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Hiswelókë's Sindarin dictionary

Compiled, edited and annotated by Didier Willis


Edition 1.9.1

Lexicon 0.9952

2455 entries (1821 unique entries).

2411 word forms (279 deduced, 0 normalized, 0 coined) in unique entries.


1999-2008, Didier Willis and The Sindarin Dictionary Project


Status: free.

License: This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share-Alike License, version 2.0 (

Additional limitation of scope: Sindarin, as one of the languages invented by J.R.R. Tolkien, is his artistic and intellectual property. The editor does not claim any intellectual property on the Sindarin language itself and, as a whole, on this dictionary, beyond the editorial annotations, the arrangement of entries and the encyclopaedic discussions or interpretations appended to these entries. The above-mentioned license applies to such elements only.

J.R.R. Tolkien's texts and books are copyrighted by the Tolkien Estate and/or Tolkien's publishers. As of yet, this material is not approved by the Tolkien Estate or Tolkien's publishers, and is henceforth an unauthorized Sindarin dictionary. This material is however provided under the editor's assumption that compiling, arranging, analyzing, normalizing and annotating entries in order to produce a dictionary for a language, even if it is an invented one, does not violate the copyright of the inventor.

Shall any third party include this material in a derived work, under the above-mentioned license or under any other applicable license, the editor will not be liable for possible infringement of copyright on the derived work. Every derived use of this material is left under the sole responsability of the third party.

Notwithstanding, this material is neither a verbatim reproduction of information from Tolkien's published works, nor a simple rearrangement of such information in a different order. Many entries are deduced from indirect evidences (such as compounds, inflected forms, etc.) or are normalized according to our current knowledge of the Sindarin phonology and morphology. As a consequence, some deductions, as presented by the editor or by other contributors to the dictionary, might actually prove incorrect or inaccurate when new information is published.

Any violation of copyright regarding yet unpublished texts by J.R.R. Tolkien is unintended. The compiler does not have any access to hitherto unpublished texts. Would it be the case, such texts would not be used in the dictionary. Therefore, this dictionary only contains entries based on published texts, either from direct attestations or based on deductions and conclusions drawn from these texts by careful comparisons.


The editor would like to thank all the persons who made this work possible. This dictionary would not have existed without the efforts of many other peoples. Lisa Star (editor of Tyalië Tyelelliéva) and Helge Kåre Fauskanger (webmaster of Ardalambion) gave me precious advices and encouragements at the very beginning of the project. David Salo sent me his own lexicons and kindly answered some of my questions about them. Cédric Fockeu (webmaster of J.R.R. Tolkien en Version Française) offered his technical skill in scripting languages, as well as disk space to host the original on-line search engine. My thanks are also addressed to Ryszard Derdzinski, Dorothea Salo, B. Philip Jonsson, Sébastien Mallet and the members of the ELFLING mailing-list, for their support during the early phases of this long project; and later to Jim Allan (editor and co-author of An Introduction to Elvish), Bertrand Bellet, Carl Hostetter (editor of Vinyar Tengwar), Per Lindberg (from Mellonath Daeron), Elena Liria, Emanuele Vicentini, Patrick Wynne and all the other members of the Sindarin dictionary discussion group for their contributions and continual feedback, with a special mention for Javier Lorenzo for all the corrections he sent to the mailing-list.

The Dragon Flame application would not have existed without Benjamin Babut. Likewise, this revised edition of the dictionary would not have seen the light without Benjamin's work and enthousiasm for Dragon Flame and its set of related tools. I am also indebt to Sylvain Veyrié and Thomas Deniau for having ported Dragon Flame to other operating systems.

The German translation of this dictionary is based on the initial work of Christian Buzek, with further help and lots of improvements by Florian Dombach (Das Sindarin Lexikon) and other readers. Benjamin Babut and David Giraudeau contributed to the French translation. We also thank Stéphane Landais for all his corrections.

Last but not least, this work is dedicated to Christopher Tolkien and to the Vinyar Tengwar & Parma Eldalamberon editorial staffs, whose efforts to publish J.R.R. Tolkien's linguistic papers have made such a dictionary possible.


This dictionary is based on J.R.R. Tolkien's works, extended with etymological notes, phonetics and other information.

Sindarin is the language of the Grey Elves, invented by J.R.R. Tolkien and exemplified in his masterful epic story The Lord of the Rings.

This work aims at being a complete Sindarin and Noldorin dictionary, addressing not only Tolkien's fans wishing to understand the elvish sentences from The Lord of the Rings or to build simple sentences in Sindarin, but also scholars wanting to study Sindarin for what it is: the complex linguistic invention of a philology professor, and also a beautiful piece of art.

The Sindarin dictionary project began on October 23, 1999, and is still under development. By no mean shall this version be regarded as definitive. The editor is all too well aware that the dictionary is not as perfect or complete as it might be. Nevertheless, it seems better to encourage the study of Sindarin by the provision of a working dictionary rather than delay the publication perhaps for years, until the editor's ideals are satisfied — a condition which might never be attained.

Project declaration

Dictionary compiled and adapted from various sources.

Core file encoded manually in XML (TEI P4).

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Phonetics are transcribed using the X-SAMPA scheme for representing the IPA in 7-bit ASCII encoding.

Hypothetical words, either interpreted, reconstructed or deduced from mutated forms, are all marked as deduced.

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Status: high.

This document has been extensively checked, although a few casual errors or typos may still remain.

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a I S. [ɑ] (ar S.) conj. and ◇ LotR/II:IV, LotR/VI:IV, S/428, SD/129-31, LB/354, Letters/308See ah for the form that this conjunction might take before a vowel

a II S. [ɑ] interj. O! ◇ Letters/308See also ai I and ae

ab- S. [ɑb] pref. after, later ← Abonnen WJ/387

ablad S. [ˈɑblɑd] n. prohibition, refusal (with reference to the gesture one makes with the hand) ◇ VT/47:13

abonnen S. [ɑbˈɔnnɛn] pl. ebœnnin S. [ɛbˈɛnnin] n. and adj. 1. born later, born after ○ 2. as a noun, man, one born later than the Elves, a human being (elvish name for men) ◇ WJ/387ab-+onnen "after-born"

achad S. [ˈɑxɑd] n. Biol. neck (properly referring only to the bony vertebral part not including the throat) ◇ RC/537Q. axo

acharn S. [ˈɑxɑrn] n. vengeance ◇ WJ/254, WJ/301OS *akkʰarna, CE *atkarnâ "reaction"

*achas S. [ˈɑxɑs] n. dread, fear ← Daerachas WJ/187This might also be *gachas, mutated in composition

ad- N. [ɑd] pref. back, again, re- ◇ Ety/349, VT/45:6

ada N. [ˈɑdɑ] n. m. hypo. of adar, father, daddy ◇ Ety/349

adab N. [ˈɑdɑb] pl. edeb N. n. building, house ◇ Ety/390, WR/379-80, X/EI

adan S. [ˈɑdɑn] pl. edain S. [ˈɛdɑjn] n. man, one of the Second People (elvish name for men) ◇ LotR/A(v), S/427, PM/324, WJ/387, Letters/282Q. atanadanath S. n. coll.

*adanadar S. [ɑdˈɑnɑdɑr] pl. edenedair S. [ɛdˈɛnɛdɑjr] n. man, one of the Fathers of Men ◇ MR/373adan+adar

adanath S. [ˈɑdɑnɑθ] n. coll. of adan, men ◇ MR/373

adaneth S. [ˈɑdɑnɛθ] n. f. (mortal) woman ◇ MR/349adan+-eth

adar S., N. [ˈɑdɑr] pl. edair S. [ˈɛdɑjr] (eder N., edeir N.) n. m. father ◇ Ety/349, PM/324, MR/373, LotR/II:II, VT/44:21-22, X/EIada N. n. m. hypo.atheg S. n. m. dim.

adel N. [ɑdɛl̡] prep. behind, in rear (of) ◇ Ety/392

*adertha- S. [ɑdˈɛrθɑ] v. to reunite ← Aderthad S/409ad- + ertʰa- "to make one again", OS *atertʰa-aderthad S. ger.

aderthad S. [ɑdˈɛrθɑd] ger. of adertha-, reuniting, reunion ◇ S/409OS *atertʰata

*adleg- N. [ˈɑdlɛg] inf. adlegi N. [ˈɑdlɛgi] pa. t. adlenc N. [ˈɑdlɛŋk] v. Arch., Poet. to loose, let loose, release ◇ VT/45:27

adlegi N. inf.adleg-

adlenc N. pa. t.adleg-

aduial S. [ɑdˈuj.ɑl] n. the evening, time of star-opening, "evendim" ◇ LotR/Dad + uial "second twilight"

ae S. [ˈɑɛ] interj. O! ◇ VT/44:21,22See also ai I and a II

aear S. [ˈɑɛ.ɑr] n. Geog. sea ◈ Tolkien changed this word several times, see gaearaearon S. n. augm.

aearon S. [ˈɑɛ.ɑrɔn] n. augm. of aear, Geog. great sea, ocean ◈ Tolkien changed this word several times, see gaearon

*aeg S. [ˈɑɛg] n. point ← aeglir, aeglos, etc.The adjective oeg "sharp, pointed, piercing" from Ety/349 is perhaps rejected: Tolkien later decided that no cognate of Quenya aica "fell, terrible, dire" was used in Sindarin, "though aeg would have been its form if it had occurred" (PM/347). On the other hand, we have words such as aeglos and aeglir, so there must be a noun aeg "point"oegas N. n. abst.

aeglir S. [ˈɑɛglir] (oeglir N.) n. Geog. range of mountain peaks ← Hithaeglir LotR, Ety/349, X/OEaeg+lîr

aeglos S. [ˈɑɛglɔs] n. 1. Bot. snowthorn, a plant like furze (gorse), but larger and with white flowers ○ 2. Geol. icicle (a pendent spear of ice formed by the freezing of dripping water) ◇ UT/417, LotR/Indexaeg+loss

aelin S. pl.oel

aen S. [ˈɑɛn] unkn. (unknown meaning) ◇ SD/129-31Some scholars believe this word to be cognate to Quenya nai "may it be". Other think that it is the pronoun "they". The context in which this word occurs (The so-called "King's Letter") is not clear enough to intepret it with certainty

aer I S. [ˈɑɛr] n. Geog. sea ◈ Tolkien changed this word several times, see aear, gaear

aer II S. [ˈɑɛr] adj. holy ◇ VT/44:21,24

aerlinn S. [ˈɑɛrlinn] n. (unknown meaning, perhaps a song about the sea, or possibly holy song) ◇ RGEO/70, X/ND4aer+lind (?) "sea-song" or (?) "holy song", OS *airelinde

aes N. [ˈɑɛs] n. cooked food, meat ◇ Ety/349

aew S., N. [ˈɑɛw] n. Orn. (small) bird ◇ Ety/348, S/434

*aewen S. [ˈɑɛwɛn] adj. of birds ← Linaewen S/434

afarch N. adj. very dry, arid ◇ VT/45:5, X/PHa- (intensive prefix) + parch, *apparkâ, ON appʰarkʰaCf. parch

*agar S. [ˈɑgɑr] n. blood ← Agarwaen S/378

agarwaen S. [ɑgˈɑrwɑɛn] adj. bloodstained ◇ S/378agar+gwaen

aglar S., N. [ˈɑglɑr] n. glory, brilliance, splendour ◇ Ety/348, S/427, LotR/II:I, LotR/VI:IV, RGEO/73, VT/47:13

aglareb S., N. [ˈɑglɑrɛb] adj. glorious ◇ Ety/348, S/427, WJ/412

aglon N.aglond

aglond N. (aglon N.) n. defile, pass between high walls ◇ Ety/348, X/ND4

agor I S. irreg. pa.

agor II N. [ˈɑgr̩] (agr N.) adj. narrow ◇ Ety/348

agr N.agor II

ah S. [ɑh] prep. and conj. and, with ◇ MR/329The title Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth is translated as "converse of Finrod and Andreth", but some scholars actually believe this word to be unrelated with the conjunction a I, ar "and", and they render it as "with". Other scholars consider that "and" and "with" (in the comitative sense) are not exclusive of each other, and regard ah as the form taken by this conjunction before a vowel. That a, ar and ah are etymologically related has finally been confirmed in VT/43:29-30. Compare also with Welsh, where the coordination "and" also takes different forms whether it occurs before a vowel or a consonant (respectively ac and a). In written Welsh, a often triggers the aspirate mutation: bara a chaws "bread and cheese". This usage is seldom applied in colloquial Welsh (Modern Welsh §510)

ahamar S.sammar

ai I S. [ˈɑj] interj. ah! ◇ LotR/I:XIIThough attested in LotR, this word might relate to ae, with the regular change from ai to ae between Noldorin and Sindarin

ai II S. [ɑj] pron. rel. for those who ◇ VT/44:21,30

aith N. [ˈɑjθ] n. spearpoint ◇ Ety/355

al- N. [ɑl] pref. no, not ◇ Ety/367

alae S. [ˈɑlɑɛ] interj. (?) behold! ◇ UT/40Uncertain meaning, but compare with Quenya ela! "imperative exclamation directing sight to an actually visible object" (WJ/362)

alag N. [ˈɑlɑg] adj. rushing, impetuous ◇ Ety/348, VT/45:5

alagos N. [ˈɑlɑgɔs] n. storm of wind ◇ Ety/348

alf N.alph

alfirin S. [ˈɑlfirin] n. and adj. 1. immortal ○ 2. Bot. as a noun, name of a flower, bell-like and running through many soft and gentle colours ○ 3. Bot. as a noun, also used for another small white flower ◇ LotR/V:IX, Letters/402, UT/55, UT/303, UT/316, UT/417al-+firin

alph S. [ˈɑlf] (alf N.) pl. eilph S. [ˈɛjlf] n. Orn. swan ◇ Ety/348, S/427, LotR/E, VT/42:6-7, X/PH

am N. [ɑm] prep. up, upwards, upon ◇ Ety/348

amar N. [ˈɑmɑr] (ambar N.) n. earth ◇ Ety/372

amarth S. [ˈɑmɑrθ] (ammarth N.) n. fate, doom ◇ Ety/372, S/427, LotR/A(i), TC/183

amarthan N. [ɑmˈɑrθɑn] adj. fated ◇ VT/41:10

amath N. [ˈɑmɑθ] (ambath N.) n. Mil. shield ◇ VT/45:33

ambar N.amar

ambath N.amath

amben N.ambenn

ambend N.ambenn

ambenn N. [ˈɑmbɛnn] (ambend N., amben N.) adv. uphill, sloping upwards ◇ Ety/348, Ety/380, X/ND3, X/ND4am+pend

amdir S. [ˈɑmdir] n. hope based on reason ◇ MR/320am+tîr "looking up"

amloth S. [ˈɑmlɔθ] n. Mil. flower or floreate device used as crest fixed to the point of a tall helmet ◇ WJ/318am+loth "uprising flower"

amlug N. [ˈɑmlug] n. dragon ◇ Ety/349, Ety/370

ammarth N.amarth

ammen S. [ˈɑmmɛn] pron. 1st pl. of us, for us, toward us ◇ LotR/II:IV, LB/354, VT/44:21,27an+men

amon S., N. [ˈɑmɔn] pl. emyn S., N. [ˈɛmyn] (emuin N.) n. Geog. hill, steep-sided mount ◇ Ety/348, LotR/E, RC/334

amrûn S., N. [ˈɑmruːn] n. east, orient ◇ Ety/348, Ety/384, S/437, LotR/Eam+rhûn "uprising, sunrise"

an S. [ɑn] prep. to, towards, for ◇ LotR/II:IV, UT/39, SD/129-31With suffixed article and elision in aglar'ni Pheriannath

an- N. [ɑn] pref. with, by ◇ Ety/374

anann S. [ˈɑnɑnn] adv. long, for a long time ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308an+and, OS *ananda

anc N. [ˈɑŋk] n. Biol. jaw, row of teeth ◇ Ety/348, Ety/374

and S. [ˈɑnd] (ann N.) adj. long ◇ Ety/348, S/427, X/ND1

andabon N.annabon

andaith S. [ˈɑndɑjθ] (andeith N.) n. Ling. long-mark, sign used in writing alphabetic tengwar over a vowel, to indicate that it is lengthened. ◇ LotR/E, Ety/391, X/EIand+taith

andeith N.andaith

anfang N. [ˈɑnfɑŋ] pl. enfeng S., N. [ˈɛnfɛŋ] n. Pop. one of the Longbeards (a tribe of Dwarves) ◇ Ety/348, Ety/387, WJ/322and+fanganfangrim S. n. class pl.

anfangrim S. [ɑnfˈɑŋgrim] n. class pl. of anfang, Pop. the Longbeards (a tribe of Dwarves) ◇ WJ/322anfang+rim

ang S., N. [ˈɑŋ] n. iron ◇ Ety/348, S/428, PM/347

angerthas S. [ɑŋgˈɛrθɑs] n. Ling. runic alphabet, long rune-rows (extended version of the Certhas) ◇ S/427, LotR/Eand+certhas

*anglenna- S. [ɑŋglˈɛnnɑ] v. to approach ← anglennatha SD/129-31an+*glenna-, OS *añglenna-, CE *angledna-anglennatha S. v. fut. 3rd

anglennatha S. [ɑŋglˈɛnnɑθɑ] v. fut. 3rd of anglenna-, (he) will approach ◇ SD/129-31

angol I N. [ˈɑŋgɔl] n. stench ◇ Ety/378

angol II N. [ˈɑŋgɔl] n. Arch., Poet. deep lore, magic ◇ Ety/377

angren S., N. [ˈɑŋgrɛn] pl. engrin S., N. [ˈɛŋgrin] adj. of iron ◇ Ety/348, S/428

angwedh N. [ˈɑŋgwɛð] n. chain ◇ Ety/397ang+gwedh "iron-bond"

anim S. [ˈɑnim] pron. 1st for myself ◇ LotR/A(v)an+imCf. enni

aníra- S. [ɑnˈiːrɑ] v. to desire ◇ SD/129-31an+*íra- or *níra- (?) OS *anîra-

ann N.and

ann-thennath S. [ˈɑnn.θˈɛnnɑθ] n. pl. a verse mode, lit. "long-shorts" (alternance of long and short vowels, or rather alternance of long and short verse units, possibly of masculine and feminine rhymes) ◇ LotR/I:XIThe word is not translated by Tolkien. Refer to Tolkien's Legendarium p. 115 for a discussion of its probable meaning

*anna- N. [ˈɑnnɑ] inf. anno N. [ˈɑnnɔ] v. to give ◇ Ety/348anno S. v. imp.ónen S. irreg. pa. t. 1st

annabon N. [ˈɑnnɑbɔn] (andabon N.) n. Zool. elephant ◇ Ety/372, X/ND2and+*bond "long-snouted"

anno I N. inf.anna-

anno II S. [ˈɑnnɔ] v. imp. of anna-, give! ◇ VT/44:21,27

annon S., N. [ˈɑnnɔn] pl. ennyn S., N. [ˈɛnnyn] n. augm. great door or gate ◇ Ety/348, S/428, LotR/II:IV, TAI/150

annui S. [ˈɑnnuj] adj. western ◇ SD/129-31

annûn S., N. [ˈɑnnuːn] n. west, sunset ◇ Ety/376, S/428, LotR/VI:IV, LotR/E, LB/354, Letters/308

annúnaid S. [ɑnnˈuːnɑjd] n. Ling. the "Westron" language (one of the names for Common Speech) ◇ PM/316OS *andûneitèCf. falathren

Anor S., N. [ˈɑnɔr] n. Astron. sun ◇ Ety/348, RC/232

anrand N. n. cycle, age (100 Valian Years) ◇ Ety/382, X/ND4Helge Fauskanger noted that the element and "long" would normally be preserved before r-, but the -d is lost because there is another d in the word (VT/41:9); however, this second d later disappeared in the change from -nd to -nn, and it is unclear whether or not an- would then revert to and-and+*rand "long cycle"

ant N. [ˈɑnt] n. gift ◇ Ety/348

anw N. adj. male ◇ Ety/360, X/WA literal interpretation of the Etymologies would class this word as a noun, but David Salo notes that the punctuation in The Etymologies is not always reliable. Noldorin anw cannot be cognate to the Quenya noun hanu (*3anû) because the final -u would drop. It must rather be cognate to the Quenya adjective hanwa (*3anwâ) attested under the stem INI, where it is also stated that inw, corresponding to Quenya inya "female", has been remodelled after anw. The combination of these two entries, along with the phonological evidences, clearly indicates that anw is actually an adjective

anwar S. [ˈɑnwɑr] n. awe ◇ UT/418, VT/42:23

aphad- S. [ˈɑffɑd] v. to follow ◇ WJ/387In WJ/387, the verbal stem is given as aphad-, and the etymology as *ap-pata. If we follow the latter, the verb should perhaps read aphada-ab-+pad- "to walk behind, on a track or path"

aphadon S. [ˈɑffɑdɔn] pl. ephedyn S. [ˈɛffɛdyn] n. 1. follower ○ 2. Pop. by ext., man (elvish name for men) ◇ WJ/387aphadrim S. n. class pl.

aphadrim S. [ɑffˈɑdrim] n. class pl. of aphadon, Pop. followers, men (elvish name for men) ◇ WJ/387aphad-+rim

ar S.a I

âr N. [ˈɑːr] n. king (used of a lord or king of a specified region) ◇ Ety/389Cf. aran, taur I

ar- I S.ara-

ar- II N. [ɑr] pref. 1. Arch. etym. beside ○ 2. by ext., without ◇ Ety/349

ara- S. [ɑrɑ] (ar- S.) pref. high, noble, royal ◇ S/428Reduced form of aran, element in the names of the kings of Arnor and Arthedain

arad N. [ˈɑrɑd] n. daytime, a day ◇ Ety/349

aran S., N. [ˈɑrɑn] pl. erain S., N. [ˈɛrɑjn] n. king (used of a lord or king of a specified region) ◇ Ety/360, S/428, LotR/II:IV, LotR/VI:VII, SD/129-31, Letters/426Cf. âr, taur I

aranarth S. [ˈɑrɑnɑrθ] n. kingdom, "king-holding" ◇ VT/44:22,25In Tolkien's manuscript, this form was rejected in favor of arnad

aras S. [ˈɑrɑs] n. Zool. deer ◇ WJ/156-157

ardh N. [ˈɑrð] n. realm, region ◇ Ety/360ardhon S. n. augm.

ardhon S. [ˈɑrðɔn] n. augm. of ardh, 1. Geog. great region, province ○ 2. by ext., world ← Calenardhon S/386, PM/348

*arn S. [ˈɑrn] adj. royal ← arn(a)gon-ath Letters/427Cf. arnen

arnad S. [ˈɑrnɑd] n. kingdom ◇ VT:44:21,25

arnediad N. [ɑrnˈɛdi.ɑd] (arnœdiad S., N.) adj. innumerable, countless, endless, without reckoning, numberless ◇ Ety/349, Ety/378, S/428, VT/46:6ar-+nediad

arnen S. [ˈɑrnɛn] pl. ernin S. [ˈɛrnin] adj. (?) royal ← Emyn Arnen, Lonnath-Ernin LotR/V:I, WR/294, WR/370Originally, Lonnath-Ernin might have been intended to mean 'royal havens', assuming the second element to be a regular adjective. However, the second element in Emyn Arnen 'hills of Arnen' is singular, and Tolkien later decided that it should mean 'Hill beside the water', see VT/42:17 and HL/119-124. Nevertheless, this meaning cannot apply to Lonnath-Ernin (havens are near water by definition), so unless we entirely reject this earlier form, we may assume that an adjective 'royal' is still possible.Cf. arn

arnœdiad S., N.arnediad

arod S. [ˈɑrɔd] adj. noble ◇ PM/363, VT/41:9

aronoded N. [ɑrˈɔnɔdɛd] adj. innumerable, countless, endless ◇ Ety/378ar-gonodedCf. arnediad

arphen S. [ˈɑrfɛn] pl. erphin S. [ˈɛrfin] n. a noble ◇ WJ/376ar-+pen

arphent S. pa. t. "and (he/she) said" ◇ TL/21:09ar+pent "and (he/she) said"

