, countenance ◇ Ety/392, VT/41:10

4.207 Jaw

anc N. [ˈɑŋk] n. Biol. jaw, row of teeth ◇ Ety/348, Ety/374

carach S. [kˈɑrɑx] n. Biol. jaw, row of teeth ◇ S/429, RC/607

naew N. [nˈɑɛw] n. Biol. jaw ◇ Ety/374

4.21 Eye

hen II S. [hˈɛn] (hend *S., henn S., hên N.) pl. hin *S. [hˈin] (hîn N.) n. Biol. eye ◇ Ety/364, LotR/II:IX, WR/128, X/ND1

4.212 Sharpeyed

maecheneb S. [mˈɑɛxɛnɛb] adj. sharp-eyed ◇ WJ/337

4.22 Ear

lhaw S., N. [ɬˈɑw] n. pl. Biol. ears (referring to one person's pair of ears only) ◇ Ety/368, LotR/II:IX

lhewig N. [ɬˈɛwig] n. sing. of lhaw, Biol. ear ◇ Ety/368, LotR/II:IX

4.23 Nose

bund N. [bˈund] (bunn N.) n. 1. Biol. snout, nose ○ 2. Geog. by ext., cape (of land) ◇ Ety/372, X/ND2

nem N. [nˈɛm] (nemb N.) n. Biol. nose ◇ Ety/376

4.26 Tongue

lam I S. [lˈɑm] (lhamb N., lham N.) n. Biol. physical tongue ◇ Ety/367, WJ/394, X/LH

4.27 Tooth

carch S., N. [kˈɑrx] n. Biol. tooth, fang ◇ Ety/362, S/429

*nagol N. [nˈɑgl̩] n. Biol. tooth ← naglath WR/122

nêl I N. [nˈɛːl] (neleg N.) pl. nelig S. [nˈɛlig] n. Biol. tooth ◇ Ety/376, WR/113, VT/46:3

4.28 Neck

achad S. [ˈɑxɑd] n. Biol. neck (properly referring only to the bony vertebral part not including the throat) ◇ RC/537

4.29 Throat

lanc II *S. [lˈɑŋk] (lhanc N.) n. Biol. throat ◇ Ety/367, X/LH

4.33 Hand

cam S., N. [kˈɑm] (camb N., camm N.) n. Biol. hand ◇ Ety/361, Ety/371, S/429

camlann *S. [kˈɑmlɑnn] (camland N.) n. Biol. palm of hand ◇ Ety/367, X/ND4

crum N. [krˈum] n. left hand ◇ Ety/366

dond S. [dˈɔnd] (donn S.) n. Biol. fist, hand (especially in punching) ◇ VT/47:23

fair II *S. [fˈɑjr] (feir N., fœir N.) n. right (hand) ◇ Ety/382, VT/46:10

forvo S. [fˈɔrvɔ] n. 1. right hand ○ 2. by ext., right side ◇ VT/47:6

hair *S. [hˈɑjr] (heir N.) n. and adj. left (hand) ◇ Ety/365, X/EI

harvo S. [hˈɑrvɔ] n. 1. left hand ○ 2. by ext., left side ◇ VT/47:6

mâb S. [mˈɑːb] (mab- S.) n. Biol. a hand-full, complete hand (with all five fingers) ◇ Ety/371, VT/45:32, VT/47:6-7

maw I S. [mˈɑw] n. Biol. Arch. hand ◇ VT/47:6

paur S., N. [pˈɑur] n. Biol. fist (often used to mean "hand", its chief use was in reference of the tighly closed hand, as in using an implement or a craft-tool, rather than to the fist used in punching) ◇ Ety/366, S/429, PM/179, PM/318, VT/47:8

plad S. [plˈɑd] n. Biol. palm, flat of the hand, hand held upwards or forwards, flat and tensed (with fingers and thumb closed or spread) ◇ VT/47:9

talf I *S. [tˈɑlv] (dalf N.) n. Biol. palm of hand ◇ Ety/353

4.34 Finger

lebed S. [lˈɛbɛd] (lhebed N.) pl. lebid S. [lˈɛbid] n. Biol. finger ◇ Ety/368, X/LH, VT/47:23-24,27Tolkien later seems to have replaced this form by leber

leber S. [lˈɛbɛr] pl. lebir S. [lˈɛbir] n. Biol. finger ◇ VT/47:10,23-24, VT/48:5

4.342 Thumb

atheg S. [ˈɑθɛg] n. m. dim. of adar, 1. "litte father" ○ 2. Biol. thumb (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,17

nawb S. [nˈɑwb] n. Biol. thumb ◇ VT/48:5

4.37 Foot

pôd N. [pˈɔːd] pl. pŷd N. [pˈyːd] n. Biol. animal's foot ◇ Ety/382

tâl N. [tˈɑːl] pl. tail S. [tˈɑjl] (teil N.) n. Biol. foot ← tad-dail WJ/388, Ety/390, S/429, S/437, X/EI

tellen N. [tˈɛl̡lɛn] (tellein N., tellœin N.) n. Biol. sole of foot ◇ Ety/384, Ety/390, VT/46:12

4.392 Wing

*roval S. [rˈɔvɑl] (rhofal N.) pl. rovail *S. [rˈɔvɑjl] (rhofel N.) n. Biol. pinion, great wing (of eagle) ← Landroval LotR/VI:IV, Ety/382, X/RH

4.44 Heart

hûn N. [hˈuːn] n. Biol. heart (physical) ◇ Ety/364

4.51 Breathe; Breath

*thuia- N. [θˈuj.ɑ] inf. thuio N. [θˈuj.ɔ] v. to breathe ◇ Ety/393

thûl N. [θˈuːl] n. breath ◇ Ety/393

4.56 Spit (vb.)

*puia- N. [pˈuj.ɑ] inf. puio N. [pˈuj.ɔ] v. to spit ◇ Ety/382

4.58 Bite (vb.)

nag- N. [nˈɑg] v. to bite ◇ Ety/374

4.62 Dream (noun)

ôl N. [ˈɔːl] pl. elei N. n. dream ◇ Ety/370, Ety/379

4.74 Live; Living; Life

*cuia- S. [kˈuj.ɑ] v. to live ← cuio LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308