*arth S. [ˈɑrθ] adj. (unknown meaning, perhaps (?) noble, lofty, exalted) ← Arthedain LotRQ arta or OS *artʰa, CE *arâtâ

*arwen S. [ˈɑrwɛn] n. f. noble woman ← Arwen (name) LotRar-+gwend

ascar N.asgar

asgar N. [ˈɑsgɑr] (ascar N.) adj. violent, rushing, impetuous ◇ Ety/386

ast N. [ˈɑst] n. dust ◇ Ety/349

ath- N. [ɑθ] pref. on both sides, across ◇ Ety/349

athan S. [ɑθɑn] prep. beyond ◇ SD/62

atheg S. [ˈɑθɛg] n. m. dim. of adar, 1. "litte father" ○ 2. Biol. thumb (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,17

athelas S. [ˈɑθɛlɑs] n. Bot. "kingsfoil", a healing herb brought to Middle-earth by the Númenóreans ◇ LotR/V:VIIIQ athea "benefical, helpful" + CS las "leaf"

athra- S. [ɑθrɑ] pref. across ← Athrabeth MR/329

athrabeth S. [ˈɑθrɑbɛθ] n. debate, converse ◇ MR/329athra-+peth "cross-talk"

athrad S., N. [ˈɑθrɑd] pl. ethraid S. [ˈɛθrɑjd] n. (river-)crossing, ford, way ◇ Ety/349, Ety/383, UT/437, VT/42:7

*athrada- N. [ˈɑθrɑdɑ] inf. athrado N. [ˈɑθrɑdɔ] v. to cross, traverse ◇ Ety/383ath-+rada-

athrado N. inf.athrada-

atland N. adj. sloping, tilted ◇ Ety/390, X/TL, X/ND4

*atlanna- N. inf. atlanno N. v. to slope, slant ◇ Ety/390, X/TL

atlanno N. inf.atlanna-

atlant N. adj. oblique, slanting ◇ Ety/390, X/TL

aur S., N. [ˈɑur] n. day, sunlight, morning ◇ Ety/349, S/439Cf. calan

auth I N. [ˈɑuθ] n. war, battle ◇ Ety/365, Ety/379, VT/45:23

auth II S. [ˈɑuθ] n. a dim shape, spectral or vague apparition ◇ VT/42:9

ava- S. [ˈɑvɑ] aux. will not ◈ avad S. ger.avam S. v. pres. 1st pl.avo S. v. imp.avon S. v. pres. 1st

avad S. [ˈɑvɑd] ger. of ava-, refusal, reluctance ◇ WJ/371

avam S. [ˈɑvɑm] v. pres. 1st pl. of ava-, we won't ◇ WJ/371

avar S. [ˈɑvɑr] pl. evair S. [ˈɛvɑjr] n. 1. refuser ○ 2. Pop. esp. in the pl., the Avari, Elves who refused the invitation of the Valar ◇ WJ/380, VT/47:12This plural name was known to the loremasters, but went out of daily use at the time of the Exile

avo S. [ˈɑvɔ] v. imp. of ava-, don't! ◇ WJ/371Used as a negative adverb before an imperative: avo garo "don't do it!". Sometimes used as prefix: avgaro

avon S. [ˈɑvɔn] v. pres. 1st of ava-, I won't ◇ WJ/371

*avorn S. [ˈɑvɔrn] adj. staying, fast ← Baravorn Hamfast, SD/129-31

awarth N. [ˈɑwɑrθ] n. abandonment ◇ Ety/397

awartha- N. [ɑwˈɑrθɑ] v. to forsake, abandon ◇ Ety/397


bach N. [bˈɑx] n. article (for exchange), ware, thing ◇ Ety/372

bachor N. [bˈɑxr̩] n. pedlar ◇ Ety/372

bâd N. [bˈɑːd] n. beaten track, pathway ◇ Ety/351

badhor N. [bˈɑðr̩] n. judge ◇ Ety/350Cf. badhron

badhron N. [bˈɑðrɔn] n. judge ◇ Ety/350Cf. badhor

bair S.

balan S., N. [bˈɑlɑn] pl. belain S. [bˈɛlɑjn] (belein N., belen N.) n. Theo. Vala, divine power, divinity ◇ Ety/350, S/439, Letters/427, X/EI

balch N. [bˈɑlx] adj. cruel ◇ Ety/377

band S., N. [bˈɑnd] (bann N.) n. duress, prison, custody, safe-keeping ◇ Ety/371, S/428, MR/350, X/ND1

banga- N. [bˈɑŋgɑ] v. to trade ◇ Ety/372


bar S. [bˈɑr] pl. bair S. [bˈɑjr] n. 1. dwelling, home ○ 2. by ext., inhabited land ◇ S/428, WR/379-80, SD/129-31mbair S. nasal mut. pl.mbar S. nasal mut.

bara N. [bˈɑrɑ] adj. 1. fiery ○ 2. eager ◇ Ety/351

barad I N. [bˈɑrɑd] adj. doomed ◇ Ety/372

barad II S., N. [bˈɑrɑd] pl. beraid S. [bˈɛrɑjd] n. tower, fortress ◇ Ety/351, S/428, LotR/B

baradh N. [bˈɑrɑð] adj. steep ◇ Ety/351

baran I S., N. [bˈɑrɑn] adj. brown, swart, dark brown, golden brown, yellow brown ◇ Ety/351, LotR/F, TC/179, RC/343

baran II S. soft mut. of paranDol Baran RC/433

*bartha- N. [bˈɑrθɑ] inf. bartho N. [bˈɑrθɔ] v. to doom ◇ Ety/372

bartho N. inf.bartha-

basgorn N. [bˈɑsgɔrn] n. loaf (of bread) ◇ Ety/372, Ety/365bast+corn "round bread"

*bass S. [bˈɑss] n. bread ← besain, besoneth, imbas PM/404-405, VT/44:21In the Etymologies, the word for "bread" is given as bast, Quenya masta, but it seems that Tolkien later changed his mind and updated the word to bass, as shown in Quenya massánie, Sindarin besain, besoneth "bread-giver", and in the mutated form (i)mbas (apparently prefixed with the article). These latter Sindarin forms are however dubious, as we would rather have expected besain (as a regular cognate of Quenya massánie) and besoneth (without i-affection), and possibly a different mutation pattern after the article*mbas S. soft mut.

bast N. [bˈɑst] n. bread ◇ Ety/372Cf. bass

*batha- N. [bˈɑθɑ] inf. batho N. [bˈɑθɔ] v. to trample ◇ Ety/352

batho N. inf.batha-

baudh N. [bˈɑuð] n. judgement ◇ Ety/350

baug N. [bˈɑug] adj. tyrannous, cruel, oppressive ◇ Ety/372

*baugla- N. [bˈɑuglɑ] inf. bauglo N. [bˈɑuglɔ] v. to oppress ◇ Ety/372

bauglir N. [bˈɑuglir] n. tyrant, oppressor ◇ Ety/372

bauglo N. inf.baugla-

baul N. [bˈɑul] n. torment ◇ Ety/377

baur N. [bˈɑur] n. need ◇ Ety/372

baw S. [bˈɑw] interj. no, don't! ◇ WJ/371

bêd S. soft mut. of pêd

bein N. adj. beautiful, fair ◇ Ety/351, Ety/359, X/EI

belain S. pl.balan

beleg S., N. [bˈɛlɛg] adj. great, mighty ◇ Ety/352, S/428veleg S. soft mut.

belein N. pl.balan

belen N. pl.balan

bellas N. [bˈɛl̡lɑs] n. abst. of belt, bodily strength ◇ Ety/352

belt N. [bˈɛlt] adj. strong in body ◇ Ety/352, Tengwestie/20031207bellas N. n. abst.

ben I S. soft mut. of pen I

ben II S. soft mut. of pen II

ben III S. [bɛn] prep. according to the, in the ◇ SD/129-31OS *be, with suffixed article (?)

benn N. [bˈɛnn] n. m. man, male ◇ Ety/352, VT/45:9"husband"

bennas N. [bˈɛnnɑs] n. angle, corner ◇ Ety/352, Ety/375

beor N.bior

beraid S. pl.barad II

berein N. pl.bôr

beren I N. pl.bôr

beren II N. [bˈɛrɛn] adj. bold ◇ Ety/352

bereth S., N. [bˈɛrɛθ] n. f. queen, spouse ◇ Ety/351, RGEO/74

*beria- N. [bˈɛri.ɑ] inf. berio N. [bˈɛri.ɔ] v. to protect ◇ Ety/351

berio N. inf.beria-

*bertha- N. [bˈɛrθɑ] inf. bertho N. [bˈɛrθɔ] v. to dare ◇ Ety/352

bertho N. inf.bertha-

besain S. n. f. bread-giver ◇ PM/404-405, X/ZSee bass for a discussion regarding this word

besoneth S. n. f. bread-giver ◇ PM/404-405, X/ZSee bass for a discussion regarding this wordbass+oneth

bess S., N. [bˈɛss] n. f. 1. (young) woman ○ 2. wife ◇ Ety/352, SD/129-31

beth S. soft mut. of peth

bîn S. soft mut. of pînCûl Bîn RC/536

bior N. (beor N.) n. follower, vassal ◇ Ety/352, X/IU

blâb N. [blˈɑːb] v. pres. 3rd of blab-, (he) flaps, beats ◇ Ety/380The Etymologies seem to list this word as a noun, but it is clearly the third person singular of the verb

*blab- N. [blˈɑb] inf. blebi N. [blˈɛbi] v. to beat, batter, flap (wings, etc.) ◇ Ety/380blâb N. v. pres. 3rd

blebi N. inf.blab-

bo S. [bɔ] prep. on ◇ VT/44:21,26

boda- S. [bˈɔdɑ] v. to ban, prohibit ◇ WJ/372

bôr N. [bˈɔːr] pl. bŷr N. [bˈyːr] (berein N., beren N.) n. steadfast, trusty man, faithful vassal ◇ Ety/353

born S. [bˈɔrn] adj. hot, red ◇ Letters/426-27

both N. [bˈɔθ] n. puddle, small pool ◇ Ety/372

bragol S. [brˈɑgɔl] adj. sudden ◇ S/429

braig N. [brˈɑjg] (breig N.) adj. wild, fierce ◇ Ety/373, VT/45:34The form brerg in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:34

brand N. [brˈɑnd] (brann N.) adj. 1. lofty, noble, fine ○ 2. high (in size) ◇ Ety/351, TAI/150, X/ND1

brann N.brand

brannon N. [brˈɑnnɔn] n. m. lord ◇ Ety/351

brass N. [brˈɑss] n. white heat ◇ Ety/351

brassen N. [brˈɑssɛn] adj. white-hot ◇ Ety/351

breged N. [brˈɛgɛd] n. violence, suddenness ◇ Ety/352

bregol N. [brˈɛgɔl] adj. violent, sudden, fierce ◇ Ety/352, Ety/373bregolas N. n. abst.

bregolas N. [brˈɛgɔlɑs] n. abst. of bregol, fierceness ◇ Ety/352

breig N.braig

*breitha- N. [brˈɛjθɑ] inf. breitho N. [brˈɛjθɔ] v. to break out suddenly ◇ Ety/352

breitho N. inf.breitha-

*brenia- N. [brˈɛni.ɑ] inf. brenio N. [brˈɛni.ɔ] v. to endure ◇ Ety/353, VT/45:7The form bronio in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:7

brenio N. inf.brenia-

brennil N. [brˈɛnnil̡] n. f. lady ◇ Ety/351

brethel N.brethil II

brethil I S., N. pl.brethil II

brethil II S. [brˈɛθil̡] (brethel N.) pl. brethil S., N. n. Bot. beech, beech-tree, silver birch ◇ Ety/352, Ety/376, S/429

brith N. [brˈiθ] n. gravel ◇ Ety/353

brôg N. [brˈɔːg] n. Zool. bear ◇ Ety/374

*brona- N. [brˈɔnɑ] inf. brono N. [brˈɔnɔ] v. to last, to survive ◇ Ety/353*bronad N. ger.

*bronad N. [brˈɔnɑd] ger. of brona-, survival ← bronadui Ety/353

bronadui N. [brˈɔnɑduj] adj. enduring, lasting ◇ Ety/353

brono N. inf.brona-

bronwe S., N. [brˈɔnwɛ] n. endurance, lasting quality, faith ◇ Ety/353, SD/62

*brui S. [brˈuj] adj. loud, noisy ← Bruinen LotR/Index

brûn N. [brˈuːn] adj. old, that has long endured, or been established, or in use ◇ Ety/353

bui N. v. impers. to need ◇ Ety/372, X/Z

*buia- N. [bˈuj.ɑ] inf. buio N. [bˈuj.ɔ] v. to serve, to hold allegiance to ◇ Ety/353

buio N. inf.buia-

bund N. [bˈund] (bunn N.) n. 1. Biol. snout, nose ○ 2. Geog. by ext., cape (of land) ◇ Ety/372, X/ND2

bunn N.bund

bŷr N. pl.bôr


*cab- S. [kˈɑb] v. to leap ← cabed S/386, WJ/100cabed S. ger.

cabed S. [kˈɑbɛd] ger. of cab-, 1. leap ○ 2. by ext., deep gorge ◇ S/386, WJ/100Emended by Tolkien from earlier cabad. This is our sole late example that basic verbs should perhaps form their gerund in -ed, whereas derived verbs are well attested to use -ad (cf. aderthad)

cabor N. [kˈɑbr̩] (cabr N.) n. Zool. frog ◇ Ety/362MS *kabr, OS *kapro "leaper"

cabr N.cabor

cadw N. adj. shaped, formed ◇ Ety/362-363, X/W

cadwar N.cadwor

cadwor N. [kˈɑdwr̩] (cadwar N.) adj. shapely ◇ Ety/363

cae S. [kˈɑɛ] (caen- S.) adj. num. card. ten ◇ PE/17:95Cf. caer, pae

cael N. [kˈɑɛl] n. lying in bed, sickness ◇ Ety/363

caeleb N. [kˈɑɛlɛb] adj. bedridden, sick ◇ Ety/363

caen- S.cae

*caenen S. [kˈɑɛnɛn] adj. num. ord. tenth ← nelchaenen SD/129-131Cf. paenui, caenui

caenui S. [kˈɑɛnuj] adj. num. ord. tenth ◇ VT/42:10Cf. paenui, caenen

caer N. [kˈɑɛr] adj. num. card. ten ◇ Ety/363Cf. cae, pae

caew N. [kˈɑɛw] n. lair, resting-place ◇ Ety/363

cai S. [kˈɑj] n. hedge ◇ UT/282

cail S. [kˈɑjl] n. fence or palisade of spikes and sharp stakes ◇ UT/282

*caint S. pl.cant

cair S. [kˈɑjr] (ceir N.) n. ship ◇ Ety/365, LotR/A(iv), X/EI

calad S., N. [kˈɑlɑd] ger. light ◇ Ety/362, UT/65

calan S. [kˈɑlɑn] n. day, period of actual daylight ◇ aLotR/DAttested in the first edition of LotR, but omitted from the second.Cf. aur

calar S. [kˈɑlɑr] n. (portable) lamp ← celerdain LotR/V:I, WR/287, RC/523

calardan S. [kɑlˈɑrdɑn] pl. celerdain S. [kɛlˈɛrdɑjn] n. lampwright ◇ LotR/V:I, WR/287, RC/523calar+tân

calben S. [kˈɑlbɛn] pl. celbin S. [kˈɛl̡bin] n. 1. Pop. Elf of the Great Journey (lit. "light person") ○ 2. Pop. by ext., all Elves but the Avari ◇ WJ/362, WJ/376-377, WJ/408-409

calen S., N. [kˈɑlɛn] pl. celin S. [kˈɛlin] adj. green ◇ Ety/362, S/429, Letters/282, RC/349, VT/42:19Etym. "bright-coloured"

calf N. n. water-vessel ◇ Ety/362, X/PH

callon N. [kˈɑllɔn] n. hero ◇ Ety/362

cam S., N. [kˈɑm] (camb N., camm N.) n. Biol. hand ◇ Ety/361, Ety/371, S/429


camland N. n. Biol. palm of hand ◇ Ety/367, X/ND4cam+land


can- S. [kˈɑn] v. to cry out, shout, call ◇ PM/361-362

canad S., N. [kˈɑnɑd] (canath N.) adj. num. card. four ◇ Ety/362, VT/42:24,25, VT/48:6, VT/46:3

canath I N.canad

canath II S. [kˈɑnɑθ] n. "quarter", silver coin used in Gondor, the fourth part of a "mirian" → mirianPM/45mirian S. n.

canhui S. Arch.canthui

cann N. adj. bold ◇ Ety/362, X/ND1

*cannas N. [kˈɑnnɑs] n. abst. of cant, shaping ← Dorgannas WJ/192, WJ/206

cant N. [kˈɑnt] pl. *caint S. [kˈɑjnt] n. outline, shape ← morchaint S/432, Ety/362, VT/42:28*cannas N. n. abst.

canthui S. [kˈɑnθuj] (Arch. cantui S., Arch. canhui S.) adj. num. ord. fourth ◇ VT/42:10, VT/42:25,27

cantui S. Arch.canthui

car N. [kˈɑr] (cardh N.) n. house, building ◇ Ety/362

*car- S. [kˈɑr] irreg. pa. t. agor S. [ˈɑgɔr] v. to do ← avo garo WJ/371, WJ/415*cared N. ger.caro S. v. imp.cerir S. v. pres. 3rd pl.

carab S. [kˈɑrɑb] n. hat ◇ WJ/187

carach S. [kˈɑrɑx] n. Biol. jaw, row of teeth ◇ S/429, RC/607

*caraes N. [kˈɑrɑɛs] n. jagged hedge of spikes ← Helcharaes Ety/362

carag N. [kˈɑrɑg] n. spike, tooth of rock ◇ Ety/362

caran S., N. [kˈɑrɑn] adj. red ◇ Ety/362, S/429, LotR/E

caras S., N. [kˈɑrɑs] n. 1. circular earthwall with dike ○ 2. city (built above ground) ◇ Ety/362, LotR/II:VII, RC/311

carch S., N. [kˈɑrx] n. Biol. tooth, fang ◇ Ety/362, S/429

cardh I

cardh II N.carth

*cared N. [kˈɑrɛd] ger. of car-, making, doing ← ceredir Ety/354

caro S. [kˈɑrɔ] v. imp. of car-, do! make! ◇ VT/44:21,25

carth N. [kˈɑrθ] (cardh N.) n. deed, feat ◇ Ety/362Cf. úgarth

*cast S. [kˈɑst] n. Geog. cape, headland ← Angast VT/42:28

cathrae S. [kˈɑθrɑɛ] n. tressure, net for combining the hair ◇ VT/42:12

caul S. [kˈɑul] n. great burden, affliction ◇ VT/39:10

caun I N.cofn

caun II S. [kˈɑun] n. outcry, clamor ◇ PM/361-362conath S. n. coll.

caun III N. [kˈɑun] n. valour ◇ Ety/362

*caun IV S. [kˈɑun] pl. conin S. [kˈɔnin] n. prince, ruler ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308MS *kaun, Q. cáno

caw N. [kˈɑw] n. top ◇ Ety/362

ceber S., N. [kˈɛbɛr] pl. cebir S., N. [kˈɛbir] n. stake, spike, stone ridge ◇ Ety/363, LotR/II:VIII, S/437, RC/327

cebir S., N. pl.ceber

cef N. [kˈɛv] pl. ceif N. [kˈɛjv] n. soil ◇ Ety/363

ceif N. pl.cef

ceir N.cair

ceirdan N.círdan

celbin S. pl.calben

celeb S., N. [kˈɛlɛb] n. silver ◇ Ety/367, S/429, LotR/E, Letters/426

celebren N. [kɛlˈɛbrɛn] pl. celebrin S. [kɛlˈɛbrin] adj. like silver (in hue or worth) ◇ Ety/367, S/429, VT/45:25

celebrin S. pl.celebren

celefn N.celevon

celeg S., N. [kˈɛlɛg] adj. swift, agile, hasty ◇ Ety/366, PM/353, VT/41:10

celeir N. adj. brilliant ◇ Ety/362, X/EI

celerdain S. pl.calardan

celevon N. [kˈɛlɛvn̩] (celefn N.) adj. of silver ◇ Ety/367

celin S. pl.calen

*cell S. [kˈɛl̡l] adj. 1. running ○ 2. by ext., flowing (of water) ← Celduin LotR/Map

celon N. [kˈɛlɔn] n. Geog. river ← Celon (name) Ety/363

celw N. n. spring, source ◇ Ety/363, X/W

*cen- N. [kˈɛn] v. to see ← cenedril TI/184*cened N. ger.

*cened N. [kˈɛnɛd] ger. of cen-, seeing, sight ← cenedril TI/184

cenedril N. [kɛnˈɛdril̡] n. looking-glass, mirror ◇ TI/184, RS/466cened+rill

cennan N. [kˈɛnnɑn] n. potter ◇ Ety/390cêf+tân

cerch N. [kˈɛrx] n. sickle ◇ Ety/365

ceredir N. [kˈɛrɛdˌir] n. doer, maker ◇ Ety/354cared+dîr

cerin S., N. [kˈɛrin] n. 1. circular enclosure ○ 2. by ext., mound ◇ Ety/365, S/429

cerir S. [kˈɛrir] v. pres. 3rd pl. of car-, they do ◇ VT/44:22,30gerir S. soft mut.

certh S. [kˈɛrθ] pl. cirth S. [kˈirθ] n. Ling. rune ◇ WJ/396, LotR/EEtym. "cutting"certhas S. n. abst.

certhas S. [kˈɛrθɑs] n. abst. of certh, Ling. runic alphabet, rune-rows ◇ LotR/Ecerth+-as

cerveth S. [kˈɛrvɛθ] n. Cal. july (month) ◇ LotR/D

ceven S. [kˈɛvɛn] n. Earth ◇ VT/44:21,27

cevn N. adj. earthen ◇ Ety/363, X/Z

chaered S. soft mut. of haered

chebin S. soft mut. of hebin

cherdir S. soft mut. of herdir

chîn S. nasal mut. pl. of hên II

chwand N.hwand

chwann N.hwand

chwest N. n. puff, breath, breeze ◇ Ety/388, X/HW

chwîn N. n. giddiness, faintness ◇ Ety/388, X/HW

chwind N. (chwinn N.) adj. twirling, whirling ◇ Ety/388, X/ND1, X/HW

*chwinia- N. inf. chwinio N. v. to twirl, whirl, eddy ◇ Ety/388chwiniol N. part.

chwinio N. inf.chwinia-

chwiniol N. part. of chwinia-, whirling, giddy, fantastic ◇ Ety/388

chwinn N.chwind

cîl I N. [kˈiːl] n. Geog. cleft, pass between hills, gorge ◇ Ety/365

cîl II S. [kˈiːl] n. (?) renewal ◇ VT/48:8

cîr S. [kˈiːr] (cýr S.) adj. renewed ◇ VT/48:7-8

cirban N. n. haven ◇ Ety/380, X/ND4cair+pand

cirdan N.círdan

círdan S. [kˈirdɑn] (cirdan N., ceirdan N.) n. shipbuilder, shipwright ◇ Ety/365, Ety/390, LotR/VI:IX, RC/28cair+tân

*cirion S. [kˈiri.ɔn] n. m. shipman, sailor ← Cirion (name)

cirith S. [kˈiriθ] n. cleft, high climbing pass, narrow passage cut through earth or rock, ravine, defile ◇ S/387, UT/426, TC/181, RC/334-335

cirth S. pl.certh

cîw S. [kˈiːw] adj. fresh, new ◇ VT/48:7-8

claur N. [klˈɑur] n. Poet. splendour, glory ◇ Ety/362

coe N. n. earth ◇ Ety/363, X/OEThis word is indeclinable, according to the Etymologies

côf S. [kˈɔːv] n. Geog. bay ◇ VT/42:15

cofn N. [kˈɔvn] (caun N.) adj. empty, void ◇ Ety/366

côl N. [kˈɔːl] n. gold (metal) ◇ Ety/365

coll I N. [kˈɔll] adj. (golden) red ◇ Ety/365

coll II S. [kˈɔll] adj. hollow ◇ WJ/414

*coll III S. [kˈɔll] n. cloak, mantle ← Thingol S/421, MR/385

conath S. [kˈɔnɑθ] n. coll. of caun II, 1. many voices ○ 2. by ext., lamentation ◇ PM/361-362

condir S. [kˈɔndir] n. m. mayor ◇ SD/129-31caun+dîr

conin S. pl.caun IV

*conui S. [kˈɔnuj] adj. commanding, (?) ruling ← Argonui LotR/A(ii)caun+-ui

corch N. [kˈɔrx] n. Orn. crow ◇ Ety/362

cordof S. [kˈɔrdɔv] n. Bot. pippin (seed of certain fruits, or more probably small red apple) ◇ SD/129-31

corn N. [kˈɔrn] adj. round, globed ◇ Ety/365

coron S., N. [kˈɔrɔn] n. 1. globe, ball ○ 2. Geog. by ext., mound ◇ Ety/365, S/429

corw N. adj. cunning, wily ◇ Ety/366, X/W

cost N. [kˈɔst] n. quarrel ◇ Ety/365

coth N. [kˈɔθ] n. 1. enmity ○ 2. enemy ◇ Ety/365

*craban S. [krˈɑbɑn] pl. crebain S. [krˈɛbɑjn] n. Orn. kind of crow of large size, raven ◇ LotR/II:III

cram S., N. [krˈɑm] (cramb N.) n. cake of compressed flour or meal (often containing honey and milk) ◇ Ety/365, LotR/II:VIII

cramb N.cram

crann N. [krˈɑnn] adj. ruddy (of face) ◇ Ety/362

crebain S. pl.craban

criss N. [krˈiss] n. cleft, cut, slash ◇ Ety/365, VT/45:23

crist N. [krˈist] n. Mil. cleaver, sword ◇ Ety/365

*critha- N. [krˈiθɑ] inf. critho N. [krˈiθɔ] v. to reap ◇ Ety/365

critho N. inf.critha-

crom N. [krˈɔm] n. left ◇ Ety/366

crum N. [krˈum] n. left hand ◇ Ety/366

crumui N. [krˈumuj] adj. left-handed ◇ Ety/366

S., N. [kˈuː] n. 1. arch, crescent ○ 2. Mil. by ext., bow ◇ Ety/365, S/429

cugu N. [kˈugu] n. dove ◇ Ety/365

*cuia- S. [kˈuj.ɑ] v. to live ← cuio LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308cuio S. v. imp.

cuil N. [kˈujl] n. life ◇ Ety/366

cuin N. [kˈujn] adj. alive ◇ Ety/366

*cuina- N. [kˈujnɑ] inf. cuino N. [kˈujnɔ] v. to be alive ◇ Ety/366*cuinar S. v. pres. 3rd pl.

*cuinar S. [kˈujnɑr] v. pres. 3rd pl. of cuina-, (they) live ← i-chuinar Letters/417

cuino N. inf.cuina-

cuio S. [kˈuj.ɔ] v. imp. of cuia-, live! ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308

cûl S. [kˈuːl] n. load ← Cûl Veleg, Cûl Bîn RC/536

cum N. [kˈum] (cumb N.) n. mound, heap ◇ Ety/365

cumb N.cum

cûn N. [kˈuːn] adj. bowed, bow-shaped, bent ◇ Ety/365

cunn N. n. Arch. prince ◇ Ety/366, VT/45:24, X/ND1

cúran N. n. Astron. the crescent Moon ◇ Ety/365, X/Zcû+raun

curu N. [kˈuru] (curw N.) n. craft, skill ◇ Ety/366, X/W

curunir N.curunír

curunír S. [kˈurunˌiːr] (curunir N.) n. m. man of craft, wizard ◇ Ety/366, LotR/III:VIII, LotR/B, VT/45:24curu+dîr "man of skill"

curw N.curu

*cyll S. [kˈyll] n. bearer ← Taengyl, Tengyl MR/385

cýr S.cîr

cýrawn S.cýron

cýron S. [kˈiːrɔn] (cýrawn S.) n. Astron. new moon ◇ VT/48:7


dad N. [dˈɑd] adv. down, downwards ◇ Ety/354

dadben N.dadbenn

dadbenn N. [dˈɑdbɛnn] (dadben N.) adv. 1. downhill, inclined ○ 2. by ext., inclined, prone (to do something) ◇ Ety/354, Ety/380, VT/46:8, X/ND4dad+pend

dae S., N. [dˈɑɛ] n. shadow ◇ Ety/354, S/430

daedelu N. [dˈɑɛdɛlu] n. canopy ◇ Ety/391dae+telu

daen N. [dˈɑɛn] n. corpse ◇ Ety/375

daer S. [dˈɑɛr] adj. great ◇ UT/450, WJ/187, WJ/335, VT/42:11

dâf N. [dˈɑːv] n. permission ◇ Ety/353

*dag- N. [dˈɑg] inf. degi N. [dˈɛgi] pa. t. danc N. [dˈɑŋk] (degant N.) v. to slay ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37dangen N. pp.

dagnir S. [dˈɑgnir] n. 1. slayer ○ 2. by ext., bane ◇ S/430dag-+dîr

dagor S., N. [dˈɑgr̩] (dagr N.) n. battle ◇ Ety/375, S/430dagorath S. n. coll.

dagorath S. [dˈɑgɔrɑθ] n. coll. of dagor, all the battles ◇ UT/395-396

dagr N.dagor

*dagra- N. [dˈɑgrɑ] inf. dagro N. [dˈɑgrɔ] v. to battle ◇ Ety/375

dagro N. inf.dagra-

dalath N.talath

dalf N. n. Biol. palm of hand ◇ Ety/353

dalw N. adj. flat ◇ Ety/353, X/W

dam N. [dˈɑm] n. hammer ◇ Ety/375

dambeth S. [dˈɑmbɛθ] n. answer, response ◇ PM/395In Tolkien's manuscript, this form was rejected in favor of dangweth, with a slightly different meaning. However, it may possibly be assumed that the word is valid per se (although it may be argued that this compound word does not show the regular mutation that one would have expected)dan+peth "back word"

damma- N. [dˈɑmmɑ] pa. t. dammant N. [dˈɑmmant] v. to hammer ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37It was long considered that damna-, dammint in the Etymologies might have been misreadings. VT/45:37 confirms this, though the exact reading actually remains rather uncertain

dammant N. pa. t.damma-

dan S. [dɑn] prep. 1. against ○ 2. etym. back ◇ LotR/II:IV

danc N. pa. t.dag-

dangen N. [dˈɑŋgɛn] pp. of dag-, slain ◇ Ety/375

dangweth S. [dˈɑŋgwɛθ] n. answer, reply giving new information ◇ PM/395OS *ndanagwetʰa "back report"

dannen I N. [dˈɑnnɛn] pp. of dant-, fallen ◇ Ety/354

dannen II S. [dˈɑnnɛn] n. ebb, low tide ◇ VT/48:26

dant S. [dˈɑnt] n. fall ◇ MR/373

dant- N. v. to fall ◇ Ety/354, X/ZWritten dant- in the Etymologiesdannen N. pp.

danwaith S. [dˈɑnwɑjθ] n. class pl. Pop. the Nandor (a tribe of Elves) ◇ WJ/385dan+gwaith

danwedh S. [dˈɑnwɛð] n. ransom ◇ S/384dan+gwedh

*dar- N. [dˈɑr] inf. deri N. [dˈɛri] v. to stay, wait, stop, remain ◇ Ety/353daro S., N. v. imp.

daro S., N. [dˈɑrɔ] v. imp. of dar-, halt! stop! ◇ Ety/353, LotR/II:VI

dartha- N. [dˈɑrθɑ] v. to wait, stay, last, endure, remain ◇ Ety/353, VT/45:8

dath N. [dˈɑθ] n. hole, pit, steep fall, abyss ◇ Ety/354, VT/45:8

daug N. [dˈɑug] n. warrior, soldier (chiefly used of Orcs) ◇ Ety/375

daul N. pa. t.doltha-

daur S. [dˈɑur] n. 1. pause, stop ○ 2. by ext., league (about 3 miles) ◇ UT/279, UT/285

daw N. [dˈɑw] n. night-time, gloom ◇ Ety/354

degant N. pa. t.dag-

degi N. inf.dag-

del N. [ˈdɛl̡] n. fear, disgust, loathing, horror ◇ Ety/355

deleb N. [dˈɛlɛb] adj. horrible, abominable, loathsome ◇ Ety/355

delia- N. [dˈɛli.ɑ] inf. delio N. [dˈɛli.ɔ] (dœlio N.) v. to conceal ◇ Ety/355

delio N. inf.delia-

delos N. [dˈɛlɔs] (deloth N.) n. abhorrence, detestation, loathing ◇ Ety/355del+gos

deloth N.delos

delw N. adj. hateful, deadly, fell ◇ Ety/355, X/W

dem N. [dˈɛm] adj. sad, gloomy ◇ Ety/354No language indication in the Etymologies, but Noldorin from context and phonological evidence

den S. soft mut. of ten

denwaith S. [dˈɛnwɑjθ] n. class pl. Pop. the Nandor (a tribe of Elves), the people of Denwe ◇ WJ/385Den(we)+gwaith

deren N. pl.doron

deri N. inf.dar-

dess N. [dˈɛss] n. f. young woman ◇ Ety/375

di S. soft mut. of ti

N. [dˈiː] n. f. Poet. woman, lady ◇ Ety/352, Ety/354

di- S. [di] pref. beneath, under ← di-nguruthos LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278, VT/45:37The only known usage of this word is as prefix, but VT/45:37 lists it as a unitary word di

díhena- S. [dˈiːhɛnɑ] v. to forgive (with matter forgiven as object?) ◇ VT/44:29Cf. gohena-dihenam S. v. pres. 1st pl.díheno S. v. imp.

dihenam S. v. pres. 1st pl. of díhena-, we forgive ◇ VT/44:22,29In Tolkien's manuscript, the form dihenam was rejected in favor of gohenam

díheno S. [dˈiːhɛnɔ] v. imp. of díhena-, forgive! ◇ VT/44:21,28

dîl N. [dˈiːl] n. stopper, stopping, stuffing ◇ Ety/354

*dilia- N. [dˈili.ɑ] inf. dilio N. [dˈili.ɔ] pa. t. diliant N. [dˈili.ɑnt] v. to stop up ◇ Ety/354, VT/45:9

diliant N. pa. t.dilia-

dilio N. inf.dilia-

dîn I S. [dˈiːn] n. silence ◇ S/430, LB/354Adjectival use seems to be attested in several place names (Amon Dín "Silent Hill", etc.), though an adjective dínen I is also attested (Rath Dínen "Silent Street"). When compared with other toponyms where lenition does occur (Taur-na-Chardhîn "Forest of the Southern Silence" in WJ/185,193 and Dor Dhínen in WJ/333,338), the forms dîn and dínen clearly seem to be unmutated. Absence of lenition in these examples from LotR was therefore tentatively explained by resistance to mutation (as in Nan Tathren, Ered Mithrin). However, Tolkien apparently changed his mind in his unfinished index of names from LotR, where he explains both words as mutated adjectives whose unlenited forms are respectively tîn II and tínen. Such hesitations between mutated and unmutated forms is not unusual, for instance a similar issue is met with gaear and aear. Of course, Taur-na-Chardhîn and Dor Dhínen would hardly be explainable in that alternate scenario

dîn II N. [dˈiːn] n. opening, gap, pass in mountains ◇ Ety/354

dîn III S. soft mut. of tîn I

dîn IV S. soft mut. of tîn IIRC/551

dínen I S. [dˈiːnɛn] adj. silent ◇ S/430, WJ/194See also dîn I for a discussion regarding this word

dínen II S. soft mut. of tínenRC/551

dineth N. [dˈinɛθ] n. bride ◇ Ety/377-378dî+neth

dîr N. [dˈiːr] n. m. Arch. man, referring to an adult male (elf, mortal, or of any other speaking race)Ety/354, Ety/352

diriel S. soft mut. of tiriel

díriel S. soft mut. of tíriel

dírnaith S. [dˈiːrnɑjθ] n. Mil. a military wedge-formation launched over a short distance against an enemy massing but not yet arrayed, or against a defensive formation on open ground ◇ UT/282dîr+naith "man spearhead"

dîs N. [dˈiːs] n. f. bride ◇ Ety/352, Ety/375

doer N. n. bridegroom ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:9, X/OE

dofn N. [dˈɔvn] adj. gloomy ◇ Ety/355

dol S.dôl

dôl N. [dˈɔːl] (dol S.) n. 1. head ○ 2. Geog. by ext., hill or mountain ◇ Ety/376, S/430, RC/268

dolen N. [dˈɔlɛn] pp. of doltha-, concealed, hidden ◇ Ety/355

dœlio N. inf.delia-

doll N. [dˈɔll] (dolt N.) adj. dark, dusky, obscure ◇ Ety/355, Ety/376, Tengwestie/20031207

dolothen S. soft mut. of tolothen

dolt I N.doll

dolt II N. [dˈɔlt] pl. dylt N. [dˈylt] n. round knob, boss ◇ Ety/376

doltha- N. [dˈɔlθɑ] pa. t. Arch. daul N. [dˈɑul] v. to conceal ◇ Ety/355dolen N. pp.

dond S. [dˈɔnd] (donn S.) n. Biol. fist, hand (especially in punching) ◇ VT/47:23

donn I S.dond

donn II N. [dˈɔnn] adj. swart, swarthy ◇ Ety/355, X/ND1

dor S., N.dôr

dôr S. [dˈɔːr] (dor S., N.) n. Geog. land, dwelling-place, region where certain people live ◇ Ety/376, S/430, WJ/413, Letters/417, VT/45:38, RC/384The form dor in the Etymologies is a misreading, see VT/45. In composition and in toponyms, the word is nevertheless reduced to Dor

dorn S. [dˈɔrn] adj. stiff, tough ◇ WJ/413dornhoth S. n. class pl.

dornhoth S. [dˈɔrn.hɔθ] n. class pl. of dorn, Pop. the Dwarves, lit. "the Thrawn Folk" ◇ WJ/388dorn+hoth

dœrœn N. pl.doron

doron N. [dˈɔrɔn] pl. deren N. (dœrœn N.) n. Bot. oak ◇ Ety/355, VT/45:11

*dortha- N. [dˈɔrθɑ] inf. dortho N. [dˈɔrθɔ] v. to dwell, stay ◇ Ety/376

dortho N. inf.dortha-

*draf- N. [drˈɑv] inf. dravo N. [drˈɑvɔ] pa. t. drammen N. [drˈɑmmɛn] (dravant N., Arch. dramp N.) v. to hew ◇ Ety/354, VT/45:8

drafn N. [drˈɑvn] n. hewn log ◇ Ety/354

dramb N.dramm

drambor N. [drˈɑm.bɔr] n. 1. clenched fist ○ 2. by ext., blow (with fist) ◇ Ety/354dram+paur

dramm N. (dramb N.) n. heavy stroke, a blow (of axe, etc.) ◇ Ety/354, X/MB

drammen N. pa. t.draf-

dramp N. Arch. pa. t.draf-

drann S. soft mut. of trann

drannail S. soft mut. of trannail

draug S., N. [drˈɑug] n. Zool. wolf ◇ Ety/354, S/430

dravant N. pa. t.draf-

dravo N. inf.draf-

*drega- S. [drˈɛgɑ] v. to flee ◈ Only the imperative drego is attested. Therefore, the verb may also be dreg- (inf. dregi)drego S. v. imp.

drego S. [drˈɛgɔ] v. imp. of drega-, flee! ◇ UT/65

*dring S. [drˈiŋ] n. hammer ← Glamdring H, Ety/355

*dringa- N. [drˈiŋgɑ] inf. dringo N. [drˈiŋgɔ] v. to beat (with a hammer, etc.) ◇ Ety/355

dringo N. inf.dringa-

drû S. [drˈuː] pl. drúin S. [drˈuː.in] n. Pop. wild man, Wose, Púkel-Man ◇ UT/385In PE/11:31, an older Gnomish word drû, drui meant "wood, forest", and in PE/13:142, the early Noldorin word drú was assigned the meaning "dark". Drû pl. Drúin later came to be used for the name of the Woses, with other derivatives (Drúadan, etc.). "Wose" is actually the modernization of an Anglo-Saxon word wasa only found in the compound wudu-wasa "wild man of the woods", cf. UT/385 sq. In the drafts of the "Ride of the Rohirrim" in WR/343-346, the Woses first appeared as "the dark men of Eilenach". Though internally said to derive from drughu in their own tongue, Tolkien's choice for the Sindarin name of the Woses was apparently influenced by earlier meanings assigned to this word MS *druγ, Dr druγudrúath S. n. coll.drúwaith S. n. class pl.

drúadan S. [drˈuːɑdɑn] pl. drúedain S. [drˈuːɛdɑjn] n. Pop. wild man, one of the Woses ◇ UT/385drû+adan

drúath S. [drˈuːɑθ] n. coll. of drû, Pop. the people of the Drû, the Woses ◇ UT/385

drúedain S. pl.drúadan

drúin S. pl.drû

drúnos S. [drˈuːnɔs] n. a family of the Drû-folk (q.v.) ◇ UT/385drû+nos(s)

drúwaith S. [drˈuːwɑjθ] n. class pl. of drû, the wilderness of the Drû-men (q.v.) ◇ UT/385drû+gwaith

S., N. [dˈuː] n. nightfall, late evening, night, dimness ◇ Ety/354, S/430, VT/45:9dúath S., N. n. coll.

dúath S., N. [dˈuːɑθ] (dúwath N.) n. coll. of , 1. darkness, shadow ○ 2. nightshade ◇ Ety/354, S/430Either the collective plural of , or a compound dû+gwath "night shade" (hence dúwath)

duin S. [dˈujn] n. Geog. (long and large) river (having strong current) ◇ S/430, LotR/F, TC/179, VT/48:24

duinen S. [ˈdujnɛn] n. flood, high tide ◇ VT/48:26

duir S. pl.dûr

duirro N. [dˈujrrɔ] n. Geog. river-bank ◇ VT/46:10

dúlin S., N.dúlinn

dúlind N.dúlinn

dúlinn N. [dˈuːlinn] (dúlind N., dúlin S., N.) n. Orn. nightingale ◇ Ety/354, Ety/369, S/430, X/ND4dû+lind "dusk singer"

dûn S., N. [dˈuːn] n. west ◇ Ety/376, S/428, LotR/E-F

dúnadan S. [dˈuːnɑdɑn] pl. dúnedain S. [dˈuːnɛdɑjn] n. Pop. Man of the west, Númenórean ◇ LotR/I:XII, WJ/378, S/390dûn+adan

dúnedain S. pl.dúnadan

*dúnedhel S. [dˈuːnɛðɛl̡] pl. dúnedhil S. [dˈunːɛðil̡] n. Pop. Elf of the West, Elf of Beleriand (including Noldor and Sindar) ◇ WJ/378dûn+edhel, OS *ndûnedelo

dúnedhil S. pl.dúnedhel

dûr S., N. [dˈuːr] pl. duir S. [dˈujr] adj. dark, sombre ◇ Ety/354, S/430, UT/434

dúven N. [dˈuːvɛn] pl. dúvin N. [dˈuːvin] adj. (?) southern ◇ Ety/376, VT/45:38

dúvin N. pl.dúven

dúwath N.dúath

dylt N. pl.dolt II


e S. [ɛ] pron. 3rd he ◇ SD/129-31The meaning "he" is deduced from the apparent function of this word in the so-called "King's Letter", but it also seems possible to interpret it as "indeed" (as in Q. e, LR/63, VT/45:11), used here in a way of formal address expressing the wishes or the will of the King

ebœnnin S. pl.abonnen

ech N. [ˈɛx] n. spine ◇ Ety/355, VT/45:12The Etymologies as published gloss this word as "spear", but the correct reading is provided in VT/45Cf. egnas

echad S. [ˈɛxɑd] n. camp ◇ UT/431

*echad- N. [ˈɛxɑd] inf. echedi N. [ˈɛxɛdi] pa. t. echant S., N. [ˈɛxɑnt] v. to fashion, make ◇ Ety/363, LotR/II:IV

echant S., N. pa. t.echad-

echedi N. inf.echad-

echil S. [ˈɛxil̡] n. 1. follower ○ 2. Pop. by ext., human being ◇ WJ/219

echor S. [ˈɛxɔr] n. outer circle, encircling, outer ring ◇ LotR/V:I, LotR/Index, S/430

echui S., N. [ˈɛxuj] (echuiw N.) n. awakening ◇ Ety/366, S/429

echuir S. [ˈɛxujr] n. Cal. a season, the beginning of spring ◇ LotR/D, SD/129-31Etym. "stirring"

echuiw N.echui

ecthel N. [ˈɛkθɛl̡] (egthel N.) n. point (of spear) ◇ Ety/388êg+thela "thorn-point"

ed- N. [ɛd] pref. forth, out ◇ Ety/356

edaid S. [ˈɛdɑjd] adj. num. quant. double ◇ VT/42:26-27

edain S. pl.adan

edair S. pl.adar

edeb N. pl.adab

edeir N. pl.adar

eden N. [ˈɛdɛn] adj. new, begun again ◇ Ety/349

edenedair S. pl.adanadar

eder N. pl.adar

edhel S., N. [ˈɛðɛl̡] pl. edhil S., N. [ˈɛðil̡] n. Pop. Elf ◇ Ety/356, S/430, WJ/363-364

edhelharn S. [ɛðˈɛl̡hɑrn] n. elf-stone ◇ SD/128-129edhel+sarn

edhellen S. [ɛðˈɛl̡lɛn] adj. elvish, of the Elves ◇ LotR/II:IV, RS/463edhel+-ren

edhil S., N. pl.edhel

edinar N. n. Cal. anniversary day ◇ Ety/400, X/Zad+în+aur

*edlothia- S. [ɛdlˈɔθi.ɑ] v. to blossom, flower ← edlothiand WR/293, X/TLThe sentence from WR/293 is hardly legible and is not translated, but this word is however a plausible form*edlothiad (corr. edlothiand) S. ger.