4.75 Die; Dead; Death

*gwanna- N. [gwˈɑnnɑ] inf. gwanno N. [gwˈɑnnɔ] v. to depart, die ◇ Ety/397

4.77 Corpse

daen N. [dˈɑɛn] n. corpse ◇ Ety/375

4.79 Grave

haudh S., N. [hˈɑuð] n. (burial) mound, grave, tomb ◇ Ety/363-364, S/432, LotR/A(iv)

sarch S. [sˈɑrx] n. grave ◇ UT/463

4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful

beleg S., N. [bˈɛlɛg] adj. great, mighty ◇ Ety/352, S/428

belt N. [bˈɛlt] adj. strong in body ◇ Ety/352, Tengwestie/20031207

4.84 Sick; Sickness

cael N. [kˈɑɛl] n. lying in bed, sickness ◇ Ety/363

caeleb N. [kˈɑɛlɛb] adj. bedridden, sick ◇ Ety/363

gem N. [gˈɛm] (gemb N.) adj. sickly ◇ Ety/358

lhaew II *S. [ɬˈɑɛw] (thlaew N., thloew N., flaew N.) adj. sickly, sick, ill ◇ Ety/386, X/OE, X/LH

lhîw *S. [ɬˈiːw] (fliw N., thliw N.) n. sickness ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

paw N. [pˈɑw] n. sickness ◇ Ety/366

4.85 Wound (noun, vb.), Wounded (adj.)

harn II N. [hˈɑrn] adj. wounded ◇ Ety/386

*harna- N. [hˈɑrnɑ] inf. harno N. [hˈɑrnɔ] v. to wound ◇ Ety/386

haru *S. [hˈɑru] (harw N.) n. wound ◇ Ety/386, X/W

4.86 Cure, Heal

*nesta- N. [nˈɛstɑ] v. to heal ← nestad WR/379-380

nestad N. [nˈɛstɑd] ger. of nesta-, healing ◇ WR/379-80

*nestadren N. [nɛstˈɑdrɛn] pl. nestedrin (corr. nestedriu) N. [nɛstˈɛdrin] adj. healing ◇ WR/380

4.89 Poison (noun)

saew N. [sˈɑɛw] n. poison ◇ Ety/385

4.91 Tired, Weary

lom *S. [lˈɔm] (lhom N.) adj. weary ◇ VT/45:29, X/LH

4.93 Bald

rûdh S. [rˈuːð] adj. bald ◇ S/379, WJ/187

4.98 Drunk

sogannen (corr. sogennen) N. [sɔgˈɑnnɛn] pp. of sog-, drunk ◇ Ety/388

4.99 Naked, Bare

hell N. [hˈɛl̡l] adj. naked ◇ Ety/386

lanc I S. [lˈɑŋk] n. naked ◇ UT/418

5. Food and Drink; Cooking and Utensils

5.11 Eat

*mad- N. [mˈɑd] inf. medi N. [mˈɛdi] v. to eat ◇ Ety/371

5.12 Food

aes N. [ˈɑɛs] n. cooked food, meat ◇ Ety/349

5.13 Drink (vb.)

*sog- N. [sˈɔg] inf. sogo N. [sˈɔgɔ] pa. t. sogant N. [sˈɔgɑnt] (sunc N.) v. to drink ◇ Ety/388, VT/46:16

5.151 Thirsty

faug N. [fˈɑug] adj. thirsty ◇ Ety/381

5.51 Bread

*bass S. [bˈɑss] n. bread ← besain, besoneth, imbas PM/404-405, VT/44:21In the Etymologies, the word for "bread" is given as bast, Quenya masta, but it seems that Tolkien later changed his mind and updated the word to bass, as shown in Quenya massánie, Sindarin besain, besoneth "bread-giver", and in the mutated form (i)mbas (apparently prefixed with the article). These latter Sindarin forms are however dubious, as we would rather have expected bessain (as a regular cognate of Quenya massánie) and bassoneth (without i-affection), and possibly a different mutation pattern after the article

bast N. [bˈɑst] n. bread ◇ Ety/372Cf. bass

5.52 Cake

aes N. [ˈɑɛs] n. cooked food, meat ◇ Ety/349

cram S., N. [krˈɑm] (cramb N.) n. cake of compressed flour or meal (often containing honey and milk) ◇ Ety/365, LotR/II:VIII

5.64 Soup, Broth

salph *S. [sˈɑlf] (salff N.) n. broth, liquid food, soup ◇ Ety/385, VT/46:12, X/PHThe form salf in the Etymologies is a misreading, see VT/45:12

5.84 Honey

glî N. [glˈiː] n. honey ◇ Ety/369

nîdh N. [nˈiːð] n. honeycomb ◇ VT/45:38

6. Clothing; Personal Adornment and Care

6.11 Clothe, Dress

hab- N. [hˈɑb] v. to clothe ◇ Ety/363

hamma- N. [hˈɑmmɑ] v. to clothe ◇ Ety/363, VT/45:21The form hamnia- in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:21

6.12 Clothing, Clothes

hammad N. [hˈɑmmɑd] ger. of hamma-, clothing ◇ Ety/363

6.28 Fur

heleth N. [hˈɛlɛθ] n. fur, fur-coat ◇ Ety/386

helf N. [hˈɛl̡v] n. fur ◇ Ety/386

6.41 Cloak

*coll III S. [kˈɔll] n. cloak, mantle ← Thingol S/421, MR/385

6.51 Shoe

habad N. [hˈɑbɑd] pl. hebaid *S. [hˈɛbɑjd] (hebeid N.) n. shoe ◇ Ety/386, VT/Errata, X/EIThe meaning "shore" in Ety/386 should actually read "shoe", see VT/Errata and Lambengolmor/735. Compare also with Early Qenya hyapa (PE/13:41) and Gnomish habin (PE/11:47), both glossed as "shoe"

6.55 Hat; Cap

carab S. [kˈɑrɑb] n. hat ◇ WJ/187

6.57 Belt, Girdle

lest S. [lˈɛst] n. girdle ◇ WJ/333, WJ/225, WJ/228

6.59 Veil

fân S. [fˈɑːn] n. 1. veil ○ 2. by ext., cloud (applied to clouds, floating as veils over the blue sky or the sun or moon, or resting on hills) ◇ RGEO/74Cf. faun, fain

6.72 Jewel

mîr S., N. [mˈiːr] n. jewel, precious thing, treasure ◇ Ety/373, LotR/E, S/434, PM/348, LB/354, RGEO/73