*edlothiad (corr. edlothiand) S. [ɛdlˈɔθi.ɑd] ger. of edlothia-, blossoming, flowering ← edlothiand WR/293Actually, edlothiand might be a misreading, according to David Salo who checked the original manuscript at Marquette and reported that his reading was unmistakably edlothiad

edonna- N. [ɛdˈɔnnɑ] v. to beget ◇ Ety/379ed+*onna-

*edra- S., N. [ˈɛdrɑ] v. to open ◈ edro S., N. v. imp.

edraith S. [ˈɛdrɑjθ] n. saving ◇ LotR/II:IV, TI/175

edregol S. [ˈɛdrɛgl̩] adv. in especial ◇ SD/129-31

edrein N. n. border ◇ Ety/383, X/EIed+rain

edro S., N. [ˈɛdrɔ] v. imp. of edra-, open! ◇ Ety/357, LotR/II:IV

edwen S. [ˈɛdwɛn] adj. num. ord. second ◇ SD/129-31

êg N. [ˈɛːg] n. thorn ◇ Ety/355

egladhrim S. [ɛglˈɑðrim] n. class pl. of eglan, Pop. "The Forsaken", Elves of the Falathrim ◇ WJ/189, WJ/365, WJ/379eglan+rim

eglain S. pl.eglan

eglan S. [ˈɛglɑn] pl. eglain S. [ˈɛglɑjn] n. and adj. 1. forsaken ○ 2. Pop. as a noun, an Elf of the Falathrim ◇ WJ/365, WJ/379-380egladhrim S. n. class pl.

eglant N. Arch. pa. t.egledhia-

eglath S. [ˈɛglɑθ] n. coll. of egol, Pop. "The Forsaken", Elves of the Falathrim ◇ WJ/189, WJ/344Cf. egladhrim

*egledh- N.egledhia-

egledhas N. pa. t.egledhia-

egledhi N. inf.egledhia-

*egledhia- N. [ɛglˈɛði.ɑ] (*egledh- N. [ˈɛglɛð]) inf. egledhio (corr. eglehio) N. [ɛglˈɛði.ɔ] (egledhi N. [ˈɛglɛði]) pa. t. egledhas N. [ˈɛglɛðɑs] (Arch. eglant N.) v. to go into exile ◇ Ety/368, VT/45:27, X/TL

egledhio (corr. eglehio) N. inf.egledhia-

egledhron N. n. exile (person who is exiled) ◇ Ety/368, X/TL

eglenn N. adj. exiled ◇ Ety/368, X/TL

*egleria- S. [ɛglˈɛri.ɑ] v. to glorify, to praise ◈ eglerio S. v. imp.

eglerio S. [ɛglˈɛri.ɔ] v. imp. of egleria-, glorify! praise! ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308

egnas N. [ˈɛgnɑs] n. 1. sharp point ○ 2. by ext., peak ◇ VT/45:12

ego S. [ˈɛgɔ] interj. be off! ◇ WJ/365

*egol S. [ˈɛgl̩] n. Pop. someone forsaken, an Elf of the Falathrim ← Eglath WJ/189, WJ/344eglath S. n. coll.

egor S. [ˈɛgɔr] conj. or ◇ SD/129-31

egthel N.ecthel

eilian N.eilianw

eilianw N. (eilian N.) n. rainbow ◇ Ety/360, Ety/400See ianw and iant for a discussion"sky-bridge"

eilph S. pl.alph

einior S. [ˈɛjni.ɔr] adj. elder ◇ PM/358an+iaur (?) "very, extremely old"

eirch N. pl.orch

eirien S. [ˈɛjri.ɛn] n. Bot. daisy (flower) ◇ SD/129-31Q Arien "day-maiden" (AS1)

eitha- S. [ˈɛjθɑ] v. 1. to prick with a sharp point, to stab ○ 2. by ext., to treat with scorn, insult ◇ WJ/365eithad S. ger.

eithad S. [ˈɛjθɑd] ger. of eitha-, insult ◇ WJ/365

eithel S., N. [ˈɛjθɛl̡] pl. eithil S. [ˈɛjθil̡] n. issue of water, spring, well ◇ Ety/363, S/430, S/433, WJ/85, TC/187

eithil S. pl.eithel

êl S. [ˈɛːl] pl. elin S. [ˈɛlin] n. Arch., Poet. Astron. star (little used except in verses) ◇ WJ/363, MR/373, RGEO/73, Letters/281elenath S. n. coll.

elanor S. [ˈɛlɑnɔr] n. Bot. a flower, a kind of enlarged pimpernel bearing golden and silver flowers ◇ LotR/VI:IX, UT/432, Letters/402êl+anor "star-sun"

elei N. pl.ôl

elenath S. [ˈɛlɛnɑθ] n. coll. of êl, starry host, all the host of the stars of heaven ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/73-75, WJ/363

elin S. pl.êl

elleth S. [ˈɛl̡lɛθ] n. f. elf-maid ◇ WJ/148, WJ/256, WJ/363-364

ellon S. [ˈɛl̡lɔn] n. m. elf ◇ WJ/363-364

elloth S. [ˈɛl̡lɔθ] n. sing. of loth, Bot. (single) flower ◇ VT/42:18er- + loth

elo S. [ˈɛlɔ] interj. an exclamation of wonder, admiration, delight ◇ WJ/362

*elvellon S. [ɛl̡vˈɛl̡lɔn] pl. elvellyn S. [ɛl̡vˈɛl̡lyn] n. elf-friend ◇ WJ/412

elvellyn S. pl.elvellon

elw N. adj. (pale) blue ◇ Ety/360, X/W

emel S. [ˈɛmɛl] (emmel S.) n. f. mother ◇ Emeldir S/155, VT/48:17emig S. n. f. dim.

emelin N.emlin

emig S. [ˈɛmig] n. f. dim. of emel, 1. "litte mother" ○ 2. Biol. index finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,17

emil N. [ˈɛmil] n. f. Poet. mother ◇ VT/45:5

emlin N. [ˈɛmlin] (emmelin N., emelin N.) n. Orn. yellow bird, "yellow hammer" ◇ Ety/386

emmel S.emel

emmelin N.emlin

emuin N. pl.amon

emyn S., N. pl.amon

en S. [ɛn] art. of the (genitival article) ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308i+na (?)

enchui S. [ˈɛnxuj] (enegui S., Arch. encui S.) adj. num. ord. sixth ◇ VT/42:10,25,28

encui S. Arch.enchui

enecthui S. [ɛnˈɛkθuj] adj. num. ord. sixth ◇ VT/42:25Cf. enchui

ened S. [ˈɛnɛd] (enedh N.) n. core, centre, middle ◇ Ety/356, Ety/376, UT/450, Letters/224, VT/41:12,16While the word is written enedh in the Etymologies, it seems that Tolkien considered and reconsidered its form throughout his life. Late rough jottings (c. 1968), as well as the text of letter no. 168 and the fact that the toponym Enedwaith was never changed on the LotR map, seem to imply that ened is the (most) definitive form. See also the possibly related preposition ned, which has sometimes been suggested to mean "in" (while again a prefix nedh- is seen in the Etymologies)

enedh N.ened

eneg S., N. [ˈɛnɛg] adj. num. card. six ◇ Ety/356, VT/42:25,31, VT/48:6,8

enegui S.enchui

eneth S. [ˈɛnɛθ] n. name ◇ VT/44:21,24

enfeng S., N. pl.anfang

engrin S., N. pl.angren

ennas S. [ˈɛnnɑs] adv. there, in that place ◇ SD/129-31

enni S. [ˈɛnni] pron. 1st to me ◇ VT/41:11an+niCf. enni

*ennin I S. pl.onnen

ennin II N. [ˈɛnnin] n. Cal. Valian year ◇ Ety/400and+în "long year"

ennor S. [ˈɛnnɔr] n. central land, middle-earth ◇ LotR/E, X/ND2ennorath S. n. coll.

ennorath S. [ˈɛnnɔrɑθ] n. coll. of ennor, central lands, middle-earth ◇ LotR/E, LotR/II:I, RGEO/72-75

ennyn S., N. pl.annon

enyd S. pl.onod

ephedyn S. pl.aphadon

ephel S., N. [ˈɛffɛl̡] n. outer fence, encircling fence ◇ S/436, LotR/Eet+pêl

er S. [ɛr] adj. single ◇ VT/48:6

er- S., N. [ɛr] pref. alone, one ◇ VT/42:19

erain S., N. pl.aran

erch I N. pl.orch

erch II N. [ˈɛrx] n. prickle ◇ Ety/356

*ercha- N. [ˈɛrxɑ] inf. ercho N. [ˈɛrxɔ] v. to prick ◇ Ety/356

erchamion S. [ɛrxˈɑmi.ɔn] adj. one-handed ◇ WJ/51, WJ/231,

erchamon S. n. m. one-handed man ◇ VT/47:7, X/Z

erchamui N. adj. one-handed ◇ Ety/361, X/Z

*erchion N. [ˈɛrxi.ɔn] der. pl. of orchAnnerchion TI/114

ercho N. inf.ercha-

ereb S., N. [ˈɛrɛb] pl. erib S. [ˈɛrib] adj. isolated, lonely ◇ Ety/356, S/431, UT/422, VT/42:10

ered S., N. pl.orod

eredh N. [ˈɛrɛð] n. Bot. seed, germ ◇ Ety/356

ereg S., N. [ˈɛrɛg] pl. erig N. [ˈɛrig] n. Bot. holly-tree, thorn ◇ Ety/356, S/431eregion S., N. der. pl.

eregdos N. [ɛrˈɛgdɔs] n. Bot. holly, holly-tree ◇ Ety/356, Ety/379, Ety/395ereg+toss

eregion S., N. [ɛrˈɛgi.ɔn] der. pl. of eregEregion Ety/356, LotR, UT

ereid N. pl.orod

*eria- N. [ˈɛri.ɑ] inf. erio N. [ˈɛri.ɔ] pa. t. erias N. [ˈɛri.ɑs] (Arch. oronte N.) v. to rise ◇ Ety/379, VT/46:7Cf. ortha-

erias N. pa. t.eria-

erib S. pl.ereb

erig N. pl.ereg

erin S. [ɛrin] prep. on the ◇ SD/129-31or+i, MS *œrin

erio N. inf.eria-

ernil I S. pl.ernil II

ernil II S. [ˈɛrnil̡] pl. ernil S. n. prince ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308, UT/428, RGEO/75

ernin S. pl.arnen

erphin S. pl.arphen

*ertha- S. [ˈɛrθɑ] v. to unite ← Aderthad S/409*erthad S. ger.

*erthad S. [ˈɛrθɑd] ger. of ertha-, union, uniting ← Aderthad S/409

eru N. [ˈɛru] n. waste, desert ◇ Ety/356

erui S. [ˈɛruj] adj. 1. single, alone ○ 2. by ext., first (incorrect use by the Gondorians) ◇ TI/312, WR/436, VT/42:10The proper word for first in Sindarin was minui

eryd S., N. pl.orod

eryn S. [ˈɛryn] n. wood ◇ UT/436, LotR/BOS *oroni- (?), "trees", plural noun, used as a singular.

esgal S. [ˈɛsgɑl] n. veil, screen, cover that hides ◇ S/431

esgar N. [ˈɛsgɑr] n. Geog. shore ◇ VT/46:14

esgeri N. inf.osgar-

*esta- S. [ˈɛstɑ] v. to name ← estathar SD/129-31estathar S. v. fut. 3rd pl.

estathar S. [ˈɛstɑθɑr] v. fut. 3rd pl. of esta-, (they) will name ◇ SD/129-31

estel S. [ˈɛstɛl̡] n. hope, trust, a temper of mind, steady fixed in purpose, and difficult to dissuade and unlikely to fall into despair or abandon its purpose ◇ WJ/318-319, LotR/A(v), MR/320

estent S. [ˈɛstɛnt] adj. (very?) short ◇ UT/146, WJ/311, WJ/315The slash sign in minlamad thent/estent might indicate either variant forms of an adjective, or a sequence of two short verse units, possibly of alliterating half-lines, see Tolkien's Legendarium p. 122Cf. then, thent

estolad S. [ˈɛstɔlɑd] n. encampment ◇ UT/77, S/396

ethir I S., N. [ˈɛθir] n. Geog. mouth (of a river), estuary ◇ LotR/II:X, Ety/356, RC/350ed+sîr "outflow"

ethir II S. [ˈɛθir] n. spy ◇ S/379, UT/418ed+tirn "out-watcher"

ethraid S. pl.athrad

ethuil S. [ˈɛθujl] n. Cal. season of spring ◇ LotR/D, SD/129-31

evair S. pl.avar


fael I S. [fˈɑɛl] adj. fair minded, just, generous ◇ PM/352Etym. "having a good fëa"

*fael II S. [fˈɑɛl] n. gleaming brilliance (of the sun) ← Faelivrin LB/376, S/209-210

faer S. [fˈɑɛr] n. spirit ◇ MR/349

fain S. [fˈɑjn] (fein N.) n. and adj. 1. white ○ 2. as a noun, cloud ◇ Ety/387, WR/288, RC/268, VT/46:15, X/EICf. faun, fân

falas S., N. [fˈɑlɑs] pl. feles N. n. 1. Geog. beach, wave-beaten shore, line of surf ○ 2. Geog. as a proper noun, the western coast of Beleriand ◇ Ety/381, S/431, RC/18, X/EIfalathrim S. n. class pl.

falathren S., N. [fɑlˈɑθrɛn] n. and adj. 1. of the shore ○ 2. Ling. as a noun, Shore-language (one of the names for Common Speech) ◇ Ety/381, PM/32, PM/55falas+-renCf. annúnaid

falathrim S. [fɑlˈɑθrim] n. class pl. of falas, people of the Falas ◇ WJ/378falas+rimCf. eglath, egladhrim

*falch S. [fˈɑlx] n. Geog. deep cleft, ravine ← Orfalch Echor UT/468

falf N. [fˈɑlv] n. foam, breaker ◇ Ety/381

*faltha- N. [fˈɑlθɑ] inf. faltho N. [fˈɑlθɔ] v. to foam ◇ Ety/381

faltho N. inf.faltha-

fân S. [fˈɑːn] n. 1. veil ○ 2. by ext., cloud (applied to clouds, floating as veils over the blue sky or the sun or moon, or resting on hills) ◇ RGEO/74Q fanaCf. faun, fain

fang N. [fˈɑŋ] n. beard ◇ Ety/387

fanui S. [fˈɑnuj] adj. cloudy ◇ RGEO/74, RC/268

far N. [fˈɑr] adj. or adv. sufficient, enough, quite ◇ Ety/381

*fara- N. [fˈɑrɑ] inf. faro N. [fˈɑrɔ] v. to hunt ◇ Ety/387*farad N. ger.faras N. n. abst.

*farad N. [fˈɑrɑd] ger. of fara-, hunting ← faradrim Ety/387

faradrim N. [fɑrˈɑdrim] n. class pl. of feredir, hunters ◇ Ety/387farad+rim

faras N. [fˈɑrɑs] n. abst. of fara-, hunting ◇ Ety/387

farn N. [fˈɑrn] adj. or adv. enough ◇ Ety/381

faro N. inf.fara-

*faron N. [fˈɑrɔn] n. m. hunter ← Elfaron Ety/387

faroth S. [fˈɑrɔθ] n. (?) hunter, (?) group of hunters ← Taur-en-Faroth S/431, Ety/387

fast N. [fˈɑst] n. shaggy hair ◇ Ety/381

faug N. [fˈɑug] adj. thirsty ◇ Ety/381

faun N. [fˈɑun] n. cloud ◇ Ety/387, VT/46:15Cf. fain, fân

faur N. [fˈɑur] n. Geog. beach, shore ◇ VT/46:15

fein N.fain

feir I S., N. pl. fîr S., N. [fˈiːr] n. mortal ◇ Ety/381, WJ/387, X/EIQ firyafiriath S. n. coll.

feir II N. (fœir N.) n. right (hand) ◇ Ety/382, VT/46:10

feira- N. [fˈɛjrɑ] v. to suffice ◇ VT/46:9

fela N. [fˈɛlɑ] pl. fili N. [fˈili] n. cave ◇ Ety/381

feles N. pl.falas

fen S. [fˈɛn] (fend N., fenn N.) n. door, threshold ◇ Ety/381, LotR/V:IV, WR/341, RC/550, X/ND1fennas S. n. abst.

fend N.fen

fenn N.fen

fennas S. [fˈɛnnɑs] n. abst. of fen, doorway, gateway ◇ LotR/II:IV, RS/463, RGEO/75

fêr N. [fˈɛːr] pl. ferin N. [fˈɛrin] n. Bot. beech-tree ◇ Ety/352, Ety/381

feredir N. [fˈɛrɛdˌir] n. hunter ◇ Ety/387farad+dîrfaradrim N. n. class pl.

ferin N. pl.fêr

fern N. [fˈɛrn] pl. firn N. [fˈirn] n. and adj. 1. dead (of mortals) ○ 2. as a noun, dead person ◇ Ety/381

fileg N. [fˈilɛg] pl. filig N. [fˈilig] n. Orn. small bird ◇ Ety/381Singular formed by analogyfiligod N. n. sing.

fili N. pl.fela

filig N. pl.fileg

filigod N. [fˈiligɔd] n. sing. of fileg, Orn. small bird ◇ Ety/381

*fim S. [fˈim] adj. slim, slender ← Fimbrethil LotR/Index

fîn S. [fˈiːn] (find S., finn- S.) n. a tress ◇ PM/361-362

find S.fîn

findel N.finnel

fing S. [fˈiŋ] n. lock of hair ← Finglas "Leaflock" RC/386

finn- S.fîn

finnel N. [fˈinnɛl̡] (findel N.) n. (braided) hair ◇ Ety/387, X/ND2

fîr S., N. pl.feir I

fíreb S. [fˈiːrɛb] pl. fírib S. [fˈiːrib] adj. mortal ◇ WJ/387fair+-eb

firen N. [fˈirɛn] adj. human ◇ Ety/381fair+-en (PHIR)

firiath S. [fˈiri.ɑθ] n. coll. of feir I, mortals, human beings ◇ WJ/219, WJ/387

fírib S. pl.fíreb

firiel N.fíriel

fíriel S. [fˈiri.ɛl̡] (firiel N.) n. f. mortal maid ◇ Ety/382, PM/195, PM/232

firieth S. [fˈiri.ɛθ] n. f. mortal woman ◇ WJ/387fair+-eth (PHIR)

firion S. [fˈiri.ɔn] n. m. mortal man ◇ WJ/387

firith S. [fˈiriθ] n. Cal. season of fading ◇ LotR/D

firn N. pl.fern

*flâd S. [flˈɑːd] n. Biol. skin ← Fladrif LotR/E, TC/169, TC/173

flaew N.thlaew

fliw N. (thliw N.) n. sickness ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

floss N. (thloss N.) n. whisper or rustling sound ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

foeg N. adj. mean, poor, bad ◇ Ety/387, X/OE

foen N. adj. radiant, white ◇ Ety/381, X/OE

fœir N.feir II

forgam N. [fˈɔrgɑm] adj. right-handed ◇ Ety/382fôr+cam

forn S., N. [fˈɔrn] n. right, north ◇ Ety/382, UT/426, S/431

forod S., N. [fˈɔrɔd] n. north ◇ Ety/382, S/431, LotR/Eforodrim N. n. class pl.forodwaith N. n. class pl.

forodren N. [fɔrˈɔdrɛn] adj. northern ◇ Ety/382forod+-ren (PHOR)

forodrim N. [fɔrˈɔdrim] n. class pl. of forod, Pop. Northmen ◇ Ety/392forod+rim

forodwaith N. [fɔrˈɔdwɑjθ] (forodweith N.) n. class pl. of forod, 1. Pop. Northmen ○ 2. by ext., the lands of the North ◇ Ety/382, Ety/398, X/EIforod+gwaith

forodweith N.forodwaith

forven N. [fˈɔrvɛn] n. north ◇ Ety/382fôr+mên

forvo S. [fˈɔrvɔ] n. 1. right hand ○ 2. by ext., right side ◇ VT/47:6for-vaw, fôr+maw

fui S. [fˈuj] n. (unknown meaning) ← [Raith >] Fui 'Ngorthrim RC/526

*fuia- N. [fˈuj.ɑ] inf. fuio N. [fˈuj.ɔ] v. to feel disgust at, abhor ◇ Ety/381

fuin S., N. [fˈujn] n. night, dead of night, gloom, darkness ◇ Ety/354, Ety/382, S/431

fuio N. inf.fuia-

fuir S. [fˈujr] adj. north ◇ VT/42:20


gad- N. [gˈɑd] inf. gedi N. [gˈɛdi] v. to catch ◇ Ety/358

gador N. [gˈɑdr̩] (gadr N.) n. prison, dungeon ◇ Ety/358

gadr N.gador

gae N. [gˈɑɛ] n. dread ◇ Ety/358

gaear S. [gˈɑɛ.ɑr] (oear N.) n. Geog. sea ◇ Ety/349, PM/363, RGEO/73gaearon S. n. augm.

gaearon S. [gˈɑɛ.ɑrɔn] (gaeron S.) n. augm. of gaear, Geog. great sea, ocean ◇ PM/363, PM/348, RGEO/72-73

gael N. [gˈɑɛl] adj. pale, glimmering ◇ Ety/358

gaer I N. [gˈɑɛr] adj. dreadful ◇ Ety/358

gaer II S. [gˈɑɛr] (oer N.) n. Geog. sea ◇ Ety/349, S/431, PM/363

gaeron S.gaearon

gail N. [gˈɑjl] n. bright light ◇ Ety/362

gal- N. [gɑl] pref. light ← galvorn, etc.

*gala- N. [gˈɑlɑ] inf. galo N. [gˈɑlɔ] v. to grow ◇ Ety/357galas N. n. abst.

galad S. [gˈɑlɑd] n. light, radiance, glittering, reflection (from jewels, glass or polished metal, or water) ◇ VT/45:13, PM/347, Letters/425

galadh S., N. [gˈɑlɑð] n. Bot. tree ◇ Ety/357, S/427, LotR/E, LB/354, RGEO/73, Letters/426*galadhad S. n. dual pl.galadhon S. der. pl.galadhrim S. n. class pl.