6.75 Necklace

sigil II N. [sˈigil̡] n. necklace ← Sigil Elu-naeth WJ/258

6.95 Soap

glûdh N. [glˈuːð] n. soap ◇ Ety/369

6.96 Mirror

cenedril N. [kɛnˈɛdril̡] n. looking-glass, mirror ◇ TI/184, RS/466

7. Dwelling, House, Furniture

7.11 Dwell

*dortha- N. [dˈɔrθɑ] inf. dortho N. [dˈɔrθɔ] v. to dwell, stay ◇ Ety/376

7.12 House

adab N. [ˈɑdɑb] pl. edaib *S. [ˈɛdɑjb] (edeb N.) n. building, house ◇ Ety/390, WR/379-80, X/EI

bar S. [bˈɑr] pl. bair S. [bˈɑjr] n. 1. dwelling, home ○ 2. by ext., inhabited land ◇ S/428, WR/379-80, SD/129-31

car N. [kˈɑr] (cardh N.) n. house, building ◇ Ety/362

7.15 Yard, Court

pand *S. [pˈɑnd] (pann N.) n. courtyard ◇ Ety/380, X/ND1

sant S. [sˈɑnt] n. garden, field, yard (or other place in private ownership whether enclosed or not) ◇ VT/42:20

7.16 Cave

rond S. [rˈɔnd] (rhond N., rhonn N.) n. 1. cave roof ○ 2. vaulted or arched roof, as seen from below (and usually not visible from outside), or a (large) hall of chamber so roofed ◇ Ety/384, VT/46:12, S/437, WJ/414, X/RH, X/ND1

7.21 Room

*sam S. [sˈɑm] n. chamber ← Sammath LotR/VI:III, S/435

7.22 Door; Gate

annon S., N. [ˈɑnnɔn] pl. ennyn S., N. [ˈɛnnyn] n. augm. great door or gate ◇ Ety/348, S/428, LotR/II:IV, TAI/150

fen S. [fˈɛn] (fend N., fenn N.) n. door, threshold ◇ Ety/381, LotR/V:IV, WR/341, RC/550, X/ND1

fennas S. [fˈɛnnɑs] n. abst. of fen, doorway, gateway ◇ LotR/II:IV, RS/463, RGEO/75

7.25 Window

henneth S. [hˈɛnnɛθ] n. window ◇ S/428

7.26 Floor

panas N. [pˈɑnɑs] n. abst. of pân I, floor ◇ Ety/380

talaf N. [tˈɑlɑv] pl. telaif *S. [tˈɛlɑjv] (teleif N.) n. ground, floor ◇ Ety/390, X/EI

7.27 Wall

ram S. [rˈɑm] (rham N., rhamb N.) n. wall ◇ Ety/382, S/436, X/RH

rammas S. [rˈɑmmɑs] n. abst. of ram, (great) wall ◇ LotR/V:I, LotR/Index

7.28 Roof

rond S. [rˈɔnd] (rhond N., rhonn N.) n. 1. cave roof ○ 2. vaulted or arched roof, as seen from below (and usually not visible from outside), or a (large) hall of chamber so roofed ◇ Ety/384, VT/46:12, S/437, WJ/414, X/RH, X/ND1

telu N. [tˈɛlu] n. dome, high roof ◇ Ety/391

tobas N. [tˈɔbɑs] n. abst. of toba-, roofing, roof ◇ Ety/394, VT/46:19

7.42 Bed

haust N. [hˈɑust] n. bed ◇ Ety/364

7.43 Chair

ham N. [hˈɑm] n. (?) chair ◇ VT/45:20

7.45 Lamp

calar S. [kˈɑlɑr] n. (portable) lamp ← celerdain LotR/V:I, WR/287, RC/523

8. Agriculture, Vegetation

8.12 Field (for Cultivation)

rîdh N. [rˈiːð] n. sown field, acre ◇ Ety/383, VT/46:11

8.13 Garden

sant S. [sˈɑnt] n. garden, field, yard (or other place in private ownership whether enclosed or not) ◇ VT/42:20

8.31 Sow; Seed

cordof S. [kˈɔrdɔv] n. Bot. pippin (seed of certain fruits, or more probably small red apple) ◇ SD/129-31

eredh N. [ˈɛrɛð] n. Bot. seed, germ ◇ Ety/356

8.33 Sickle; Scythe

cerch N. [kˈɛrx] n. sickle ◇ Ety/365

8.42 Grain (Generic = British Corn)

iau I N. [jˈɑu] pl. iui N. [jˈuj] n. Bot. corn ◇ Ety/399

8.51 Grass

thâr N. [θˈɑːr] n. Bot. stiff grass ◇ Ety/388

8.53 Plant

galas N. [gˈɑlɑs] n. abst. of gala-, Bot. growth, plant ◇ Ety/357

8.54 Root

solch N. [sˈɔlx] n. Bot. root (especially as edible) ◇ Ety/388

thond S. [θˈɔnd] n. Bot. root ◇ LotR/E, Letters/178

8.55 Branch

golf N. [gˈɔlv] n. Bot. branch ◇ Ety/359

8.56 Leaf

lass S. [lˈɑss] (lhass N.) n. Bot. leaf ◇ Ety/367, Letters/282, TC/169, X/LH

8.57 Flower

elloth S. [ˈɛl̡lɔθ] n. sing. of loth, Bot. (single) flower ◇ VT/42:18

goloth S. [gˈɔlɔθ] n. Bot. inflorescence, a head of small flowers ◇ VT/42:18Cf. gwaloth

gwaloth N. [gwˈɑlɔθ] n. Bot. blossom, collection of flowers ◇ Ety/370, VT/45:29This form replaced deleted goloth in the manuscript of The Etymologies, see VT/45:29. The deleted form is however also later attested in VT/42:18Cf. goloth

loth S. [lˈɔθ] (lhoth N.) n. Bot. flower, inflorescence, a head of small flowers ◇ Ety/370, LB/354, VT/42:18, X/LHThe noun is collective, a single flower being lotheg

lotheg S. [lˈɔθɛg] n. sing. of loth, Bot. (single) flower ◇ VT/42:18

lothod N. [lˈɔθɔd] (lhothod N.) n. sing. of loth, Bot. (single) flower ◇ VT/45:29, X/LHCf. lotheg

8.58 Rose

meril S. [mˈɛril̡] n. Bot. rose (flower) ◇ SD/129-31

8.61 Oak

doron N. [dˈɔrɔn] pl. deren N. (dœrœn N.) n. Bot. oak ◇ Ety/355, VT/45:11

8.62 Beech

brethil II S. [brˈɛθil̡] (brethel N.) pl. brethil S., N. n. Bot. beech, beech-tree, silver birch ◇ Ety/352, Ety/376, S/429

fêr N. [fˈɛːr] pl. ferin N. [fˈɛrin] n. Bot. beech-tree ◇ Ety/352, Ety/381

8.64 Pine

thôn S. [θˈɔːn] (thaun N.) n. Bot. pine-tree ◇ Ety/392, S/438, RC/384

8.67 Vine

*gwîn II S., N. [gwˈiːn] n. wine, vine ← Dorwinion LotR/Map, LB/11,26,17,112, LR/334,338, H/IXThe wine of Dor-Winion occurs in the Lay of the children of Húrin and a place located either in the "burning South" in the first version, or probably east of the Blue Mountains in the second. Then we have Dorwinion as a meadow-land in Tol Eressëa at the end of the Quenta Silmarillion. It reappears in The Hobbit, and was finally placed North-West of the Sea of Rhûn in the decorated map by Pauline Baynes (see HL/115-117 for discussion). The meaning of this name is unknown and has been largely discussed. What do we have indeed in this "Winion", or rather gwinion since the initial w- must come from lenition? According to Christopher Tolkien, the Lay was begun c. 1918 and was composed during his father's stay at Leeds, a date meaning that the word can be Gnomish, possibly Early Noldorin, or in an indigenous language of Beleriand. In Gnomish and later in Doriathrin and Ilkorin, there is a genitive plural ending -ion which may very well be contained in this word. Then we would segment gwin-ion "of gwin". The context calls for "wine", "vine" or something similar. It can hardly be a coincidence that gwin is precisely the Welsh word for "wine", a loan from the Latin vinum, as the English "wine" itself

8.68 Tobacco

galenas S. [gˈɑlɛnɑs] n. Bot. pipe-weed (leaf) or "westmansweed", a variety of Nicotiana ◇ LotR/V:VIII

9. Miscellaneous Physical Acts and Those Pertaining to Special Arts and Crafts¹, with Some Implements, Materials, and Products; Other Miscellaneous Notions

9.16 Bind (vb. trans.)

*gwedh- N. [gwˈɛð] inf. gwedhi (corr. gwedi) N. [gwˈɛði] pa. t. gwedhant N. [gwˈɛðɑnt] (gwend N., gwenn N.) v. to bind ◇ Ety/397, X/ND1

nod- *S. [nˈɔd] (nud- N.) v. to tie, bind ◇ Ety/378, X/Z

9.18 Chain

angwedh N. [ˈɑŋgwɛð] n. chain ◇ Ety/397

9.19 Rope, Cord

*raph S. [rˈɑf] n. rope ← Udalraph UT/424

9.23 Knife

sigil I N. [sˈigil̡] n. Mil. dagger, knife ◇ Ety/385

9.41 Craft, Trade

curu N. [kˈuru] (curw N.) n. craft, skill ◇ Ety/366, X/W

maenas N. [mˈɑɛnɑs] n. abst. of maen, craft ◇ Ety/371

9.423 Use (vb.)

*iuitha- N. [jˈujθɑ] inf. iuitho N. [jˈujθɔ] v. to employ, to use ◇ Ety/400, VT/46:23The gloss was hardly legible and Christopher Tolkien read "to enjoy" in Ety/400, but the meaning "to employ", much more probable (Cf. iuith), was later confirmed in VT/45:23

9.43 Carpenter

thavron N. [θˈɑvrɔn] n. carpenter, wright, builder ◇ Ety/388

9.49 Hammer

dam N. [dˈɑm] n. hammer ◇ Ety/375

*dring S. [drˈiŋ] n. hammer ← Glamdring H, Ety/355

9.50 Nail

taes N. [tˈɑɛs] n. nail ◇ Ety/390

9.60 Smith

*mírdan S. [mˈiːrdɑn] pl. mírdain S. [mˈiːrdɑjn] n. jewel-smith ◇ S/401

9.64 Gold

côl N. [kˈɔːl] n. gold (metal) ◇ Ety/365

malt N. [mˈɑlt] n. gold (as metal) ◇ Ety/386, VT/46:14, VT/42:27, Tengwestie/20031207

9.65 Silver

celeb S., N. [kˈɛlɛb] n. silver ◇ Ety/367, S/429, LotR/E, Letters/426

9.66 Copper, Bronze

rust S. [rˈust] n. copper ◇ VT/41:10

9.67 Iron

ang S., N. [ˈɑŋ] n. iron ◇ Ety/348, S/428, PM/347

9.71 Potter

cennan N. [kˈɛnnɑn] n. potter ◇ Ety/390

9.74 Glass

heledh S. [hˈɛlɛd] n. glass ◇ S/433

9.90 Thing

bach N. [bˈɑx] n. article (for exchange), ware, thing ◇ Ety/372

nad N. [nˈɑd] n. thing ◇ Ety/374

9.91 Be

*na- S. [nˈɑ] v. to be ← no aer i eneth lín VT/44:21,24

9.93 Need, Necessity

baur N. [bˈɑur] n. need ◇ Ety/372

10. Motion; Locomotion, Transportation, Navigation

10.45 Walk (vb.)

*pada- S. [pˈɑdɑ] v. to walk ← Aphadon (*ap-pata), Tharbad (*thara-pata) WJ/387, S/438

10.46 Run (vb.)

*nor- S. [nˈɔr] v. 1. to run ○ 2. by ext., to ride

10.48 Come

*tol- N. [tˈɔl] inf. teli N. [tˈɛli] v. to come ◇ Ety/395

10.49 Go Away, Depart

*gwanna- N. [gwˈɑnnɑ] inf. gwanno N. [gwˈɑnnɔ] v. to depart, die ◇ Ety/397

10.51 Flee

*drega- S. [drˈɛgɑ] v. to flee ◈ Only the imperative drego is attested. Therefore, the verb may also be dreg- (inf. dregi)

10.52 Follow

aphad- S. [ˈɑffɑd] v. to follow ◇ WJ/387In WJ/387, the verbal stem is given as aphad-, and the etymology as *ap-pata. If we follow the latter, the verb should perhaps read aphada-

10.56 Approach (vb.)

*anglenna- S. [ɑŋglˈɛnnɑ] v. to approach ← anglennatha SD/129-31

10.57 Enter

minna- S. [mˈinnɑ] v. to enter

*neledh- N. [nɛlˈɛð] inf. neledhi N. [nɛlˈɛði] v. to enter ◇ TAI/150, HL/77Hammond and Scull apparently understand this word as a derivative of neledh "three", hence their translation neledh neledhi "three by three". However, we have shown in Hiswelókë (third issue, pp. 74-78) that this word is conceivably a verb derived from LED "to go". The prefix ne- also occurs in nestegi "to insert, stick in"