*galadhad S. [gˈɑlɑðɑd] n. dual pl. of galadh, Theo. the Two Trees of Valinor ← Orgaladhad LotR/D

galadhon S. [gˈɑlɑðɔn] der. pl. of galadhCaras Galadhon LotR/II:VII, LotR/F, UT/425

*galadhremmen S. [gˌɑlɑð.rˈɛmmɛn] pl. galadhremmin S. [gˌɑlɑð.rˈɛmmin] adj. tree-woven, tree-tangled ◇ LotR/E, LotR/II:I, RGEO/72galadh+remmen

galadhremmin S. pl.galadhremmen

galadhrim S. [gɑlˈɑðrim] n. class pl. of galadh, Pop. Elves of Lothlórien ◇ LotRgaladh+rim "people of the trees"

galas N. [gˈɑlɑs] n. abst. of gala-, Bot. growth, plant ◇ Ety/357

galenas S. [gˈɑlɛnɑs] n. Bot. pipe-weed (leaf) or "westmansweed", a variety of Nicotiana ◇ LotR/V:VIII

galo N. inf.gala-

galvorn S. [gˈɑlvɔrn] n. a black metal devised by the dark elf Eol ◇ WJ/322-323, S/398gal-+morn

galw N. n. (?) blessings, (?) blessedness, (?) good fortune (meaning not entirely clear) ◇ Ety/357, X/W

gammas N. [gˈɑmmɑs] n. abst. of gamp, Ling. s-sign (special sign used to mark a final -s in Tengwar) ◇ VT/45:14

gamp S., N. [gˈɑmp] n. hook, claw, crook ◇ Ety/357, VT/47:20gammas N. n. abst.

gandel N.gannel

*ganna- N. [gˈɑnnɑ] inf. ganno N. [gˈɑnnɔ] v. to play a harp ◇ Ety/377

*gannada- N. [gˈɑnnɑdɑ] inf. gannado N. [gˈɑnnɑdɔ] v. to play a harp ◇ Ety/377

gannado N. inf.gannada-

gannel N. [gˈɑnnɛl̡] (gandel N.) n. harp ◇ Ety/377, X/ND2

ganno N. inf.ganna-

*gar- N. [gˈɑr] inf. garo N. [gˈɑrɔ] v. to hold, have ◇ Ety/360gerin N. v. pres. 1st

garaf N. [gˈɑrɑv] n. Zool. wolf ◇ Ety/377

gardh S. [gˈɑrð] n. 1. Geog. bounded or defined region ○ 2. by ext., world ◇ WJ/402

garn N. [gˈɑrn] n. own, property ◇ Ety/360

garo N. inf.gar-

garth N. [gˈɑrθ] n. fort, fortress ◇ Ety/360

gas N. [gˈɑs] n. hole, gap ◇ Ety/357

gasdil N. [gˈɑsdil̡] n. Ling. "stopgap", name of a diacritic sign used to indicate that g had been lenited to zero ◇ Ety/354, Ety/357gas+dîl

gath N. [gˈɑθ] n. cavern ◇ Ety/358

gathrod N. [gˈɑθrɔd] n. cave ◇ Ety/358gath+grôd (GAT(H))

gaud N. [gˈɑud] n. device, contrivance, machine ◇ Ety/358

gaul N. [gˈɑul] n. wolf-howl ◇ Ety/377

gaur N. [gˈɑur] n. werewolf ◇ Ety/377gaurhoth S. n. class pl.gaurwaith S. n. class pl.

gaurhoth S. [gˈɑur.hɔθ] n. class pl. of gaur, group of werewolves ◇ LotR/II:IVgaur+hoth "wolf-host"ngaurhoth S. nasal mut.

gaurwaith S. [gˈɑur.wɑjθ] n. class pl. of gaur, wolf-men ◇ UT/85, UT/90gaur+gwaith

gaw N. [gˈɑw] n. void ◇ Ety/358

gaw- N. [gˈɑw] v. to howl ◇ Ety/377, X/Zgawad N. ger.

gawad N. [gˈɑwɑd] ger. of gaw-, howling ◇ Ety/377

gedi N. inf.gad-

geil N. [gˈɛjl] pl. gîl N. n. Astron. star, bright spark ◇ Ety/358, VT/45:15Cf. gilgiliath S., N. n. coll.

geleidh N. pl.golodh

gelir S. [gˈɛlir] n. merry, happy, gay person ◇ SD/129-31

gell N. [gˈɛl̡l] n. joy, triumph ◇ Ety/359

gellam N. [gˈɛl̡lɑm] n. jubilation ◇ Ety/359gell+glam (GJEL)

gellui N. [gˈɛl̡luj] adj. triumphant ◇ Ety/359

gelydh S. pl.golodh

gem N. [gˈɛm] (gemb N.) adj. sickly ◇ Ety/358

gemb N.gem

*genedia- S. [gɛnˈɛdi.ɑ] v. to reckon ← genediad SD/129-31genediad S. ger.

genediad S. [gɛnˈɛdi.ɑd] ger. of genedia-, 1. reckoning ○ 2. by ext., calendar ◇ SD/129-31

gerin N. [gˈɛrin] v. pres. 1st of gar-, I hold, I have ◇ Ety/360

gerir S. soft mut. of cerir

gern N. [gˈɛrn] adj. worn, old, decripit (used of things only) ◇ Ety/360

gîl N. pl.geil

gil S. [gˈil] Astron. star, bright spark ◇ LotR/E, S/431, RGEO/73In The Etymologies (Ety/358, corrected by VT/45:15), this word was given as geil, plural gîl. However, later in LotR/E and RGEO/73, Tolkien seems to consider gil as a singular (with no hints in the sources of what the plural would be, besides the collective plural giliath)giliath S., N. n. coll.*gilion S. der. pl.

gildin N. [gˈil̡din] n. silver spark ◇ Ety/393

gilgalad N. [gˈil̡.gɑlɑd] n. starlight ◇ Ety/358

giliath S., N. [gˈili.ɑθ] n. coll. of gil/geil, all the host of stars ◇ Ety/358, RC/232

*gilion S. [gˈili.ɔn] der. pl. of gilOrgilion LotR/D

*gir- N. [gˈir] inf. giri N. [gˈiri] v. to shudder ◇ Ety/358

giri N. inf.gir-

girith S., N. [gˈiriθ] n. shuddering, horror ◇ Ety/358, S/431

girithron S. [girˈiθrɔn] n. Cal. december (month) ◇ LotR/D

glad S. [glˈɑd] n. wood ← Methed-en-Glad UT/452

gladh- S. [glˈɑð] v. to laugh ← gladh- PM/359

glaer N. [glˈɑɛr] n. long lay, narrative poem ◇ Ety/359, VT/45:15Written glær (with ae-ligature) in the Etymologies, rectified here according to VT/45:15

glaew N. [glˈɑɛw] n. salve ◇ Ety/369

glam S. [glˈɑm] (glamm S., N., glamb S., N.) n. 1. barbarous speech, shouting, confused noise ○ 2. din, uproar, the confused yelling and bellowing of beasts ○ 3. Pop. by ext., as a coll. noun, any body of Orcs ◇ Ety/358, Ety/377, WJ/390, WJ/416glamhoth S., N. n. class pl.glamog S. n. sing.

glamb S., N.glam

glambr N.glamor

glamhoth S., N. [glˈɑm.hɔθ] n. class pl. of glam, Pop. barbaric host of Orcs ◇ Ety/358, Ety/364, Ety/377, UT/39, UT/54, WJ/390glam+hoth "the dinhorde, the yelling horde"

glamm S., N.glam

glamog S. [glˈɑmɔg] n. sing. of glam, Pop. an Orc, "a yelling one" ◇ WJ/390

glamor N. [glˈɑmr̩] (glambr N.) n. echo ◇ Ety/358

glamren N. [glˈɑmrɛn] adj. echoing ◇ Ety/358

*glân I S. [glˈɑːn] adj. bright, shining white ← Curunír 'Lân UT/390The word is deduced from its mutated form, but it is worth mentioning that a stem GALÁN "bright", with glan "daylight" (and later "clear") as derivative, is listed in the Etymologies (not included in the published text, but see VT/45:13). Most of the words meaning "white" in the Indo-Eureopean languages come from the original notion of "brightness", e.g. Greek leukós "white" is cognate with Latin lucere "to shine", lux "light". This association of sense is also found in Gnomish, PE/11:39 (glan "clean, pure", from "bright" originally) and in Early Noldorin (PE/13:144, glann "clean"). The similarity with Welsh glan (where the vowel, incidentally, is also long, though this is concealed by Welsh orthographic convention) is also striking

glân II S. [glˈɑːn] n. hem, border (of textile and other hand-made things) ◇ VT/42:8

gland S. [glˈɑnd] (glann S.) n. boundary ← Glanduin, Glanhír UT/264, UT/318, UT/441, VT/42:8, X/ND1

glandagol S. [glˈɑndɑgɔl] n. boundary mark ◇ VT/42:8,28gland+tagol

glann S.gland


glass N. [glˈɑss] (glas N.) n. joy ◇ Ety/357

glaur N. [glˈɑur] (glor- N.) n. Theo. golden light (of the golden tree Laurelin) ◇ Ety/358, Ety/368

*glavra- N. [glˈɑvrɑ] inf. glavro N. [glˈɑvrɔ] v. to babble ◇ Ety/358glavrol N. part.

glavro N. inf.glavra-

glavrol N. [glˈɑvrɔl] part. of glavra-, babbling ◇ Ety/358

glaw N. [glˈɑw] n. radiance ◇ Ety/362

glawar N. [glˈɑwɑr] n. Theo. sunlight, radiance (of the golden tree Laurelin) ◇ Ety/368, VT/45:15

gleina- S. [glˈɛjnɑ] v. to bound, enclose, limit ◇ VT/42:8, VT/42:28This entry should perhaps read gleinia-, cf. VT/42:28, note 13

glî N. [glˈiː] n. honey ◇ Ety/369

glîn S. [glˈiːn] (glînn S.) n. gleam, glint (usually of fine slender but bright shafts of light, particularly applied to light of eyes) ◇ WJ/337, S/431

gling- N. [glˈiŋ] v. to hang, dangle ◇ Ety/359, Ety/369, VT/45:15,27

glînn S.glîn

glinnel S. [glˈinnɛl̡] pl. glinnil S. [glˈinnil̡] n. Pop. Elf, one of the Teleri ◇ WJ/378, WJ/385glind("teleri")+el

glinnil S. pl.glinnel

glintha- S. v. to glance at ◇ WJ/337

glîr N. [glˈiːr] n. song, poem, lay ◇ Ety/359

glir- N. [glˈir] inf. gliri N. [glˈiri] v. to sing, trill, to recite a poem ◇ Ety/359, Ety/369, VT/45:15The form glin in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:15

gliri N. inf.glir-

glithui S. [glˈiθuj] adj. (unknown meaning) ◇ UT/448, WJ/182, WJ/186

glor- N.glaur

gloss S., N. [glˈɔss] adj. snow-white, dazzling-white ◇ Ety/359, RGEO/70, VT/42:18

glûdh N. [glˈuːð] n. soap ◇ Ety/369

go- N. [gɔ] pref. together ◇ Ety/399, WJ/367

gobel N. [gˈɔbɛl̡] n. walled house or village, town ◇ Ety/380

gobennas N. [gɔbˈɛnnɑs] n. history ◇ Ety/366go-+pennas

gobennathren N. [gˌɔbɛnnˈɑθrɛn] adj. historical ◇ Ety/366gobennath+-ren

gódhel S. [gˈɔːðɛl̡] pl. gódhil S. [ˈgɔːðil̡] n. Pop. "Deep Elf" or "Gnome", one of the Wise Folk ◇ WJ/364, WJ/379go(lodh)+ódhel, or OS *wådelogódhellim S. n. class pl.

gódhellim S. [gɔːðˈɛl̡lim] n. class pl. of gódhel, Pop. "Deep Elves" or "Gnomes", the Wise Folk ◇ WJ/364gódhel+rim

gódhil S. pl.gódhel

godrebh N. adv. through together ◇ TAI/150go-+tre-+be, OS *wotrebe, CE *wo-tere-be (?)

goe S. [gˈɔɛ] n. terror, great fear ◇ PM/363

goeol S. [gˈɔɛ.ɔl] adj. dreadful, terrifying ◇ PM/363

goer N. adj. red, copper-coloured, ruddy ◇ Ety/358, X/OE

gohena- S. [gˈɔhɛnɑ] v. to forgive (with person forgiven as object?) ◇ VT/44:29Cf. díhena-gohenam S. v. pres. 1st pl.

gohenam S. [gˈɔhɛnɑm] v. pres. 1st pl. of gohena-, we forgive ◇ VT/44:21,29

golf N. [gˈɔlv] n. Bot. branch ◇ Ety/359

goll N. [gˈɔll] adj. wise ◇ Ety/377

gollor N. [gˈɔllɔr] n. magician ◇ Ety/377

golodh S., N. [gˈɔlɔð] pl. gelydh S. [gˈɛlyð] (gœlydh S., gœlœidh N., geleidh N.) n. Pop. "Deep Elf" or "Gnome", one of the Wise Folk ◇ Ety/377, S/431, WJ/364golodhrim S., N. n. class pl.

golodhrim S., N. [gɔlˈɔðrim] n. class pl. of golodh, Pop. Deep Elves, Gnomes ◇ Ety/377, WJ/323golodh+rim

golodhvir N.golovir

gœlœidh N. pl.golodh

goloth S. [gˈɔlɔθ] n. Bot. inflorescence, a head of small flowers ◇ VT/42:18Cf. gwaloth

golovir N. [gˈɔlɔvir] (golodhvir N.) n. Theo. Silmaril ◇ Ety/373golodh+mîr "Ñoldo-jewel"Cf. silevril, mirion

golwen N. [gˈɔlwɛn] adj. wise, learned in deep arts ◇ Ety/377

gœlydh S. pl.golodh

gonathra- N. [gɔnˈɑθrɑ] v. to entangle, enmesh ◇ Ety/375gonathras N. n. abst.

gonathras N. [gɔnˈɑθrɑs] n. abst. of gonathra-, entanglement ◇ Ety/375

gond S. [gˈɔnd] (gonn N.) n. great stone, rock ◇ Ety/359, S/431, X/ND1

gondrafn N. [gˈɔndrɑvn] n. hewn stone ◇ Ety/354Cf. gondramgond+drafn

gondram N. [gˈɔndrɑm] n. hewn stone ◇ Ety/354Cf. gondrafngond+drafn

*gondren S. [gˈɔndrɛn] adj. (made) of stone ← Toll-ondren TI/268, TI/287

gonn N.gond

gonod- N. [gˈɔnɔd] v. to count, count up, reckon, sum up ◇ Ety/378, Ety/399, VT/46:6

gorf N. [gˈɔrv] n. impetus, vigour ◇ Ety/359

gorgor S. [gˈɔrgɔr] n. extreme horror, terror, haunting fear ◇ WJ/415, RC/334-335

gorn I N. [gˈɔrn] adj. impetuous ◇ Ety/359

*gorn II S. [gˈɔrn] n. valor ← Aragorn PM/xii

gorog S. [gˈɔrɔg] n. horror ◇ WJ/415

goroth N. [gˈɔrɔθ] n. horror ◇ Ety/377

gorth I S. [gˈɔrθ] n. horror ◇ WJ/415

*gorth II S. [gˈɔrθ] pl. gyrth S. [gˈyrθ] n. a dead person ← [Raith >] Fui 'Ngorthrim RC/526, gyrth Letters/417*gorthrim S. n. class pl.

gorthad S. [gˈɔrθɑd] pl. gœrthaid S. [gˈɛrθɑjd] n. barrow ◇ LotR/A(iii), PM/194gorth+-sad "place of the dead"

gœrthaid S. pl.gorthad

gortheb (corr. gorthob) S. [gˈɔrθɛb] adj. horrible ◇ WJ/415

*gorthrim S. [gˈɔrθrim] n. class pl. of gorth II, the dead ← [Raith >] Fui 'Ngorthrim RC/526

gost N. [gˈɔst] n. dread ◇ Ety/359

gosta- N. [gˈɔstɑ] v. to fear exceedingly ◇ Ety/359

*govad- S. [gˈɔvɑd] v. to meet ← mae govannen LotR/I:XII, Letters/308Etym. "to walk together"govannen S. pp.

govannen S. [gɔvˈɑnnɛn] pp. of govad-, met ◇ LotR/I:XII, Letters/308

gowest N. [gˈɔwɛst] n. contract, compact, treaty ◇ Ety/397, Ety/399go-+gwest

graug S.raug

graw S. [grˈɑw] n. Zool. bear ◇ VT/47:12

groga- S. [grˈɔgɑ] v. to feel terror ◇ WJ/415

grond N. [grˈɔnd] n. Mil. club ◇ Ety/384, X/ND1

groth S. [grˈɔθ] n. 1. cave, tunnel, large excavation ○ 2. delving, underground dwelling ◇ WJ/415, S/431, VT/46:12

gruin N. [grˈujn] adj. ruddy ◇ Ety/384

gruitha- S. [grˈujθɑ] v. to terrify ◇ WJ/415

*gûd S. n. foe ← Thuringud WJ/256

guin N. pl.gwaun

gûl S., N. [gˈuːl] n. 1. magic lore, long study (being used mostly of secret knowledge, especially such as possessed by artificers who made wonderful things) ○ 2. by ext., perverted or evil knowledge, sorcery, necromancy ◇ Ety/377, S/432, MR/350, WJ/383

guldur S. [gˈuldur] n. (dark) sorcery ◇ gûl+dûr

gûr I S. [gˈuːr] n. heart (in the moral sense), counsel ◇ VT/41:11,15

gûr II N. [gˈuːr] n. death ◇ Ety/377

guren S. [gˈurɛn] n. my heart ◇ VT/41:11Apparently the word gûr I with a suffixed possessive. See lammen for a similar formgûr+-en

gurth S. [gˈurθ] n. death ◇ S/432, UT/39, UT/54

guruth N. [gˈuruθ] n. death ◇ Ety/377

*guruthos S. [gˈuruθɔs] n. the shadow of death, death-horror ← di-nguruthos LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278nguruthos S. nasal mut.

gwa- S., N. [gwɑ] pref. Arch. together (only in old compounds, the living form is go-) ◇ Ety/399, WJ/367

gwador N. [gwˈɑdɔr] pl. gwedeir N. n. m. brother (especially used of those not brothers by blood, but sworn brothers or associates) ◇ Ety/394

*gwaeda- N. [gwˈɑɛdɑ] inf. gwaedo N. [gwˈɑɛdɔ] v. to enfold ◇ VT/46:21

gwaedh N. [gwˈɑɛð] n. bond, troth, compact, oath ◇ Ety/397

gwaedo N. inf.gwaeda-

gwael S. [gwˈɑɛl] n. Orn. gull ◇ WJ/418

*gwaen S. [gwˈɑɛn] adj. stained ← Agarwaen S/378

gwaeren S. [gwˈɑɛrɛn] adj. windy ◇ VT/42:15

gwaeron S. [gwˈɑɛrɔn] n. Cal. march (month) ◇ LotR/D

gwaew N. [gwˈɑɛw] n. wind ◇ Ety/387

gwahaedir N. n. seeing-stone, palantír ← Gwahaedir PM/186gwa-+hae+tirn

*gwain S. [gwˈɑjn] pl. *gwîn S. [gwˈiːn] adj. new ← Narwain (Narvinyë) LotR/D, Cf. Ety/399

gwaith S., N. [gwˈɑjθ] (gweith N.) n. 1. manhood ○ 2. by ext., man power, troop of able-bodied men, host, regiment, people ○ 3. by ext., region, wilderness ◇ Ety/398, VT/46:21, X/E1

gwaloth N. [gwˈɑlɔθ] n. Bot. blossom, collection of flowers ◇ Ety/370, VT/45:29This form replaced deleted goloth in the manuscript of The Etymologies, see VT/45:29. The deleted form is however also later attested in VT/42:18Cf. goloth

gwanath N. [gwˈɑnɑθ] n. death (act of dying, not death as a state or abstract) ◇ Ety/397

gwann N. [gwˈɑnn] adj. departed, dead ◇ Ety/397

*gwanna- N. [gwˈɑnnɑ] inf. gwanno N. [gwˈɑnnɔ] v. to depart, die ◇ Ety/397

gwanno N. inf.gwanna-

gwanod N. [gwˈɑnɔd] n. tale, number ◇ Ety/378

gwanûn S. [gwˈɑnuːn] n. a pair of twins ◇ WJ/367gwanunig S. n. sing.

gwanunig S. [gwˈɑnunig] n. sing. of gwanûn, a twin (one of a pair of twins) ◇ WJ/367

gwanur N. [gwˈɑnur] n. 1. a pair of twins ○ 2. brother or kinsman, kinswoman ◇ Ety/378, Ety/392, VT/46:6, LotR/A(iv)

gwanw N. n. death (act of dying, not death as a state or abstract) ◇ Ety/397, X/W

gwarth N. [gwˈɑrθ] n. betrayer ◇ Ety/397

gwass N. [gwˈɑss] n. stain ◇ Ety/397

gwastar N. [gwˈɑstɑr] n. hummock ◇ Ety/388, Ety/399gwa-+thâr

gwath S., N. [gwˈɑθ] n. 1. shade, shadow, dim light ○ 2. stain ◇ Ety/397, S/432*gwethion N. der. pl.

*gwatha- N. [gwˈɑθɑ] inf. gwatho N. [gwˈɑθɔ] v. to soil, stain ◇ Ety/397

gwathel N. [gwˈɑθɛl̡] pl. gwethil N. [gwˈɛθil̡] n. f. sister, associate ◇ Ety/392

gwatho N. inf.gwatha-

gwathra- S. [gwˈɑθrɑ] v. to overshadow, dim, veil, obscure ◇ VT/42:9

gwathren S. [gwˈɑθrɛn] pl. gwethrin S. [gwˈɛθrin] adj. shadowy, dim ← Ered Wethrin S/432, VT/42:9

*gwathui S. [gwˈɑθuj] adj. shadowy ← Gwathuirim PM/330gwathuirim S. n. class pl.

gwathuirim S. [gwɑθˈujrim] n. class pl. of gwathui, Pop. The Dunlendings or People of Dunland ◇ PM/330gwathui+rim "shadowy people"

gwaun N. [gwˈɑun] pl. guin N. n. Orn. goose ◇ Ety/397, X/Z

gwaur N. [gwˈɑur] adj. soiled, dirty ◇ Ety/397

gwedeir N. pl.gwador

gwedh N. [gwˈɛð] n. bond ◇ Ety/397

*gwedh- N. [gwˈɛð] inf. gwedhi (corr. gwedi) N. [gwˈɛði] pa. t. gwedhant N. [gwˈɛðɑnt] (gwend N., gwenn N.) v. to bind ◇ Ety/397, X/ND1

gwedhant N. pa. t.gwedh-

gwedhi (corr. gwedi) N. inf.gwedh-

gweith N.gwaith

gwelw N. n. air (as substance) ◇ Ety/398, X/W

gwelwen N. [gwˈɛl̡wɛn] n. air, lower air (distinct from the upper air of the stars, or the outer) ◇ Ety/398gwelu+men

gwend I N. pa. t.gwedh-

gwend II N. [gwˈɛnd] n. bond, friendship ◇ Ety/397-398, X/ND1

gwend III N. [gwˈɛnd] (gwenn N.) n. f. maiden ◇ Ety/398, X/ND1

gweneth N. [gwˈɛnɛθ] n. virginity ◇ Ety/398

gwenn I N. pa. t.gwedh-

gwenn II N.gwend III

gwenyn S. [gwˈɛnyn] n. pl. twins ◇ PM/353, PM/365

*gweria- N. [gwˈɛri.ɑ] inf. gwerio N. [gwˈɛri.ɔ] v. to betray, cheat ◇ Ety/397

gwerio N. inf.gweria-

gwest N. [gwˈɛst] n. oath ◇ Ety/397

*gwesta- N. [gwˈɛstɑ] inf. gwesto N. [gwˈɛstɔ] v. to swear ◇ Ety/397

gwesto N. inf.gwesta-

gwethil N. pl.gwathel

*gwethion N. [gwˈɛθi.ɔn] der. pl. of gwathEredwethion TI/345, Ety/379, Ety/397

gwethrin S. pl.gwathren

gwî N. [gwˈiː] n. net, web ◇ Ety/398

gwilith N. [gwˈiliθ] n. air (as a region) ◇ Ety/398

gwilwileth N. [gwˈil̡wilɛθ] n. Zool. butterfly ◇ Ety/398

*gwîn I S. pl.gwain

*gwîn II S., N. [gwˈiːn] n. wine, vine ← Dorwinion LotR/Map, LB/11,26,17,112, LR/334,338, H/IXThe wine of Dor-Winion occurs in the Lay of the children of Húrin and a place located either in the "burning South" in the first version, or probably east of the Blue Mountains in the second. Then we have Dorwinion as a meadow-land in Tol Eressëa at the end of the Quenta Silmarillion. It reappears in The Hobbit, and was finally placed North-West of the Sea of Rhûn in the decorated map by Pauline Baynes (see HL/115-117 for discussion). The meaning of this name is unknown and has been largely discussed. What do we have indeed in this "Winion", or rather gwinion since the initial w- must come from lenition? According to Christopher Tolkien, the Lay was begun c. 1918 and was composed during his father's stay at Leeds, a date meaning that the word can be Gnomish, possibly Early Noldorin, or in an indigenous language of Beleriand. In Gnomish and later in Doriathrin and Ilkorin, there is a genitive plural ending -ion which may very well be contained in this word. Then we would segment gwin-ion "of gwin". The context calls for "wine", "vine" or something similar. It can hardly be a coincidence that gwin is precisely the Welsh word for "wine", a loan from the Latin vinum, as the English "wine" itself*gwinion S., N. der. pl.

gwing S., N. [gwˈiŋ] n. 1. spindrift, flying spray ○ 2. foam (properly a flying spume or spindrift blown off wavetops) ◇ Ety/398, PM/392

gwinig S. [gwˈinig] n. dim. 1. "litte baby" ○ 2. Biol. little finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,16-17