10.64 Lead (vb.)

*tog- N. [tˈɔg] inf. tegi N. [tˈɛgi] v. to lead, bring ◇ Ety/395

10.71 Road

men II S. [mˈɛn] n. way, road ◇ UT/281

10.72 Path

lond S., N. [lˈɔnd] (lonn S., N., lhonn N.) n. 1. narrow path or strait ○ 2. by ext., entrance to harbour, land-locked haven ◇ Ety/348, Ety/370, S/434, UT/450, VT/42:10, X/LH, X/ND1

râd N. [rˈɑːd] n. path, track ◇ Ety/383

10.73 Street

othrad *S. [ˈɔθrɑd] (ostrad N.) n. street ◇ Ety/383, X/Z

rath S., N. [rˈɑθ] n. 1. course, riverbed ○ 2. street (in a city) ◇ Ety/383, LotR/Index, RC/523,551

10.74 Bridge

iant S., N. [jˈɑnt] n. bridge ◇ Ety/400, S/432

10.75 Carriage, Wagon, Cart

*rach I S. [rˈɑx] pl. *raich S. [rˈɑjx] n. wain ← Gondraich UT/465Since this word is attested in a compound only, its unmutated form is uncertain. It could also be *grach or *rhach

10.78 Yoke

ianu *S. [jˈɑnu] (ianw N.) n. (?) yoke ◇ Ety/400, X/WIt originally meant "bridge" in the Etymologies, but was apparently switched with iant

10.81 Ship

cair S. [kˈɑjr] (ceir N.) n. ship ◇ Ety/365, LotR/A(iv), X/EI

10.82 Sailor

*cirion S. [kˈiri.ɔn] n. m. shipman, sailor ← Cirion (name)

10.83 Boat

lunt *S. [lˈunt] (lhunt N.) n. boat ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

10.90 Harbor, Port

círbann *S. [kˈiːrbɑnn] (cirban N.) n. haven ◇ Ety/380, X/ND4

hobas N. [hˈɔbɑs] n. abst. of hûb, harbourage ◇ Ety/364

hûb N. [hˈuːb] n. Geog. haven, harbour, small land-locked bay ◇ Ety/364

lond S., N. [lˈɔnd] (lonn S., N., lhonn N.) n. 1. narrow path or strait ○ 2. by ext., entrance to harbour, land-locked haven ◇ Ety/348, Ety/370, S/434, UT/450, VT/42:10, X/LH, X/ND1

lorn *S. [lˈɔrn] (lhorn N.) n. 1. quiet water ○ 2. by ext., anchorage, harbour ◇ VT/45:29, X/LH

11. Possession, Property, and Commerce

12. Spatial Relations: Place, Form, Size

13. Quantity and Number

13.14 Every; All (pl.)

*pân II S. [pˈɑːn] pl. *pain S. [pˈɑjn] adj. all, in totality ← mhellyn în phain SD/129-31As no other word beginning in ph- is attested, it is assumed that a nasal mutation is triggered by the pronoun în I, hence the form observed in the "King's Letter"

13.18 Enough

far N. [fˈɑr] adj. or adv. sufficient, enough, quite ◇ Ety/381

farn N. [fˈɑrn] adj. or adv. enough ◇ Ety/381

13.19 Multitude, Crowd

hoth S., N. [hˈɔθ] n. Pej. host, crowd, horde (nearly always in a bad sense) ◇ Ety/364, S/432

ovras N. [ˈɔvrɑs] n. abst. of ovor, crowd, heap. ◇ Ety/396

rim I S. [rˈim] (rhim N., rhimb N.) n. crowd, host, great number ◇ Ety/383, S/436, Letters/178, Letters/382, X/RH

13.21 Full

pant S., N. [pˈɑnt] adj. full ◇ Ety/366, SD/129-31

13.22 Empty

cofn N. [kˈɔvn] (caun N.) adj. empty, void ◇ Ety/366

lost *S. [lˈɔst] (lhost N.) adj. empty ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

13.32 One

mîn S. [mˈiːn] (min S., N. [mˈin]) adj. num. card. one (first of a series) ◇ Ety/373, VT/42:24-25, VT/48:6

13.33 Alone, Only

erui S. [ˈɛruj] adj. 1. single, alone ○ 2. by ext., first (incorrect use by the Gondorians) ◇ TI/312, WR/436, VT/42:10The proper word for first in Sindarin was minui

13.34 First

erui S. [ˈɛruj] adj. 1. single, alone ○ 2. by ext., first (incorrect use by the Gondorians) ◇ TI/312, WR/436, VT/42:10The proper word for first in Sindarin was minui

main S. [m'ɑjn] (mein S.) adj. num. ord. first, (only in the sense of) prime, chief, pre-eminent ◇ VT/42:10, VT/42:25

minui S. [mˈinuj] adj. num. ord. first ◇ VT/42:10, VT/42:25

13.35 Last

*medui S. [mˈɛduj] adj. last ← na vedui, Arvedui LotR/I:XII, LotR/A(iv)

13.41 Three

nêl II S. [nˈɛːl] adj. num. card. three ◇ VT/42:25Cf. neled

neled S., N. [nˈɛlɛd] (neledh S., N.) adj. num. card. three ◇ Ety/376, TAI150, VT/48:6

13.42 Third (Ordinal)

nail S. [nˈɑjl] (neil S.) adj. num. ord. third ◇ VT/42:25

nelui S. [nˈɛluj] adj. num. ord. third ◇ VT/42:25

14. Time

14.11 Time

*S. [lˈuː] (lhû N.) n. a time, occasion ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

14.13 New

*gwain S. [gwˈɑjn] pl. *gwîn S. [gwˈiːn] adj. new ← Narwain (Narvinyë) LotR/D, Cf. Ety/399

sain *S. [sˈɑjn] (sein N.) pl. sîn N. [sˈiːn] adj. new ◇ Ety/385, X/EI

14.14 Young

neth I N. [nˈɛθ] adj. young ◇ Ety/377

14.15 Old

brûn N. [brˈuːn] adj. old, that has long endured, or been established, or in use ◇ Ety/353

gern N. [gˈɛrn] adj. worn, old, decripit (used of things only) ◇ Ety/360

iaur S., N. [jˈɑur] adj. 1. ancient, old, original ○ 2. older, former ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, S/433, UT/384

ingem N. [ˈiŋgɛm] adj. old (of person, in mortal sense: decripit, suffering from old age) ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, Ety/400New word coined by the Elves after meeting with Men

iphant *S. [ˈiffɑnt] (ifant N.) adj. aged, having lived long, old (with no connotation of weakness) ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, VT/46:23, X/PH

14.18 Now

si S. [si] adv. now ◇ LotR/IV:X, LB/354

14.21 Swift, Fast, Quick

celeg S., N. [kˈɛlɛg] adj. swift, agile, hasty ◇ Ety/366, PM/353, VT/41:10

lagor *S. [lˈɑgr̩] (lhagr N.) pl. legrin *S. [lˈɛgrin] (lhegrin N.) adj. swift, rapid ◇ Ety/367, VT/45:25, Tengwestie/20050318, X/LHThe form lhegin in the published Etymologies might be a misreading for lhegrin, see VT/45:25. As noted by Bertrand Bellet, the two forms are listed side by side, and they may simply be doublets, but it is also possible that we have here a singular followed by its plural.

lim I S. [lˈim] adv. swift, swiftly ← noro lim LotR/I:XII, RS/196, RC/195Untranslated in LotR, but written nora-lim and rendered as "ride on" in RS/196 (not a literal translation) and later translated as "run swift" in RC/195. Before the latter was published (confirming the exact translation of this adverb), Helios de Rosario Martinez had provided a thorough analysis of this word in his article "Musings on Limlight" (Tengwestie/20050107)

14.25 Begin; Beginning

*heria- N. [hˈɛri.ɑ] inf. herio N. [hˈɛri.ɔ] (hœrio N.) v. to begin suddenly and vigorously ◇ Ety/364, VT/45:22The forms heno, hœno in the Etymologies are misreadings according to VT/45:22

14.252 Last (vb.)

*brona- N. [brˈɔnɑ] inf. brono N. [brˈɔnɔ] v. to last, to survive ◇ Ety/353

14.26 End (noun, temporal)

meth N. [mˈɛθ] n. end ◇ Ety/373

methed S. [mˈɛθɛd] n. end ◇ UT/452

14.41 Day

arad N. [ˈɑrɑd] n. daytime, a day ◇ Ety/349

aur S., N. [ˈɑur] n. day, sunlight, morning ◇ Ety/349, S/439Cf. calan

calan S. [kˈɑlɑn] n. day, period of actual daylight ◇ aLotR/DAttested in the first edition of LotR, but omitted from the second.Cf. aur

14.42 Night

daw N. [dˈɑw] n. night-time, gloom ◇ Ety/354

fuin S., N. [fˈujn] n. night, dead of night, gloom, darkness ◇ Ety/354, Ety/382, S/431

môr S., N. [mˈɔːr] n. darkness, dark, night ◇ Ety/373, Letters/382

tinnu N. [tˈinnu] (tindu N.) n. 1. dusk, twilight, early night (without Moon) ○ 2. by ext., starry twilight ◇ Ety/355, Ety/393, X/ND2

14.43 Dawn

minuial S. [minˈuj.ɑl] n. "morrowdim", the time near dawn, when the star fade ◇ LotR/D

14.46 Evening

aduial S. [ɑdˈuj.ɑl] n. the evening, time of star-opening, "evendim" ◇ LotR/D

S., N. [dˈuː] n. nightfall, late evening, night, dimness ◇ Ety/354, S/430, VT/45:9

thîn N. [θˈiːn] n. Poet. evening ◇ Ety/392, VT/46:18

14.61 Week

lefnar *S. [lˈɛvnɑr] (lhevnar N.) n. Cal. week (of five days) ◇ VT/45:27, X/LH, X/Z

14.72 Names of the Months

cerveth S. [kˈɛrvɛθ] n. Cal. july (month) ◇ LotR/D

girithron S. [girˈiθrɔn] n. Cal. december (month) ◇ LotR/D

gwaeron S. [gwˈɑɛrɔn] n. Cal. march (month) ◇ LotR/D

gwirith S. [gwˈiriθ] n. Cal. april (month) ◇ LotR/D, SD/129-31

hithui S. [hˈiθuj] n. and adj. 1. foggy, misty ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of november ◇ LotR/D

ivanneth S. [ivˈɑnnɛθ] n. Cal. september (month) ◇ LotR/D

lothron S. [lˈɔθrɔn] n. Cal. the month of May ◇ LotR/D

narbeleth S. [nˈɑrbɛlɛθ] n. Cal. october (month) ◇ LotR/D

narwain S. [nˈɑrwɑjn] n. Cal. the month of January ◇ LotR/D

nínui S. [nˈiːnuj] n. and adj. 1. watery ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of february ◇ LotR/D

nórui S. [nˈɔːruj] n. and adj. 1. sunny, fiery ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of june ◇ LotR/D

urui S. [ˈuruj] n. and adj. 1. hot ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of august ◇ LotR/D

14.73 Year

idhrinn *S. [ˈiðrinn] (idhrind N., idhrin N.) n. Cal. year ◇ Ety/383, Ety/400, X/ND4

în II N. [ˈiːn] n. Cal. year ◇ Ety/400

14.74 Winter

rhîw S. [ɹ̥ˈiːw] n. Cal. winter season ◇ LotR/D

14.75 Spring

echuir S. [ˈɛxujr] n. Cal. a season, the beginning of spring ◇ LotR/D, SD/129-31

ethuil S. [ˈɛθujl] n. Cal. season of spring ◇ LotR/D, SD/129-31

14.76 Summer

laer I S. [lˈɑɛr] n. Cal. season of summer ◇ LotR/D

14.77 Autumn

iavas S. [jˈɑvɑs] n. abst. of iau I, Cal. season of autumn ◇ LotR/D

lasbelin *S. [lˈɑsbɛlin] (lhasbelin N.) n. Cal. season of autumn ◇ Ety/366-367, X/LH

15. Sense Perception

16. Emotion (with Some Physical Expressions of Emotion); Temperamental, Moral, and Aestetic Notions

17. Mind, Thought

18. Vocal Utterance, Speech; Reading and Writing

18.12 Sing

glir- N. [glˈir] inf. gliri N. [glˈiri] v. to sing, trill, to recite a poem ◇ Ety/359, Ety/369, VT/45:15The form glin in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:15

*linna- S. [lˈinnɑ] v. to sing ← linnathon LotR/II:I

*liria- N. [lˈiri.ɑ] inf. lirio N. [lˈiri.ɔ] v. to sing ◇ VT/45:28

18.13 Shout, Cry out

can- S. [kˈɑn] v. to cry out, shout, call ◇ PM/361-362

18.14 Various Cries

caun II S. [kˈɑun] n. outcry, clamor ◇ PM/361-362

glam S. [glˈɑm] (glamm S., N., glamb S., N.) n. 1. barbarous speech, shouting, confused noise ○ 2. din, uproar, the confused yelling and bellowing of beasts ○ 3. Pop. by ext., as a coll. noun, any body of Orcs ◇ Ety/358, Ety/377, WJ/390, WJ/416

hûl N. [hˈuːl] n. cry of encouragement in battle ◇ Ety/386

ial N. [jˈɑl] n. (?) a call, (?) a cry ◇ VT/46:22

18.21 Speak, Talk

*ped- S. [pˈɛd] pa. t. *pent S. [pˈɛnt] v. to speak, to say ← pedo, arphent LotR/II:IV, TL/21:09