*gwinion S., N. [gwˈini.ɔn] der. pl. of gwîn IIDorwinion LotR/Map, LB/11,26,17,112, LR/334,338, H/IX

gwirith S. [gwˈiriθ] n. Cal. april (month) ◇ LotR/D, SD/129-31

gyrth S. pl.gorth II


ha N. [hɑ] (hana N.) pl. hain S. [hɑjn] (hein N.) pron. 3rd it ◇ Ety/385, LotR/II:IV, X/EI

hab- N. [hˈɑb] v. to clothe ◇ Ety/363

habad N. [hˈɑbɑd] pl. hebeid N. n. shoe ◇ Ety/386, VT/Errata, X/EIThe meaning "shore" in Ety/386 should actually read "shoe", see VT/Errata and Lambengolmor/735. Compare also with Early Qenya hyapa (PE/13:41) and Gnomish habin (PE/11:47), both glossed as "shoe"

habar S. soft mut. of sabar

*had- N. [hˈɑd] inf. hedi N. [hˈɛdi] pa. t. hant N. [hˈɑnt] v. to hurl ◇ Ety/363

hâdh N. [hˈɑːð] n. Arch., Poet. (?) cleaver ◇ Ety/389

hadhod S. [hˈɑðɔd] n. Pop. Dwarf ◇ WJ/388, WJ/414Kh khazâdhadhodrim S. n. class pl.

hadhodrim S. [hɑðˈɔdrim] n. class pl. of hadhod, Pop. the Dwarves (as a race) ◇ WJ/388hadhod+rim

hadlath N. [hˈɑdlɑθ] (haglath N.) n. Mil. sling ◇ Ety/363, Ety/368, X/TL

hador S., N. [hˈɑdr̩] n. Mil. thrower (of spears and darts) ◇ Ety/363, WJ/234

hadron N. [hˈɑdrɔn] n. m. Mil. thrower (of spears and darts) ◇ Ety/363

hae S., N. [hˈɑɛ] adj. far, remote, distant ← Gwahaedir PM/186, VT/45:21

haered S. [hˈɑɛrɛd] n. remote distance, the remote ← na-chaered LotR/II:I, RGEO/72chaered S. soft mut.

haeron S. [hˈɑɛrɔn] adj. far, remote, distant ◇ PM/273

haew N. [hˈɑɛw] n. custom, habit ◇ Ety/364, VT/45:22Written hæw (with ae-ligature) in the Etymologies, rectified here according to VT/45:22

haf- N. [hˈɑv] pa. t. hamp N. [hˈɑmp] (hafant N.) v. to sit ◇ VT/45:20

hafant N. pa. t.haf-

haglath N.hadlath

hain S. pl.ha

hâl N. [hˈɑːl] n. Zool. fish ◇ VT/45:20Cf. lhim

*hal- N. [hˈɑl] inf. heli N. [hˈɛli] pa. t. haul N. [hˈɑul] v. to lift ◇ VT/45:20

half N. [hˈɑlv] n. seashell ◇ Ety/389

hall I N. [hˈɑll] adj. exalted, high ◇ Ety/363

hall II N. [hˈɑll] adj. veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady ◇ Ety/386

haltha- N. [hˈɑlθɑ] v. to screen ◇ Ety/386

ham N. [hˈɑm] n. (?) chair ◇ VT/45:20

hamma- N. [hˈɑmmɑ] v. to clothe ◇ Ety/363, VT/45:21The form hamnia- in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:21hammad N. ger.

hammad N. [hˈɑmmɑd] ger. of hamma-, clothing ◇ Ety/363

hamp I N. pa. t.haf-

hamp II N. [hˈɑmp] n. garment ◇ Ety/363

hana N.ha

hanar S. [hˈɑnɑr] n. m. brother ◇ VT/47:14

hand N. [hˈɑnd] (hann N.) adj. intelligent ◇ Ety/363, X/ND1hannas N. n. abst.

hann N.hand

hannas N. [hˈɑnnɑs] n. abst. of hand, understanding, intelligence ◇ Ety/363

hant N. pa. t.had-

harad S., N. [hˈɑrɑd] n. south ◇ Ety/365, S/432, LotR/Eharadrim S. n. class pl.

haradren N. [hɑrˈɑdrɛn] adj. southern ◇ Ety/365

haradrim S. [hɑrˈɑdrim] n. class pl. of harad, Pop. southerners, "Southrons" ◇ LotRharad+rim

hargam N. [hˈɑrgɑm] n. left-handed ◇ Ety/365

harn I N. [hˈɑrn] adj. southern ◇ Ety/365

harn II N. [hˈɑrn] adj. wounded ◇ Ety/386

harn III S. soft mut. of sarnEdhelharn SD/129-131

harn IV N. [hˈɑrn] n. Mil. helmet ◇ VT/45:21

*harna- N. [hˈɑrnɑ] inf. harno N. [hˈɑrnɔ] v. to wound ◇ Ety/386

harno N. inf.harna-

*hartha- S. [hˈɑrθɑ] v. to hope ← Harthad SD/62harthad S. ger.

harthad S. [hˈɑrθɑd] ger. of hartha-, hope ◇ SD/62

harvo S. [hˈɑrvɔ] n. 1. left hand ○ 2. by ext., left side ◇ VT/47:6har-vaw, har-+maw

harw N. n. wound ◇ Ety/386, X/W

hast N. [hˈɑst] n. axe-stroke ◇ Ety/389

*hasta- N. [hˈɑstɑ] inf. hasto N. [hˈɑstɔ] v. to hack through ◇ Ety/389

hasto N. inf.hasta-

*hathal N.hathol

hathel N.hathol

hathol S. [hˈɑθl̩] (hathel N., *hathal N.) n. 1. Mil. broadsword-blade, axe-blade ○ 2. Mil. by ext., axe ◇ Ety/389, WJ/234, UT/444, LR/433See orchal for a discussion about syllabic consonants and their vocalization

haudh S., N. [hˈɑuð] n. (burial) mound, grave, tomb ◇ Ety/363-364, S/432, LotR/A(iv)

haul N. pa. t.hal-

haust N. [hˈɑust] n. bed ◇ Ety/364"resting"

hawn S. [hˈɑwn] n. m. Arch. brother ◇ VT/47:14Cf. hanarhoneg S. n. m. dim.

he N. [hɛ] (hen N., hene N.) pl. hîn N. [hiːn] pron. 3rd f. she ◇ Ety/385

*heb- S. [hˈɛb] v. to retain, keep, do not give away or release, keep hold of ← *khep VT/41:6*hebin S. v. pres. 1st

hebeid N. pl.habad

*hebin S. [hˈɛbin] v. pres. 1st of heb-, I keep, I have kept ← ú-chebin LotR/A(v), VT/41:6Because of the mutation triggered by the first person pronominal ending, it is impossible to guess whether the stem of this should be heb-, *hab- or *hob-. The root KHEP listed in VT/41:6 apparently implies that heb- is the correct formchebin S. soft mut.

hedi N. inf.had-

hein N. pl.ha

heir N. n. and adj. left (hand) ◇ Ety/365, X/EI

helch N. [hˈɛl̡x] n. bitter cold ◇ Ety/364

heledh S. [hˈɛlɛd] n. glass ◇ S/433

heledir N. [hˈɛlɛdˌir] (heledirn N.) n. Orn. kingfisher (bird) ◇ Ety/363, Ety/386, Ety/394"fish-watcher"

heledirn N.heledir

heleg N. [hˈɛlɛg] n. ice ◇ Ety/364

heleth N. [hˈɛlɛθ] n. fur, fur-coat ◇ Ety/386

helf N. [hˈɛl̡v] n. fur ◇ Ety/386

heli N. inf.hal-

hell N. [hˈɛl̡l] adj. naked ◇ Ety/386

heltha- N. [hˈɛl̡θɑ] v. to strip ◇ Ety/386, VT/46:14The form helta- in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/46:14

hen N.he

hên I N.hen II

hên II S. [hˈɛːn] pl. hîn S. [hˈiːn] n. child (mostly used as a prefix in patronymics or metronymics) ◇ WJ/403chîn S. nasal mut. pl.

hen II S. [hˈɛn] (henn S., hên N.) pl. hîn N. n. Biol. eye ◇ Ety/364, LotR/II:IX, WR/128, X/ND1hent N. n. dual pl.

hene N.he

*heneb S. [hˈɛnɛb] adj. of eye, eyed, having eyes ← maecheneb "sharp-eyed", WJ/337

*henia- N. [hˈɛni.ɑ] inf. henio N. [hˈɛni.ɔ] v. to understand ◇ Ety/363heniad N. ger.

heniad N. [hˈɛni.ɑd] ger. of henia-, understanding, intelligence ◇ VT/45:21

henio N. inf.henia-

henn S.hen II

henneth S. [hˈɛnnɛθ] n. window ◇ S/428

hent N. [hˈɛnt] n. dual pl. of hen II, Biol. the two eyes (referring to one person's eyes) ◇ VT/45:22

*herdir S. [hˈɛrdir] n. m. master ← i-Cherdir SD/129-31hîr+dîrcherdir S. soft mut.

*heria- N. [hˈɛri.ɑ] inf. herio N. [hˈɛri.ɔ] (hœrio N.) v. to begin suddenly and vigorously ◇ Ety/364, VT/45:22The forms heno, hœno in the Etymologies are misreadings according to VT/45:22

herio N. inf.heria-

heron N. [hˈɛrɔn] n. m. master ◇ VT/45:22

herth N. [hˈɛrθ] n. Mil. household, troop under a "hîr" (master, lord) ◇ Ety/364

herven N.hervenn

hervenn N. [hˈɛrvɛn] (herven N.) n. m. husband ◇ Ety/352, Ety/364, X/ND4hîr+benn

herves N.hervess

hervess N. [hˈɛrvɛs] (herves N.) n. f. wife ◇ Ety/352, Ety/364hîr+bess

*heryn S. [hˈɛryn] n. f. lady ← Roheryn S/436hîr+dî

hethw N. adj. foggy, obscure, vague ◇ Ety/364, X/W

hi S. soft mut. of si

*hîl S. [hˈiːl] n. heir ← Eluchíl PM/369

him I N. [hˈim] adj. 1. steadfast, abiding ○ 2. as an adverb, continually ◇ Ety/364

him II S. [hˈim] adj. cool ◇ S/432

hîn I N. pl.he

hîn II S. pl.hên II

hîn III N. pl.hen II

hin S. soft mut. pl. of sen

hîr S., N. [hˈiːr] n. m. master, lord ◇ Ety/364, S/432, SD/129-31, Letters/382, LB/354, VT/45:22

hiril N. [hˈiril̡] n. f. lady ◇ Ety/364

hirion S. soft mut. of sirion IINanduhirion LotR

hith N.hîth

hîth S. [hˈiːθ] (hith N.) n. mist, fog ◇ Ety/364, S/432

hithlain S. [hˈiθlɑjn] n. mist-thread (a substance used by the Elves of Lothlórien to make strong ropes) ◇ LotR/II:VIII, LotR/Indexhîth+lain

hithui S. [hˈiθuj] n. and adj. 1. foggy, misty ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of november ◇ LotR/D

hithw N. n. fog ◇ Ety/364, X/W

hîw N. [hˈiːw] adj. sticky, viscous ◇ Ety/364

hmael N.mael

hmaw N.maw II

hniof N. n. noose ◇ Ety/387, X/IU

ho N. [hɔ] (hon N., hono N.) pl. huin N. pron. 3rd m. he ◇ Ety/385, X/Z

hobas N. [hˈɔbɑs] n. abst. of hûb, harbourage ◇ Ety/364

hollen S. [hˈɔllɛn] pp. closed ← Fen Hollen LotR/V:IV, RC/550

hon N.ho

honeg S. [hˈɔnɛg] n. m. dim. of hawn, 1. "litte brother" ○ 2. Biol. middle finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,16-17Given as honig in VT/47:14, but see VT/48:17 n. 13 for discussionCf. toleg

hono N.ho

hœrio N. inf.heria-

horn N. [hˈɔrn] adj. driven under compulsion, impelled ◇ Ety/364

hortha- N. [hˈɔrθɑ] v. to urge on, speed ◇ Ety/364

host N. [hˈɔst] n. gross (144) ◇ Ety/364

hoth S., N. [hˈɔθ] n. Pej. host, crowd, horde (nearly always in a bad sense) ◇ Ety/364, S/432

N. [hˈuː] n. Zool. dog ◇ Ety/364

hûb N. [hˈuːb] n. Geog. haven, harbour, small land-locked bay ◇ Ety/364hobas N. n. abst.

hûd N. [hˈuːd] n. assembly ◇ Ety/364

huin N. pl.ho

hûl N. [hˈuːl] n. cry of encouragement in battle ◇ Ety/386

hûn N. [hˈuːn] n. Biol. heart (physical) ◇ Ety/364

hûr N. [hˈuːr] n. readiness for action, vigour, fiery spirit ◇ Ety/364

hwand N. [ʍˈɑnd] (chwand N., chwann N.) n. Bot. sponge, fungus ◇ Ety/388, X/ND1, X/HW


i S., N. [i] pl. in S., N. [in] art. and pron. rel. 1. the ○ 2. who ◇ Ety/361, SD/129-31, Letters/308, Letters/417

ia I N.

ia II

S. [jˈɑː] (ia N.) n. 1. gulf ○ 2. abyss, void ◇ Ety/400, S/432, Letters/383

*iach S. [jˈɑx] n. ford, crossing ← Arossiach S/382, Brithiach S/286, Cirith Ninniach S/387Probably OS *jakkʰ- (YAK), see Quenya yatta "neck, isthmus" in Ety/400

iaeth N. [jˈɑɛθ] n. neck ◇ Ety/400

iaew N. [jˈɑɛw] n. mocking, scorn ◇ Ety/400

ial N. [jˈɑl] n. (?) a call, (?) a cry ◇ VT/46:22

ialla- N. [jˈɑllɑ] v. to call ◇ VT/46:22

iant S., N. [jˈɑnt] n. bridge ◇ Ety/400, S/432

ianw N. n. (?) yoke ◇ Ety/400, X/WIt originally meant "bridge" in the Etymologies, but was apparently switched with iant

iâr N. [jˈɑːr] n. blood ◇ Ety/400

iarwain S. [jˈɑrwɑjn] adj. old-young (that is old, but yet still very vigorous)LotR/II:II, RC/128Elvish name of Tom Bombadil, rendered as "oldest" in LotR, which made some people interpret this word as a superlative form (of iaur). However this theory was later controversed. While no other superlatives in *-wain are known, einior, attested in PM/358 (where it is rendered as "eldest"), makes a much better candidate for a superlative construct (conceivably built from the intensive prefix an- and iaur shortened in final position). Moreover, comparing iarwain to narwain, Bertrand Bellet noted in Lambengolmor/642 that iarwain could as well be interpreted as an old compound construct, of the primitive *jâra (Q. yára, S. iaur) and *winjâ (Q. vinya, S. gwain). He thus suggested that iarwain could actually mean "old-new". This analysis was afterwards confirmed by RC/128, quoting a (yet) unpublished draft letter from Tolkien dated from 1968, which states: "Iarwain = old-young, presumably as far as anybody remembered, he had always looked much the same, old but very vigorous"iaur+*gwain

iath S.iâth

iâth S. [jˈɑːθ] (iath S.) n. fence ◇ S/433, WJ/370, WJ/378iathrim S. n. class pl.

iathrim S. [jˈɑθrim] n. class pl. of iâth, Pop. Elves of Doriath ◇ WJ/378iâth+rim

iau I N. [jˈɑu] pl. iui N. [jˈuj] n. Bot. corn ◇ Ety/399iavas S. n. abst.

iau II N. [jˈɑu] n. Geog. ravine, cleft, gulf ◇ Ety/400, VT/46:22

iaun N. [jˈɑun] n. holy place, fane, sanctuary ◇ Ety/400Q yána

iaur S., N. [jˈɑur] adj. 1. ancient, old, original ○ 2. older, former ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, S/433, UT/384

iavas S. [jˈɑvɑs] n. abst. of iau I, Cal. season of autumn ◇ LotR/D

îdh S. [ˈiːð] n. rest, repose ◇ WJ/403

idher N. n. thoughtfulness ◇ Ety/361, X/Z

idhren N. [ˈiðrɛn] adj. pondering, wise, thoughtful ◇ Ety/361

idhrin N.idhrind

idhrind N. (idhrin N.) n. Cal. year ◇ Ety/383, Ety/400, X/ND4în+rind

iell N. [jˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid ◇ Ety/385, Ety/400Stated to be an alteration of sell, remodelled after ion "son" (OS *jondo). It was "a change assisted by the loss of s in compounds and patronymics", hence the ending -iel in several feminine words

iest N. [jˈɛst] n. wish ◇ Ety/400

ifant N. adj. aged, having lived long, old (with no connotation of weakness) ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, VT/46:23, X/PHîn+pant "year-full"

ilaurui S. [ilˈɑuruj] adj. daily ◇ VT/44:21,28

im I S. [ˈim] pron. 1st I ◇ LotR/II:IV, LB/354, VT/47:14,37-38In late writings (see esp. VT/47:37-38), Tolkien reinterpreted this form as a reflexive pronoun (= "self").

im II S., N. [ˈim] (imm N., imb N.) n. Arch. Geog. dell, deep vale ← imlad, imloth, imrath, imrad, VT/45:18, VT/47:14This word only survived in compounds (due to the clash with im I)

imb II

imlad S., N. [ˈimlɑd] n. Geog. deep valley, narrow valley with steep sides (but a flat habitable bottom) ◇ S/433, LotR/Index, VT/45:18, VT/47:14, RC/234,482im+lad

imloth S. [ˈimlɔθ] n. Geog. flower-valley, flowery vale ◇ LotR/V:VIII, VT/42:18, RC/582This word only occurs in the place name Imloth Melui, a vale where roses grewim+loth

imm II

imp S. [ˈimp] adj. num. card. twelve ◇ PE/17:95Cf. ýneg

imrad S. [ˈimrɑd] n. Geog. a path or pass (between mountains, hills or trackless forest) ◇ VT/47:14im+râd

imrath S. [ˈimrɑθ] n. Geog. long narrow valley with a road or watercourse running through it lengthwise ◇ UT/465, RC/558im+rath

in S., N. pl.i

în I S. [ˈiːn] adj. poss. 3rd his (referring to the subject) ◇ SD/129-31

în II N. [ˈiːn] n. Cal. year ◇ Ety/400ínias N. n. abst.

inc N. [ˈiŋk] n. guess, idea, notion ◇ Ety/361

ind N. [ˈind] (inn N.) n. inner thought, meaning, heart ◇ Ety/361, X/ND1innas S. n. abst.

ingem N. [ˈiŋgɛm] adj. old (of person, in mortal sense: decripit, suffering from old age) ◇ Ety/358, Ety/399, Ety/400New word coined by the Elves after meeting with Menîn+gem "year-sick"

ínias N. [ˈiːni.ɑs] n. abst. of în II, annals ◇ Ety/400

inib S.ýneg

inn N.ind

innas S. [ˈinnɑs] n. abst. of ind, will ◇ VT/44:21,26

inw N. adj. female ◇ Ety/361, X/WMS *inw (reformed after CS anu, MS *anw)

io N. [jɔ] (ia N.) adv. ago ◇ Ety/399

*iôl S. [jˈɔːl] n. Geog. wash, flood-water ← Onodiôl RC/334, VT/48:33

iolf N. n. brand ◇ Ety/400, X/IUThe word is classed as Old Noldorin (ON) in the Etymologies, but rather seems to be Noldorin

ion S. [jˈɔn] (ionn N.) n. m. 1. son ○ 2. by ext., scion, male descendant ◇ Ety/400, MR/373, X/ND1, X/ND2For the second meaning, cf. Hadorion, a Húrin's epithet in WJ/294, Hurinionath referring to the house of Húrin the Steward in PM/202-3,218, and Gil-Galad's epithet Ereinion, cf. also the gloss of the old Qenya cognate yondo "descendant of" in PE/12:106, or the use of the same suffix in later Quenya names such as Isildurioni and Anárioni "Heirs of Isildur (resp. Anárion)" in PM/192,196ionnath S. n. coll.

iôn S. [jˈɔːn] n. son ◇ WJ/337

ionn N.ion

ionnath S. [jˈɔnnɑθ] n. coll. of ion, all the sons ◇ SD/129-31

iôr N. n. course ◇ Ety/400, X/IU

ir S. [ˈir] conj. (?) when ◇ LB/354This word is not translated. It could be related to Quenya íre "when". Some scholars also consider that it could be the form taken by the article i before a vowel, on a pattern similar to ah. To this respect, it might be interesting to note the ir was the allative/dative form of the article in the old Gnomish lexicon, PE/11:9

îr N. [ˈiːr] n. sexual desire ◇ VT/46:23

ist N. [ˈist] n. lore, knowledge ◇ Ety/361

*ista- N. [ˈistɑ] inf. isto N. [ˈistɔ] pa. t. istas N. [ˈistɑs] (Arch. sint N.) v. to have knowledge ◇ Ety/361, VT/45:18

istas N. pa. t.ista-

isto N. inf.ista-

istui N. [ˈistuj] adj. learned ◇ Ety/361

ithil S., N. [ˈiθil̡] n. Astron. the (full) Moon, lit. 'The Sheen' ◇ Ety/361, Ety/385, Ety/392, LotR/E, LB/354, RC/232

ithildin S. [iθˈil̡din] n. a silver-colored substance, which mirrors only starlight and moonlight ◇ LotR/II:IVithil+tinu "moon-star"

ithron S. [ˈiθrɔn] pl. ithryn S. [ˈiθryn] n. wizard ◇ UT/448, Letters/448

ithryn S. pl.ithron

iui N. pl.iau I

iuith N. [jˈujθ] n. use ◇ Ety/400

*iuitha- N. [jˈujθɑ] inf. iuitho N. [jˈujθɔ] v. to employ, to use ◇ Ety/400, VT/46:23The gloss was hardly legible and Christopher Tolkien read "to enjoy" in Ety/400, but the meaning "to employ", much more probable (Cf. iuith), was later confirmed in VT/45:23

iuitho N. inf.iuitha-

iûl N. [jˈuːl] n. embers ◇ Ety/400The word is classed as Old Noldorin (ON) in the Etymologies, but rather seems to be Noldorin

ivanneth S. [ivˈɑnnɛθ] n. Cal. september (month) ◇ LotR/D

*ivor S. [ˈivr̩] n. (?) crystal ← Ivorwen LotR/A(v)(?) MS *iυr, OS *imre (I-MIR, augmented form of mîr "jewel")

*ivren S. [ˈivrɛn] pl. ivrin S. [ˈivrin] adj. (?) of crystal, crystalline ◇ S/392, WJ/85The reading Eithel Ivrin in S/392 seems erroneous and should probably be corrected into the plural Eithil Ivrin as in WJ/85, unless Ivrin is actually a proper noun (Eithil Ivrin is also rendered as "Ivrin's Well", see WJ/139). The meaning is interpolated from the description of this place in various sources: 'crystal fountains' (Lay of Húrin, verse 1526), 'reflecting their pallid faces' (ibid., verse 2177), 'glassy pools' (Lay of Leithian, verses 1932-1940)OS *imrinè (?) (Í-MIR)

ivrin S. pl.ivren


*laba- S. [lˈɑbɑ] v. to hop ← Labadal UT/60This entry is interpolated from Sador's nickname, Labadal, which is rendered as "Hopafoot" in the text

*lacha- S. [lˈɑxɑ] v. to flame ◈ lacho S. v. imp.