18.22 Say

*ped- S. [pˈɛd] pa. t. *pent S. [pˈɛnt] v. to speak, to say ← pedo, arphent LotR/II:IV, TL/21:09

18.24 Language

lam II S. [lˈɑm] n. Ling. language ◇ WJ/394

18.26 Word

peth S., N. [pˈɛθ] n. word ◇ Ety/366, LotR/II:IV, RS/463

18.28 Name

eneth S. [ˈɛnɛθ] n. name ◇ VT/44:21,24

18.42 Call (vb. = Name)

*esta- S. [ˈɛstɑ] v. to name ← estathar SD/129-31

18.51 Write

*teitha- N. [tˈɛjθɑ] inf. teitho N. [tˈɛjθɔ] pa. t. teithant N. [tˈɛjθɑnt] v. to write ◇ Ety/391, LotR/II:IV

18.53 Letter (of the Alphabet)

certh S. [kˈɛrθ] pl. cirth S. [kˈirθ] n. Ling. rune ◇ WJ/396, LotR/E

têw S. [tˈɛːw] pl. tîw S., N. [tˈiːw] n. Ling. letter, written sign ◇ Ety/391, WJ/396, LotR/II:IV, LotR/E, Letters/427

18.57 Pen

tegil S. [tˈɛgil̡] n. pen ◇ PM/318Sindarized form of Quenya tekil, not known to the Sindar until the coming of the Ñoldor (but see however tegol for a possible dialectal variant)

tegol N. [tˈɛgl̩] (tegl N.) n. pen ◇ Ety/391It is stated in PM/318 that "tegil was a Sindarized form of Quenya tekil "pen", not known to the Sindar until the coming of the Ñoldor". It must be assumed therefore that tegol was either rejected by Tolkien, or that it may perhaps have been considered as a dialectal variant. For a similar case where both a true Sindarin/Noldorin word and a Sindarized form conceivably coexist, see magol and megil "sword" (it is unlikely that weapons were not known to the Sindar before the coming of the Ñoldor)

18.61 Book

parf N. [pˈɑrv] pl. perf N. [pˈɛrv] n. book ◇ Ety/380

19. Territorial, Social, and Political Divisions; Social Relations

19.14 Region, Territory

ardh N. [ˈɑrð] n. realm, region ◇ Ety/360

ardhon S. [ˈɑrðɔn] n. augm. of ardh, 1. Geog. great region, province ○ 2. by ext., world ← Calenardhon S/386, PM/348

dôr S. [dˈɔːr] (dor S., N.) n. Geog. land, dwelling-place, region where certain people live ◇ Ety/376, S/430, WJ/413, Letters/417, VT/45:38, RC/384The form dor in the Etymologies is a misreading, see VT/45. In composition and in toponyms, the word is nevertheless reduced to Dor

gardh S. [gˈɑrð] n. 1. Geog. bounded or defined region ○ 2. by ext., world ◇ WJ/402

19.15 City, Town

ost S., N. [ˈɔst] n. 1. city, town with wall round ○ 2. citadel, fortress or stronghold, made or strenghtened by art ◇ Ety/379, S/435, WJ/414, RC/232

19.16 Village

gobel N. [gˈɔbɛl̡] n. walled house or village, town ◇ Ety/380

19.17 Boundary

gland S. [glˈɑnd] (glann S.) n. boundary ← Glanduin, Glanhír UT/264, UT/318, UT/441, VT/42:8, X/ND1

glandagol S. [glˈɑndɑgɔl] n. boundary mark ◇ VT/42:8,28

taeg S. [tˈɑɛg] n. boundary, limit, boundary line ◇ WJ/309

19.32 King

âr N. [ˈɑːr] n. king (used of a lord or king of a specified region) ◇ Ety/389Cf. aran, taur I

aran S., N. [ˈɑrɑn] pl. erain S., N. [ˈɛrɑjn] n. king (used of a lord or king of a specified region) ◇ Ety/360, S/428, LotR/II:IV, LotR/VI:VII, SD/129-31, Letters/426Cf. âr, taur I

taur I N. [tˈɑur] n. king (only used of the legitimate kings of whole tribes) ◇ Ety/389, Ety/395In LotR/IV:IV, Frodo is called Daur, which might be the mutated form of this wordCf. aran

19.33 Queen

bereth S., N. [bˈɛrɛθ] n. f. queen, spouse ◇ Ety/351, RGEO/74

rîn I *S. [rˈiːn] (rhîn N., rhien N.) n. and adj. 1. crowned ○ 2. as a noun, by ext., crowned lady, queen ◇ Ety/393, Ety/389, X/RH

rîs *S. [rˈiːs] (rhîs N.) n. f. queen ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

19.35 Prince

*caun IV S. [kˈɑun] pl. conin S. [kˈɔnin] n. prince, ruler ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308

cund *S. [kˈund] (cunn N.) n. Arch. prince ◇ Ety/366, VT/45:24, X/ND1

ernil II S. [ˈɛrnil̡] pl. ernil S. n. prince ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308, UT/428, RGEO/75

19.36 Noble (noun), Nobleman

arphen S. [ˈɑrfɛn] pl. erphin S. [ˈɛrfin] n. a noble ◇ WJ/376

*arwen S. [ˈɑrwɛn] n. f. noble woman ← Arwen (name) LotR

19.41 Master

*herdir S. [hˈɛrdir] n. m. master ← i-Cherdir SD/129-31

heron N. [hˈɛrɔn] n. m. master ◇ VT/45:22

hîr S., N. [hˈiːr] n. m. master, lord ◇ Ety/364, S/432, SD/129-31, Letters/382, LB/354, VT/45:22

19.412 Lady

brennil N. [brˈɛnnil̡] n. f. lady ◇ Ety/351

*heryn S. [hˈɛryn] n. f. lady ← Roheryn S/436

hiril N. [hˈiril̡] n. f. lady ◇ Ety/364

19.44 Free (adj.)

lain I *S. [lˈɑjn] (lhein N., lhain N.) adj. free, freed ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