lachend S. pl. lechind S. n. Pop. Deep Elf (Sindarin name for the Ñoldor) ◇ WJ/384, X/ND4lach+hend "flame-eyed"

lacho S. [lˈɑxɔ] v. imp. of lacha-, flame! ◇ UT/65

lad S. [lˈɑd] n. Geog. plain, valley ◇ S/433

laeg S. [lˈɑɛg] adj. "viridis", fresh and green ◇ Letters/282, Letters/382Seldom used (replaced by calen)

laegel S. [lˈɑɛgɛl̡] pl. laegil S. [lˈɑɛgil̡] n. Pop. a Green Elf ◇ WJ/385laeg+-ellaegrim S. n. class pl.

laegeldrim S.laegrim

laegil S. pl.laegel

laegrim S. [lˈɑɛgrim] (laegeldrim S.) n. class pl. of laegel, Pop. the people of the Green Elves ◇ WJ/385laegel+rim

laer I S. [lˈɑɛr] n. Cal. season of summer ◇ LotR/D

laer II S. [lˈɑɛr] (lhaer N.) n. song, long lay ← Laer Cú Beleg S/406, VT/45:28, X/LH

*lain S. [lˈɑjn] n. thread ← hithlain LotR/II:VIII, LotR/Index

lalaith S. [lˈɑlɑjθ] n. laughter ◇ S/406MS *laleiθ, Q lala- "laugh"

lalf N. [lˈɑlv] pl. lelf N. [lˈɛl̡v] n. Bot. elm-tree ◇ Ety/348

lalven N. [lˈɑlvɛn] pl. lelvin N. [lˈɛl̡vin] n. Bot. elm-tree ◇ Ety/348

lam I S. [lˈɑm] (lhamb N., lham N.) n. Biol. physical tongue ◇ Ety/367, WJ/394, X/LHlamath S. n. coll.

lam II S. [lˈɑm] n. Ling. language ◇ WJ/394lammas S. n. abst.

lamath S. [lˈɑmɑθ] n. coll. of lam I, echoing voices ◇ PM/349

lammas S. [lˈɑmmɑs] (lhammas N.) n. abst. of lam II, Ling. account of tongues ◇ LR/167, WJ/206, WJ/393, X/LH

lammen S. [lˈɑmmɛn] n. my tongue ◇ LotR/II:IVThere was a long controverse between linguists, as to know whether this form was an adjective ("of the tongue, related to the tongue") or the word lam I with a suffixed possessive ("my"). See guren for a similar form

lanc I S. [lˈɑŋk] n. naked ◇ UT/418

lanc II S. [lˈɑŋk] n. sharp edge (not of tools), sudden end (as a cliff-edge, or the clean edge of things made by hand or built) ◇ VT/42:8

land S. [lˈɑnd] (lhand N., lhann N.) adj. wide, broad ← Landroval LotR/VI:IV, Ety/367, X/LH, X/ND1

*lant S. [lˈɑnt] n. fall ← Lanthir S/406, PM/349Q lanta

lanthir S. [lˈɑnθir] n. waterfall ◇ S/406, PM/349lant+sîr "falling stream"

lass S. [lˈɑss] (lhass N.) n. Bot. leaf ◇ Ety/367, Letters/282, TC/169, X/LH

*lasta- S. [lˈɑstɑ] v. to listen ◈ lasto S. v. imp.

lasto S. [lˈɑstɔ] v. imp. of lasta-, listen! ◇ LotR/II:IV, RS/463, LB/354

lavan S. [lˈɑvɑn] pl. levain S. [lˈɛvɑjn] n. Zool. animal (usually applied to four-footed beasts, and never to reptiles or birds) ◇ WJ/388, WJ/416

le S. [lɛ] pron. 2nd to thee (reverential) ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-73, Letters/278, LB/354

lebdas S. [lˈɛbdɑs] (tas S.) n. Biol. index finger ◇ VT/48:5Cf. nobad

lebed S. [lˈɛbɛd] (lhebed N.) pl. lebid S. [lˈɛbid] n. Biol. finger ◇ Ety/368, X/LH, VT/47:23-24,27Tolkien later seems to have replaced this form by leber

leben S. [lˈɛbɛn] (lheben N.) adj. num. card. five ◇ Ety/368, TAI/150, VT/42:24-25, VT/47:10, VT/47:24, VT/48:6, X/LH

lebenedh S. [lˈɛbɛnɛð] n. Biol. middle finger ◇ VT/48:5

lebent S. [lˈɛbɛnt] n. Biol. ring finger ◇ VT/48:5

leber S. [lˈɛbɛr] pl. lebir S. [lˈɛbir] n. Biol. finger ◇ VT/47:10,23-24, VT/48:5

lebethron S. [lɛbˈɛθrɔn] n. Bot. a tree - its black wood was used by the woodwrights of Gondor ◇ LotR/IV:VII, LotR/VI:V, WR/176In the original manuscript, one of the earlier (rejected) form of this name was lebendron. Didier Willis proposed the etymology lebed+doron "finger-oak", actually a real tree name (Finger Oak or Quercus digitata)

lebid S. pl.lebed

lebig S. [lˈɛbig] n. dim. Biol. little finger ◇ VT/48:5,15Cf. niged

lebir S. pl.leber

lechind S. pl.lachend

lefnui S. [lˈɛvnuj] (lhefneg N.) adj. num. ord. fifth ◇ WR/436, VT/42:25, TI/312

leithia- N. [lˈɛjθi.ɑ] (lheitho N.) v. to release ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

leithian S., N. [lˈɛjθi.ɑn] (lheithian N.) n. release, freeing, release from bondage ◇ Ety/368, S/406, X/LH

lelf N. pl.lalf

lelvin N. pl.lalven

lelwin N. pl.lhalwen

lembas S. [lˈɛmbɑs] n. journey bread made by the Elves ◇ PM/404, LotR/II:VIIIlend+bass

*lend S. [lˈɛnd] (lenn- S.) n. journey ← lenn-mbas PM/404, X/ND1

lenn- S.lend

lest S. [lˈɛst] n. girdle ◇ WJ/333, WJ/225, WJ/228

leutha- S. [lˈɛwθɑ] v. to pick up or out (with the fingers) ◇ VT/47:10,23

levain S. pl.lavan

lhach N. n. (leaping) flame ◇ S/433, X/LH

lhaden N. pl. lhedin N. adj. open, cleared ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

lhae N. n. great number ◇ VT/45:27, X/LH

lhaeb N. (lhoeb N.) adj. fresh ◇ Ety/368, VT/45:26, X/OE, X/LH

lhaeg N. (lhoeg N.) adj. keen, sharp, acute ◇ Ety/367, VT/45:25, X/OE, X/LH

lhaer N.laer II

lhaes N. n. babe ◇ Ety/367, X/LH

lhaew N. adj. frequent, many ◇ VT/45:27, X/LH

lhâf N. v. pres. 3rd of lhaf-, (he) licks ◇ Ety/367, X/LH

*lhaf- N. inf. lhefi N. v. to lick ◇ Ety/367, X/LHlhâf N. v. pres. 3rd

lhagr N. pl. lhegrin N. adj. swift, rapid ◇ Ety/367, VT/45:25, Tengwestie/20050318, X/LHThe form lhegin in the published Etymologies might be a misreading for lhegrin, see VT/45:25. As noted by Bertrand Bellet, the two forms are listed side by side, and they may simply be doublets, but it is also possible that we have here a singular followed by its plural.

lhain N.lhein

lhalorn N. n. Bot. elm-tree ◇ Ety/367, X/LHlalf+orn

lhalwen N. pl. lelwin N. [lˈɛl̡win] n. Bot. elm-tree ◇ Ety/367, X/LH

lham N.lam I

lhamb N.lam I

lhammas N.lammas

lhanc N. n. Biol. throat ◇ Ety/367, X/LH

lhand I

lhand II N. adj. open space, level ◇ Ety/368, X/LH, X/ND1

lhang N. n. Mil. cutlass, sword ◇ Ety/367, X/LH


lhant N. n. clearing in forest ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

lhasbelin N. n. Cal. season of autumn ◇ Ety/366-367, X/LHlass+pelin "leaf withering"

lhass N.lass

lhath N. n. (?) thong of leather ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

*lhathra- N. inf. lhathro N. v. to listen in, eavesdrop ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

*lhathrada- N. inf. lhathrado N. v. to listen in, eavesdrop ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

lhathrado N. inf.lhathrada-

lhathro N. inf.lhathra-

lhathron N. n. hearer, listener, eavesdropper ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

lhaug N. adj. warm ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

lhaw S., N. [ɬˈɑw] n. pl. Biol. ears (referring to one person's pair of ears only) ◇ Ety/368, LotR/II:IXOS *λåhu, CE *slâsû (dual)lhewig N. n. sing.

lhaws N. n. hair ringlet ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

lhebed N.lebed

lheben N.leben

lhedin N. pl.lhaden

lhefi N. inf.lhaf-

lhefneg N.lefnui

lhegrin N. pl.lhagr

lhein N. (lhain N.) adj. free, freed ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

lheithian N.leithian

lheitho N.leithia-

lhend N. adj. tuneful, sweet ◇ Ety/369, X/LH, X/ND1

lhethril N. n. f. hearer, listener, eavesdropper ◇ VT/45:26, X/LH

lhevnar N. n. Cal. week (of five days) ◇ VT/45:27, X/LH, X/Z

lhewig N. [ɬˈɛwig] n. sing. of lhaw, Biol. ear ◇ Ety/368, LotR/II:IXlhaw+-ig

lhim N. (lhimb N.) n. Zool. fish ◇ Ety/369, X/LHCf. hâl

lhimb N.lhim

lhimlug N. n. fish-dragon, sea-serpent ◇ Ety/370, X/LHlim+lhûg

lhimmid N. pa. t. lhimmint N. v. to moisten ◇ Ety/369, X/LH

lhimmint N. pa. t.lhimmid

lhimp N. adj. wet ◇ Ety/369, X/LH

lhîn N. n. pool ◇ Ety/369, X/LH*liniath N. n. coll.

lhind N. (lhinn N.) n. air, tune ◇ Ety/369, X/LH, X/ND1

lhinn N.lhind

lhîr I N. n. row, range ◇ Ety/369, X/LH

lhîr II N. n. song, poem, lay ◇ VT/45:28, X/LHCf. glîr

lhoch N. n. ringlet ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

lhôd N. v. pres. 3rd of lhoda-, (he) floats ◇ VT/45:29, X/LH

lhoda- N. v. to float ◇ Ety/370, X/LHlhôd N. v. pres. 3rd

lhoeb N.lhaeb

lhoeg N.lhaeg

lhom N. adj. weary ◇ VT/45:29, X/LH

lhong N. adj. heavy ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

lhonn N.lond

lhorn N. n. 1. quiet water ○ 2. by ext., anchorage, harbour ◇ VT/45:29, X/LH

lhost N. adj. empty ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

lhoth N.loth

lhothod N.lothod

lhû N. n. a time, occasion ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

lhûg S., N. [ɬˈuːg] n. Zool. snake, serpent ◇ Ety/370, S/434

lhum N. n. shade ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

lhumren N. adj. shady ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

lhûn N. [ɬˈuːn] adj. (unknown meaning) ◇ Ety/370, VT/48:24-29This word, which also appears on the map of Middle-earth in LotR, is glossed as "blue" in The Etymologies, but Tolkien later rejected this meaning (as luin was already used in that sense). He then proposed several explanations for it, including the possible adaptation of a Dwarvish name into Sindarin, but he apparently never reached a definitive solution.

lhunt N. n. boat ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

lhûth N. n. spell, charm ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

lhútha- N. v. to enchant ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

*lif S. [lˈiv] n. link ← molif "hand-link" VT/47:6

lim I S. [lˈim] adv. swift, swiftly ← noro lim LotR/I:XII, RS/196, RC/195Untranslated in LotR, but written nora-lim and rendered as "ride on" in RS/196 (not a literal translation) and later translated as "run swift" in RC/195. Before the latter was published (confirming the exact translation of this adverb), Helios de Rosario Martinez had provided a thorough analysis of this word in his article "Musings on Limlight" (Tengwestie/20050107)

lim II S. [lˈim] adj. clear, sparkling, light ◇ WJ/337

lin S.lín

lín S. [lˈiːn] (lin S.) adj. poss. 2nd thy (reverential) ◇ VT/44:21,24

*liniath N. [lˈini.ɑθ] n. coll. of lhîn, pools ← Hithliniath WJ/194

*linna- S. [lˈinnɑ] v. to sing ← linnathon LotR/II:Ilinnathon S. v. fut. 1stlinnon S. v. pres. 1st

linnathon S. [lˈinnɑθɔn] v. fut. 1st of linna-, I will sing, I will chant ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

linnod S. [lˈinnɔd] n. 1. (?) a single verse used as a maxim ○ 2. (?) a chant of a certain metrical type, where each (half-)verse is composed of seven syllables ◇ LotR/A(iv)The word is not translated by Tolkien. The first meaning assumes that -od is a singulative affix (cf. filigod). The second meaning is proposed by Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne in Tolkien's Legendarium p. 132, based on the metrical characteristics of Gilraen's linnodOS? *lindot- (singulative) or lind (linn) + od(og) "chant of seven"

linnon S. [lˈinnɔn] v. pres. 1st of linna-, I sing ◇ LB/354

*liria- N. [lˈiri.ɑ] inf. lirio N. [lˈiri.ɔ] v. to sing ◇ VT/45:28

lirio N. inf.liria-

lith S., N. [lˈiθ] n. ash, sand, dust ◇ Ety/369, S/434, TC/178

lithui S. [lˈiθuj] adj. ashen, ashy, of ash, ash-coloured, dusty ◇ S/434, UT/435, RGEO/74, TC/178, VT/42:10

S. [lˈɔː] n. Geog. shallow lake, fenland ◇ UT/263, VT/42:8-10

lobor N. [lˈɔbr̩] n. Zool. horse ◇ VT/45:28Cf. roch

loeg S. [lˈɔɛg] n. pool ◇ S/407, UT/450, LotR/Map

loen S. [lˈɔɛn] adj. soaking wet, swamped ◇ VT/42:10

lond S., N. [lˈɔnd] (lonn S., N., lhonn N.) n. 1. narrow path or strait ○ 2. by ext., entrance to harbour, land-locked haven ◇ Ety/348, Ety/370, S/434, UT/450, VT/42:10, X/LH, X/ND1lonnath S. n. coll.

lonn S., N.lond

lonnath S. [lˈɔnnɑθ] n. coll. of lond, havens ◇ WR/294, WR/370

loss S. [lˈɔss] n. snow (especially fallen or long-lying snow) ◇ S/434, VT/42:18, RGEO/70Lossoth S. n. class pl.

lossen S. [lˈɔssɛn] adj. snowy ◇ RGEO/70

Lossoth S. [lˈɔssɔθ] n. class pl. of loss, the Snowmen ◇ LotR/A, RGEO/70loss+hoth

loth S. [lˈɔθ] (lhoth N.) n. Bot. flower, inflorescence, a head of small flowers ◇ Ety/370, LB/354, VT/42:18, X/LHThe noun is collective, a single flower being lothegelloth S. n. sing.lotheg S. n. sing.lothod N. n. sing.

lotheg S. [lˈɔθɛg] n. sing. of loth, Bot. (single) flower ◇ VT/42:18loth + -eg

lothod N. [lˈɔθɔd] (lhothod N.) n. sing. of loth, Bot. (single) flower ◇ VT/45:29, X/LHCf. lotheg

lothron S. [lˈɔθrɔn] n. Cal. the month of May ◇ LotR/D

luin S. [lˈujn] adj. invar. blue ◇ LotR (misc.), S/434, UT/390, Ety/370, VT/48:24

*luithia- S. [lˈujθi.ɑ] v. to quench ← uluithiad SD/62Perhaps compare with Q. luita- "to flood, inundate, drench" and the root LUY - See VT/48:31*luithiad S. ger.

*luithiad S. [lˈujθi.ɑd] ger. of luithia-, quenching ← uluithiad SD/62

lŷg (corr. lyg) S. [lˈyːg] n. Zool. snake ◇ LotR/E


mâb S. [mˈɑːb] (mab- S.) n. Biol. a hand-full, complete hand (with all five fingers) ◇ Ety/371, VT/45:32, VT/47:6-7

mab- S.mâb

*mad- N. [mˈɑd] inf. medi N. [mˈɛdi] v. to eat ◇ Ety/371

mae S. [mˈɑɛ] adv. well ◇ LotR/I:XII, Letters/308

maecheneb S. [mˈɑɛxɛnɛb] adj. sharp-eyed ◇ WJ/337maeg+heneb

maed I S. [mˈɑɛd] adj. shapely ◇ PM/366, VT/41:10

maed II S. [mˈɑɛd] (moed N.) adj. handy, skilled, skilful ◇ Ety/371, VT/47:6, X/OE

maeg S. [mˈɑɛg] adj. sharp, piercing, penetrating, going deep in something ◇ S/434, WJ/337

mael N. [mˈɑɛl] (hmael N.) n. and adj. 1. stain ○ 2. stained ◇ Ety/386

maen N. [mˈɑɛn] adj. skilled, clever ◇ Ety/371maenas N. n. abst.

maenas N. [mˈɑɛnɑs] n. abst. of maen, craft ◇ Ety/371

maer N. [mˈɑɛr] adj. useful, fit, good (of things) ◇ Ety/371

maeth N. [mˈɑɛθ] n. battle, fight (not of general host but of two or a few) ◇ Ety/371

maetha- I N. [mˈɑɛθɑ] v. to fight ◇ Ety/371

maetha- II S. [mˈɑɛθɑ] v. to handle, wield, manage, deal with ◇ VT/47:6

maethor N. [mˈɑɛθr̩] n. warrior ◇ Ety/371

maew N. [mˈɑɛw] n. Orn. gull ◇ Ety/373

magl N.magol

magol N. [mˈɑgl̩] (magl N.) n. Mil. sword ◇ Ety/371The word megil (q.v.), probably introduced by the Ñoldor, was also used

magor S. [mˈɑgr̩] n. Mil. swordsman ← Menelvagor LotR/E, WJ/234

maidh N. [mˈɑjð] (meidh N.) adj. pale, fallow, fawn ◇ Ety/371, X/EI

main S. [m'ɑjn] (mein S.) adj. num. ord. first, (only in the sense of) prime, chief, pre-eminent ◇ VT/42:10, VT/42:25

mâl N. [mˈɑːl] pl. meil N. (mely N.) n. pollen, yellow powder ◇ Ety/386, X/EI

malen N. [mˈɑlɛn] pl. melin N. [mˈɛlin] adj. yellow ◇ Ety/386

malhorn S. Arch.mallorn

mallen N. [mˈɑɬɛn] (Arch. malthen N.) adj. of gold, golden ◇ Ety/386, RC/625, VT/46:14, Tengwestie/20031207

mallorn S. [mˈɑɬɔrn] (Arch. malhorn S., Arch. malthorn S.) pl. mellyrn S. [mˈɛl̡lyrn] n. Bot. golden tree of Lothlórien ◇ S/435, LotR/II:IV, VT/42:27, Tengwestie/20031207malt+orn "tree of gold"

mallos S. [mˈɑllɔs] n. Bot. a golden flower ◇ UT/451, Letters/248malt+los "flower of gold"

malt N. [mˈɑlt] n. gold (as metal) ◇ Ety/386, VT/46:14, VT/42:27, Tengwestie/20031207

malthen N. Arch.mallen

malthorn S. Arch.mallorn

malw N. adj. fallow, pale ◇ Ety/386, X/W

man S. [mɑn] pron. (?) what? ◇ TL/21:09

mân N. [mˈɑːn] n. departed spirit ◇ Ety/371

manadh N. [mˈɑnɑð] n. 1. doom, final end, fate, fortune ○ 2. by ext., final bliss ◇ Ety/371

*matha- N. [mˈɑθɑ] inf. matho N. [mˈɑθɔ] v. to stroke, feel, handle ◇ Ety/371

matho N. inf.matha-

maur N. [mˈɑur] n. gloom ◇ Ety/373

maw I S. [mˈɑw] n. Biol. Arch. hand ◇ VT/47:6

maw II N. [mˈɑw] (hmaw N.) n. soil, stain ◇ Ety/386, VT/46:14

mbair S. nasal mut. pl. of bar

mbar S. nasal mut. of bar

*mbas S. soft mut. of bassimbas VT/44:21,27-8

medi N. inf.mad-

*medui S. [mˈɛduj] adj. last ← na vedui, Arvedui LotR/I:XII, LotR/A(iv)vedui S. soft mut.

megil S., N. [mˈɛgil̡] n. Mil. sword ◇ Ety/371The word was struck out in the Etymologies, but is well attested in late compounds such as Mormegil or Arvegil (with regular mutation). It is conceivably the Sindarinized form of Quenya makil, coexisting with magol (see tegil and tegol for a similar case)

megli N. n. Zool. bear ◇ Ety/369, Ety/371, X/DLmad-+glî "honey-eater"

meglin N. adj. honey-eater, bear-like ◇ Ety/369, X/DL

*megor S. [mˈɛgr̩] adj. sharp-pointed ← *megr WJ/337

meidh N.maidh

meil N. pl.mâl

mein S.main

*mel- N. [mˈɛl] inf. melo N. [mˈɛlɔ] pa. t. melant N. [mˈɛlɑnt] v. to love ◇ VT/45:34

melant N. pa. t.mel-

melch N. [mˈɛl̡x] adj. greedy ◇ Ety/373

meldir N. [mˈɛl̡dir] n. m. friend ◇ Ety/372mell+dîr

meldis N. [mˈɛl̡dis] n. f. friend ◇ Ety/372mell+dîs

meleth N. [mˈɛlɛθ] n. love ◇ Ety/372

melethril N. [mɛlˈɛθril̡] n. f. lover ◇ Ety/372

melethron N. [mɛlˈɛθrɔn] n. m. lover ◇ Ety/372

melin N. pl.malen

mell N. [mˈɛl̡l] adj. dear ◇ Ety/372

mellon S., N. [mˈɛl̡lɔn] pl. mellyn S. [mˈɛl̡lyn] n. friend ◇ Ety/372, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-31, Letters/424mhellyn S. soft mut. pl.

mellyn S. pl.mellon

mellyrn S. pl.mallorn

melo N. inf.mel-

melui S. [mˈɛluj] adj. lovely, sweet ◇ LotR/V:VIII, VT/42:18, RC/582This word only occurs in the place name Imloth Melui, a vale where roses grew

mely N. pl.mâl

men I S., N. [mˈɛn] pron. 1st pl. us ← ammen LotR/II:IV, LB/354, tiro men VT/45:37

men II S. [mˈɛn] n. way, road ◇ UT/281

*meneg S. [mˈɛnɛg] adj. num. card. thousand ← Menegroth "thousand caves" S/409

menel S. [mˈɛnɛl̡] n. sky, high heaven, firmament, the region of the stars ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, LB/354, RGEO/72, VT/44:21,23-24Q menel

*menniath N. [m'ɛnni.ɑθ] n. coll. of ment, 1. many points ○ 2. Geog. by ext., range of mountains ← Mornvenniath TI/124, Lambengolmor/799*venniath N. soft mut.

ment N. [mˈɛnt] n. point ◇ Ety/373*menniath N. n. coll.