19.51 Friend

meldir N. [mˈɛl̡dir] n. m. friend ◇ Ety/372

meldis N. [mˈɛl̡dis] n. f. friend ◇ Ety/372

mellon S., N. [mˈɛl̡lɔn] pl. mellyn S. [mˈɛl̡lyn] n. friend ◇ Ety/372, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-31, Letters/424

19.52 Enemy

coth N. [kˈɔθ] n. 1. enmity ○ 2. enemy ◇ Ety/365

19.54 Neighbor

sammar S. [sˈɑmmɑr] (ahamar S.) n. neighbour ◇ VT/48:20

19.61 Custom

haew N. [hˈɑɛw] n. custom, habit ◇ Ety/364, VT/45:22Written hæw (with ae-ligature) in the Etymologies, rectified here according to VT/45:22

19.62 Strife, Quarrel

cost N. [kˈɔst] n. quarrel ◇ Ety/365

19.65 Meet (vb.)

*govad- S. [gˈɔvɑd] v. to meet ← mae govannen LotR/I:XII, Letters/308

20. Warfare

20.11 Fight (vb.)

*dagra- N. [dˈɑgrɑ] inf. dagro N. [dˈɑgrɔ] v. to battle ◇ Ety/375

maetha- I N. [mˈɑɛθɑ] v. to fight ◇ Ety/371

20.12 Battle (noun)

dagor S., N. [dˈɑgr̩] (dagr N.) n. battle ◇ Ety/375, S/430

maeth N. [mˈɑɛθ] n. battle, fight (not of general host but of two or a few) ◇ Ety/371

20.13 War

auth I N. [ˈɑuθ] n. war, battle ◇ Ety/365, Ety/379, VT/45:23

20.132 Enemy

coth N. [kˈɔθ] n. 1. enmity ○ 2. enemy ◇ Ety/365

20.14 Peace

sîdh N. [sˈiːð] n. peace ◇ Ety/385

20.17 Soldier

daug N. [dˈɑug] n. warrior, soldier (chiefly used of Orcs) ◇ Ety/375

maethor N. [mˈɑɛθr̩] n. warrior ◇ Ety/371

20.22 Club

grond N. [grˈɔnd] n. Mil. club ◇ Ety/384, X/ND1

20.222 Battle-Ax

hathol S. [hˈɑθl̩] (hathel N., *hathal N.) n. 1. Mil. broadsword-blade, axe-blade ○ 2. Mil. by ext., axe ◇ Ety/389, WJ/234, UT/444, LR/433See orchal for a discussion about syllabic consonants and their vocalization

20.23 Sling

hadlath N. [hˈɑdlɑθ] (haglath N.) n. Mil. sling ◇ Ety/363, Ety/368, X/TL

20.24 Bow

S., N. [kˈuː] n. 1. arch, crescent ○ 2. Mil. by ext., bow ◇ Ety/365, S/429

peng N. [pˈɛŋ] n. Mil. bow (for shooting) ◇ Ety/366

20.27 Sword

crist N. [krˈist] n. Mil. cleaver, sword ◇ Ety/365

hathol S. [hˈɑθl̩] (hathel N., *hathal N.) n. 1. Mil. broadsword-blade, axe-blade ○ 2. Mil. by ext., axe ◇ Ety/389, WJ/234, UT/444, LR/433See orchal for a discussion about syllabic consonants and their vocalization

lang *S. [lˈɑŋ] (lhang N.) n. Mil. cutlass, sword ◇ Ety/367, X/LH

magol N. [mˈɑgl̩] (magl N.) n. Mil. sword ◇ Ety/371The word megil (q.v.), probably introduced by the Ñoldor, was also used

megil S., N. [mˈɛgil̡] n. Mil. sword ◇ Ety/371The word was struck out in the Etymologies, but is well attested in late compounds such as Mormegil or Arvegil (with regular mutation). It is conceivably the Sindarinized form of Quenya makil, coexisting with magol (see tegil and tegol for a similar case)

20.33 Helmet

harn IV N. [hˈɑrn] n. Mil. helmet ◇ VT/45:21

thôl S. [θˈɔːl] n. Mil. helm ◇ S/438

20.34 Shield

amath N. [ˈɑmɑθ] (ambath N.) n. Mil. shield ◇ VT/45:33

*thand I S. [θˈɑnd] n. Mil. shield ← thangail UT/281-282

20.35 Fortress

barad II S., N. [bˈɑrɑd] pl. beraid S. [bˈɛrɑjd] n. tower, fortress ◇ Ety/351, S/428, LotR/B

garth N. [gˈɑrθ] n. fort, fortress ◇ Ety/360

minas S. [mˈinɑs] (minnas N.) n. abst. 1. tower ○ 2. by ext., fort, city with a citadel and central watch-tower ◇ Ety/373, S/434, VT/42:24

ost S., N. [ˈɔst] n. 1. city, town with wall round ○ 2. citadel, fortress or stronghold, made or strenghtened by art ◇ Ety/379, S/435, WJ/414, RC/232

othronn *S. [ˈɔθrɔnn] (othrond S., N.) n. fortress or city in underground caves, underground stronghold ◇ Ety/379, Ety/384, WJ/414, X/ND4

20.36 Tower

barad II S., N. [bˈɑrɑd] pl. beraid S. [bˈɛrɑjd] n. tower, fortress ◇ Ety/351, S/428, LotR/B

minas S. [mˈinɑs] (minnas N.) n. abst. 1. tower ○ 2. by ext., fort, city with a citadel and central watch-tower ◇ Ety/373, S/434, VT/42:24

mindon N. [mˈindɔn] n. 1. Geog. isolated hill, especially a hill with a watch tower ○ 2. by ext., tower ◇ Ety/373, Ety/395

21. Law

21.17 Judgment

baudh N. [bˈɑuð] n. judgement ◇ Ety/350

21.18 Judge (noun)

badhor N. [bˈɑðr̩] n. judge ◇ Ety/350Cf. badhron

badhron N. [bˈɑðrɔn] n. judge ◇ Ety/350Cf. badhor

21.24 Swear

*gwesta- N. [gwˈɛstɑ] inf. gwesto N. [gwˈɛstɔ] v. to swear ◇ Ety/397

21.25 Oath

gwaedh N. [gwˈɑɛð] n. bond, troth, compact, oath ◇ Ety/397

gwest N. [gwˈɛst] n. oath ◇ Ety/397

21.39 Prison, Jail

band S., N. [bˈɑnd] (bann N.) n. duress, prison, custody, safe-keeping ◇ Ety/371, S/428, MR/350, X/ND1

gador N. [gˈɑdr̩] (gadr N.) n. prison, dungeon ◇ Ety/358

22. Religion and Superstition