meren N. [mˈɛrɛn] adj. festive, gay, joyous ◇ Ety/372The word was changed to beren in the Etymologies, but meren would be restored together with mereth

mereth S., N. [mˈɛrɛθ] n. feast, festival ◇ Ety/372, S/434The word was changed to bereth in the Etymologies, but was never changed in the texts (cf. Mereth Aderthad and the compound Merethrond)

meril S. [mˈɛril̡] n. Bot. rose (flower) ◇ SD/129-31

merilin N. [mˈɛrilˌin] (mœrilind N.) n. Orn. nightingale ◇ Ety/394, X/ND4môr+lind, irreg. OS *morilinde

mesc N.mesg

mesg N. [mˈɛsg] (mesc N.) adj. wet ◇ Ety/373

meth N. [mˈɛθ] n. end ◇ Ety/373

methed S. [mˈɛθɛd] n. end ◇ UT/452

methen N. [mˈɛθɛn] adj. end, final ◇ Ety/373, VT/45:34

mhellyn S. soft mut. pl. of mellon

mîdh N. [mˈiːð] n. dew ◇ Ety/373

mîl N. [mˈiːl] n. love, affection ◇ Ety/372

milui N. [mˈiluj] adj. friendly, loving, kind ◇ Ety/372

mimp S. [mˈimp] adj. num. card. eleven ◇ PE/17:95Cf. minib

min I S., N.mîn

min II S.mín II

mîn S. [mˈiːn] (min S., N. [mˈin]) adj. num. card. one (first of a series) ◇ Ety/373, VT/42:24-25, VT/48:6

mín I S. [mˈiːn] pron. us ◇ VT/44:21,28

mín II S. [mˈiːn] (min S.) adj. poss. 1st pl. our ◇ VT/44:21,22,28vín S. soft mut.

mîn II S. [mˈiːn] (min- S.) prep. (in) between (referring to a gap, space, barrier or anything intervening between two other things) ← Minhiriath LotR/Map, VT/47:11,14

min- S.mîn II

minas S. [mˈinɑs] (minnas N.) n. abst. 1. tower ○ 2. by ext., fort, city with a citadel and central watch-tower ◇ Ety/373, S/434, VT/42:24

mindon N. [mˈindɔn] n. 1. Geog. isolated hill, especially a hill with a watch tower ○ 2. by ext., tower ◇ Ety/373, Ety/395

minei N. adj. single, distinct, unique ◇ Ety/373, X/EI

minib S. [mˈinib] adj. num. card. eleven ◇ VT/48:6-8

miniel S. [mˈini.ɛl̡] pl. mínil S. [mˈiːnil̡] n. Pop. an Elf, one of the Vanyar ◇ WJ/383min+-el "first elf"

mínil S. pl.miniel

minlamad S. [minlˈɑmɑd] n. Ling. 'first voiced' or 'first-echoing', alliterative (?) verse mode (minlamad thent/estent) ◇ UT/146, WJ/311, WJ/315The word is not translated by Tolkien. For a discussion of its probable meaning, refer to Tolkien's Legendarium p. 121-122

minna- S. [mˈinnɑ] v. to enter ◈ minno S. v. imp.

minnas N.minas

minno S. [mˈinnɔ] v. imp. of minna-, enter! (lit. to the inside!) ◇ LotR/II:IV

minui S. [mˈinuj] adj. num. ord. first ◇ VT/42:10, VT/42:25

minuial S. [minˈuj.ɑl] n. "morrowdim", the time near dawn, when the star fade ◇ LotR/Dmin+uial "first twilight"

mîr S., N. [mˈiːr] n. jewel, precious thing, treasure ◇ Ety/373, LotR/E, S/434, PM/348, LB/354, RGEO/73mirion N. n. augm.vîr S. soft mut.

mírdain S. pl.mírdan

*mírdan S. [mˈiːrdɑn] pl. mírdain S. [mˈiːrdɑjn] n. jewel-smith ◇ S/401mîr+tân

mirian S. [mˈiri.ɑn] n. piece of money, coin used in Gondor → canath IIPM/45canath S. n.

míriel S. [mˈiːri.ɛl̡] part. sparkling like a jewel ◇ RGEO/64, LotR/II:I

mirion N. [mˈiri.ɔn] pl. miruin N. [mˈirujn] n. augm. of mîr, Theo. great jewel, Silmaril ◇ Ety/373Cf. golovir, silevril

miruin N. pl.mirion

mist N. [mˈist] n. error, wandering ◇ Ety/373

*mista- N. [mˈistɑ] inf. misto N. [mˈistɔ] v. to stray ◇ Ety/373

misto N. inf.mista-

mistrad N. n. straying, error ◇ Ety/373, X/Z

mith I N. [mˈiθ] n. white fog, wet mist ◇ Ety/373

mith II S., N. [mˈiθ] adj. (pale) grey ◇ Ety/373, S/434, TC/187

*mithren S. [mˈiθrɛn] pl. mithrin S. [mˈiθrin] adj. grey ◇ UT/436

mithril S. [mˈiθril̡] n. true-silver, a silver-like metal ◇ LotRmith+rill "grey brilliance"

mithrin S. pl.mithren

mîw N. [mˈiːw] adj. small, tiny, frail ◇ VT/45:35

moe N. [mˈɔɛ] adj. soft ◇ Ety/371moeas N. n. abst.

moeas N. [mˈɔɛ.ɑs] n. abst. of moe, dough ◇ Ety/371

moed N.maed II

moel N. n. lust ◇ Ety/373, X/OE

moelui N. adj. lustful ◇ Ety/373, X/OE

molif S. [mˈɔliv] n. Biol. wrist ◇ VT/47:6"hand-link", maw+*lif

môr S., N. [mˈɔːr] n. darkness, dark, night ◇ Ety/373, Letters/382

morben S. [mˈɔrbɛn] pl. morbin S. [mˈɔrbin] (mœrbin S.) n. Pop. one of the Avari or Easterlings in Beleriand ◇ WJ/376-377morn+pen, altered from OS *moripende

morbin S. pl.morben

mœrbin S. pl.morben

morchaint S. pl.morchant

*morchant S. [mˈɔrxɑnt] pl. morchaint S. [mˈɔrxɑjnt] n. shadow (of objects, cast by light), dark shape ◇ S/432, VT/42:9morn+cant "dark shape"

morgul S. [mˈɔrgul] n. black arts, sorcery, necromancy ◇ Ety/377, S/432, WJ/383, MR/350, RC/482morn+gûl "dark magic"

mœrilind N.merilin

morn S., N. [mˈɔrn] pl. myrn S. [mˈyrn] adj. black, dark ◇ Ety/373, Letters/382, Letters/427, WJ/368, WR/113, UT/65

mornedhel S. [mˈɔrnɛðɛl̡] n. Pop. Dark-Elf ◇ WJ/377, WJ/380morn+edhel

*muda- N. [mˈudɑ] inf. mudo N. [mˈudɔ] pa. t. mudas N. [mˈudɑs] v. to labour, toil ◇ Ety/373

mudas N. pa. t.muda-

mudo N. inf.muda-

muil S. [mˈujl] n. drear ← Emyn Muil RC/334

muin N. [mˈujn] adj. dear ◇ Ety/374

muindor N. [mˈujndɔr] pl. muindyr N. [mˈujndyr] n. m. brother ◇ Ety/394muin+tôr

muindyr N. pl.muindor

muinthel N. [mˈujnθɛl̡] pl. muinthil N. [mˈujnθil̡] n. f. sister ◇ Ety/392muin+thêl

muinthil N. pl.muinthel

mûl N. [mˈuːl] n. slave, thrall ◇ Ety/373

mund S. [mˈund] n. Zool. bull ◇ Letters/422-423

mŷl S. [mˈyːl] n. Orn. gull ◇ WJ/379-380, WJ/418

myrn S. pl.morn


na S., N. [nɑ] prep. 1. with, by (also used as a genitive sign) ○ 2. to, towards, at ◇ Ety/374, LotR/I:XII

*na- S. [nˈɑ] v. to be ← no aer i eneth lín VT/44:21,24no S. v. imp.

nad N. [nˈɑd] n. thing ◇ Ety/374

nadhor N. [nˈɑðr̩] n. pasture ◇ Ety/374nadhras N. n. abst.

nadhras N. [nˈɑðrɑs] n. abst. of nadhor, pasture ◇ Ety/374

nae N. [nˈɑɛ] interj. alas ◇ Ety/375

naeg N. [nˈɑɛg] n. pain ◇ Ety/375

naergon S. [nˈɑɛrgɔn] n. woeful lament ◇ PM/362

naeth S., N. [nˈɑɛθ] n. 1. biting ○ 2. by ext., woe (gets sense of gnashing teeth in grief) ← Elu-naeth WJ/258, Ety/374-375

naew N. [nˈɑɛw] n. Biol. jaw ◇ Ety/374

nag- N. [nˈɑg] v. to bite ◇ Ety/374

naglath N. [nˈɑglɑθ] n. coll. of nagol, Biol. the teeth ◇ WR/122

*nagol N. [nˈɑgl̩] n. Biol. tooth ← naglath WR/122naglath N. n. coll.

nail S. [nˈɑjl] (neil S.) adj. num. ord. third ◇ VT/42:25

naith S., N. [nˈɑjθ] pl. natsai N. [nˈɑtsɑj] n. any formation or projection tapering to a point: a spearhead, triangle gore, wedge, narrow promontory ◇ Ety/387, UT/282, RC/307

*nalla- S. [nˈɑllɑ] v. to cry ← nallon LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278nallon S. v. pres. 1st

nallon S. [nˈɑllɔn] v. pres. 1st of nalla-, I cry ◇ LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278

nan S. [nˈɑn] (nand S., N., nann N.) n. 1. Geog. wide grassland, land at foot of hills with many streams ○ 2. by ext., valley ◇ Ety/374, S/435, Letters/308, VT/45:36, X/ND1

nana N. [nˈɑnɑ] n. hypo. mother, mummy ◇ Ety/348, Ety/374

nand S., N.nan

naneth N. [nˈɑnɛθ] n. mother ◇ Ety/348, Ety/374

nann N.nan

nâr N. [nˈɑːr] n. rat ◇ Ety/379

*nara- N. [nˈɑrɑ] inf. naro N. [nˈɑrɔ] pa. t. narante N. [nɑrˈɑntɛ] v. Arch., Poet. to tell ◇ Ety/374, VT/45:36

narante N. pa. t.nara-

narbeleth S. [nˈɑrbɛlɛθ] n. Cal. october (month) ◇ LotR/Dnaur+peleth "sun-waning"

narch S. [nˈɑrx] n. (bitter-) biting ← Narchost LotR, RC/601

narcha- N. [nˈɑrxɑ] v. to rend ◇ Ety/374

nardh N. [nˈɑrð] n. knot ◇ Ety/387

narn S., N. [nˈɑrn] pl. nern S. [nˈɛrn] n. a tale or a saga, that is told in verse to be spoken and not sung ◇ Ety/374, WJ/313, MR/373, S/412OS *narna, CE *nʲarnâ "told"

naro N. inf.nara-

*nartha- N. [nˈɑrθɑ] inf. nartho N. [nˈɑrθɔ] v. to kindle ◇ VT/45:37

*narthan S. [nˈɑrθɑn] n. beacon, signal fire to notify of the approach of an enemy ← Fornarthan VT/42:30

nartho N. inf.nartha-

naru N. [nˈɑru] (narw N.) adj. red ◇ Ety/374, X/W

narw N.naru

narwain S. [nˈɑrwɑjn] n. Cal. the month of January ◇ LotR/Dnaur+gwain "new sun"

nass N. [nˈɑss] n. 1. point, (sharp) end ○ 2. angle or corner ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37

nasta- N. [nˈɑstɑ] v. to prick, point, stick, thrust ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37

nath N. [nˈɑθ] n. web ◇ Ety/375

nathron N. [nˈɑθrɔn] n. weaver, webster ◇ Ety/375

natsai N. pl.naith

naud N. [nˈɑud] adj. bound ◇ Ety/378

naug S., N. [nˈɑug] pl. noeg S. [nˈɔɛg] n. and adj. 1. stunted, dwarf ○ 2. Pop. as a noun, a Dwarf ◇ Ety/375, WJ/388, UT/100, UT/148naugol N. n. dim.naugrim S. n. class pl.

naugl N.naugol

nauglin S. pl.naugol

naugol N. [nˈɑugl̩] (naugl N.) pl. nauglin S. [nˈauglin] n. dim. of naug, dwarf ◇ Ety/375

naugrim S. [nˈɑugrim] n. class pl. of naug, Pop. Dwarves ◇ WJ/388naug+rim

naur S., N. [nˈɑur] n. 1. flame ○ 2. fire ◇ Ety/374, S/435, LotR/II:IV

nauth N. [nˈɑuθ] n. thought ◇ Ety/378, VT/46:6

nautha- N. [nˈɑuθɑ] v. to conceive ◇ Ety/378

naw N. [nˈɑw] pl. nui N. n. idea ◇ Ety/378, X/Z

nawag N. [nˈɑwɑg] pl. neweg N. (neweig N.) n. Pop. Dwarf ◇ Ety/375

nawb S. [nˈɑwb] n. Biol. thumb ◇ VT/48:5nobad S. n. dual pl.

ned S. [nɛd] prep. (uncertain meaning) in, of (about time, e.g. giving a date) ◇ SD/129-31[Another possible interpretation: "another, one more" (related to Q. net(e)), VT/47:40]

neder S., N. [nˈɛdɛr] adj. num. card. nine ◇ Ety/376, VT/42:25, VT/48:6, PE/17:95

nedh- N. [nɛð] pref. in, inside, mid- ◇ Ety/376See also the preposition ned, and the noun ened for a discussion of this form

nedhw N. n. bolster, cushion ◇ Ety/378, X/W

*nedia- S. [nˈɛdi.ɑ] (nœdia- N.) v. to count ◇ Ety/378, VT/46:6

nedrui S. [nˈɛdruj] adj. num. ord. ninth ◇ VT/42:25

nef S. [nɛv] prep. on this side of ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

*negra- N. inf. negro N. v. to pain ◇ Ety/375, X/Z

negro N. inf.negra-

negyth S. pl.nogoth

neil S.nail

*neitha- S. [nˈɛjθɑ] v. to wrong, to deprive ← Neithan UT/456

neithan S. [nˈɛjθɑn] adj. deprived, wronged ◇ UT/456

nêl I N. [nˈɛːl] (neleg N.) pl. nelig S. [nˈɛlig] n. Biol. tooth ◇ Ety/376, WR/113, VT/46:3

nêl II S. [nˈɛːl] adj. num. card. three ◇ VT/42:25Cf. neled

nelchaenen S. [nɛl̡xˈɑɛnɛn] adj. num. ord. thirtieth ◇ SD/129-131

neled S., N. [nˈɛlɛd] (neledh S., N.) adj. num. card. three ◇ Ety/376, TAI150, VT/48:6

neledh S., N.neled

*neledh- N. [nɛlˈɛð] inf. neledhi N. [nɛlˈɛði] v. to enter ◇ TAI/150, HL/77Hammond and Scull apparently understand this word as a derivative of neledh "three", hence their translation neledh neledhi "three by three". However, we have shown in Hiswelókë (third issue, pp. 74-78) that this word is conceivably a verb derived from LED "to go". The prefix ne- also occurs in nestegi "to insert, stick in"OS *ne- + ledi- "to go into"

neledhi N. inf.neledh-

neleg I N.nêl I

neleg II S. [nˈɛlɛg] adj. num. ord. third ◇ VT/42:10Cf. nail, nelui

nelig S. pl.nêl I

nell N. [nˈɛl̡l] n. bell ◇ Ety/379

nella- N. [nˈɛl̡lɑ] v. to sound (of bells) ◇ Ety/379, VT/46:7

nelladel N. [nˈɛl̡lɑdɛl̡] n. ringing of bells ◇ Ety/379nellad+-el

nelthil N. [nˈɛl̡θil] n. triangle ◇ Ety/376, Ety/393nel-+till

nelui S. [nˈɛluj] adj. num. ord. third ◇ VT/42:25

nem N. [nˈɛm] (nemb N.) n. Biol. nose ◇ Ety/376

nemb N.nem

nen S., N. [nˈɛn] pl. nîn S., N. [nˈiːn] n. 1. water (used of a lake, pool or lesser river) ○ 2. Geog. by ext., waterland ◇ Ety/376, S/435, UT/457, RC/327-328

nend N. [nˈɛnd] (nenn N.) adj. watery ◇ Ety/376, X/ND1

nenn N.nend

nern S. pl.narn

nerthui S. [nˈɛrθuj] adj. num. ord. ninth ◇ VT/42:10Cf. nedrui

*nesta- N. [nˈɛstɑ] v. to heal ← nestad WR/379-380nestad N. ger.

nestad N. [nˈɛstɑd] ger. of nesta-, healing ◇ WR/379-80

*nestadren N. [nɛstˈɑdrɛn] pl. nestedrin (corr. nestedriu) N. [nɛstˈɛdrin] adj. healing ◇ WR/380nestad+-ren

*nestag- N. [nˈɛstɑg] inf. nestegi N. [nˈɛstɛgi] pa. t. nestanc N. [nˈɛstɑŋk] v. to insert, stick in ◇ Ety/388

nestanc N. pa. t.nestag-

nestedrin (corr. nestedriu) N. pl.nestadren

nestegi N. inf.nestag-

neth I N. [nˈɛθ] adj. young ◇ Ety/377

neth II S. [nˈɛθ] n. f. 1. hypo. of nîth II sister ○ 2. girl (in her teens, approaching the adult) ◇ VT/47:14-16,33, VT/48:6nethig S. n. f. dim.

nethig S. [nˈɛθig] n. f. dim. of neth II, 1. "litte sister" ○ 2. Biol. ring finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/47:14, VT/47:38-39, VT/48:6,17First given in the manuscript as netheg in VT/47:14-15, but see especially VT/48:17 n. 13 for discussion

neweg N. pl.nawag

neweig N. pl.nawag

ngaurhoth S. nasal mut. of gaurhoth

nguruthos S. nasal mut. of guruthos

niben S. [nˈibɛn] pl. nibin S. [nˈibin] adj. 1. small, petty ○ 2. Biol. as a noun, little finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ S/435, WJ/388, WJ/408, VT/48:6

nibin S. pl.niben

nîd N. [nˈiːd] adj. damp, wet, tearful ◇ Ety/376

nîdh N. [nˈiːð] n. honeycomb ◇ VT/45:38

nîf N. [nˈiːv] n. front, face ◇ Ety/378

nifred N.niphred

nifredil N.niphredil

niged S. [nˈigɛd] n. Biol. little finger ◇ VT/48:5Cf. lebig

nim- N.nimp I

nimmid N. pa. t. nimmint N. [nˈimmint] v. to whiten ◇ Ety/378, X/Z

nimmint N. pa. t.nimmid

nimp I N. [nˈimp] (nim- N.) adj. pale, white ◇ Ety/378

nimp II S. [nˈimp] adj. small and frail ◇ VT/48:18Cf. niben

nîn S., N. pl.nen

nin S. [nin] pron. me ◇ LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72

nín S. [nˈiːn] adj. poss. 1st my ◇ UT/40, VT/44:22The acute accent in nín has sometimes been regarded as an error for a slanted macron in the manuscript, since all the other attested personal adjectives from Sauron defeated all have a circumflex accent. It was however noted that if the acute accent is confirmed, then this word is probably an enclitic, see HL/73. The acute accent is now confirmed by VT/44

nîn II N. [nˈiːn] n. tear ◇ Ety/376

nîn III S. [nˈiːn] adj. wet, watery ← Nindalf TC/195, S/435

ninglor S. [nˈiŋglɔr] n. Bot. golden water-flower, gladden ◇ UT/280-81, UT/450nîn+glaur "water gold"*ningloron S. der. pl.

*ningloron S. [nˈiŋglɔrɔn] der. pl. of ninglorLoeg Ningloron UT/281, UT/450

níniel (corr. niniel) N. [nˈiːni.ɛl̡] adj. tearful ◇ Ety/376

nínim N. [nˈiːnim] n. Bot. snowdrop (flower) ◇ Ety/367nîn+nimp "white tear"

ninn N. adj. slender ◇ Ety/378, X/ND1

ninniach S. [nˈinni.ɑx] n. rainbow ◇ S/387Probably nîn, *ninn- + iach "water-ford"

nínui S. [nˈiːnuj] n. and adj. 1. watery ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of february ◇ LotR/D

niphred S. [nˈifrɛd] (nifred N.) n. pallor, fear ◇ Ety/378, S/435, X/PH

niphredil S. [nˈifrɛdil̡] (nifredil N.) n. Bot. a pale winter flower, snowdrop ◇ Ety/376, Ety/378, LotR/II:VI, Letters/402, X/PHniphred+-il "little pallor"

nîr N. [nˈiːr] n. tear, weeping ◇ Ety/376

nírnaeth N. [nˈiːrnɑɛθ] n. (tearful) lamentation ◇ Ety/376nîr+naeth "tear-gnashing"

nîth I N. [nˈiːθ] n. youth ◇ Ety/377

nîth II S. [nˈiːθ] n. f. sister ◇ VT/47:14neth S. n. f.

no I

no II S. [nˈɔ] v. imp. of na-, be! ◇ VT/44:21,24

nobad S. [nˈɔbɑd] n. dual pl. of nawb, Biol. the pair of fingers composed of the thumb and the index (grouped together as in the act of picking something) ◇ VT/48:5,16Cf. nawb, lebdas

nœdia- N.nedia-

noeg S. pl.naug

noen N. [nˈɔɛn] adj. wise, sensible ◇ VT/46:9

noer N. adj. sad, lamentable ◇ Ety/375, X/OE

nogoth S. [nˈɔgɔθ] pl. negyth S. [nˈɛgyθ] (nœgyth S.) n. Pop. Dwarf, lit. "the Stunted Folk" ◇ S/435, WJ/338, WJ/388, WJ/408, WJ/413nogotheg S. n. dim.nogothrim S. n. class pl.

nogotheg S. [nˈɔgɔθɛg] n. dim. of nogoth, Pop. lit. "dwarflet", a name of the Petty-Dwarves ◇ WJ/388

nogothrim S. [nɔgˈɔθrim] n. class pl. of nogoth, Pop. Dwarf-folk ◇ RGEO/75, UT/318, WJ/388nogoth+rim

nœgyth S. pl.nogoth

*nor- S. [nˈɔr] v. 1. to run ○ 2. by ext., to ride ◈ noro S. v. imp.

nordh N. [nˈɔrð] n. cord ◇ Ety/387

norn N. [nˈɔrn] pl. nyrn S. [nˈyrn] adj. 1. twisted, knotted, crabbed, contorted ○ 2. hard ◇ Ety/387nornwaith S. n. class pl.

nornwaith S. [nˈɔrn.wɑjθ] n. class pl. of norn, Pop. the Dwarves ◇ MR/93, MR/106norn+gwaith

noro S. [nˈɔrɔ] v. imp. of nor-, run! ride! ← noro lim LotR/I:XII, RS/196, RC/195Untranslated in LotR, but written nora-lim and rendered as "ride on" in RS/196 (not a literal translation) and later translated as "run swift" in RC/195. A verb nor- is attested in the old Gnomish lexicon, PE/11:61, with the meaning "to run, roll"

nórui S. [nˈɔːruj] n. and adj. 1. sunny, fiery ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of june ◇ LotR/D

nos N.noss

noss S., N. [nˈɔss] (nos N.) n. kindred, family, clan ◇ Ety/378, PM/320

nost S. [nˈɔst] n. kindred, family, house ◇ PM/360Cf. nossnothrim S. n. class pl.

nothlir N. [nˈɔθlir] n. family line (esp. as family tree, genealogical tree) ◇ WR/234, WR/237, WR/309nost, *noth + lîr "family line"

nothrim S. [nˈɔθrim] n. class pl. of nost, kindred, family, house ← Nothrim [> Nost] Finarfin PM/360The word was rejected in favor of nost, but it may be interpreted as a valid class plural "those of the house"noss/nost + rim

nu S., N. [nu] (no N.) prep. under ◇ Ety/378, etc.With suffixed article, see also nuin

nud- N. v. to tie, bind ◇ Ety/378, X/Z

nui N. pl.naw

nuin S., N. [nujn] prep. under the ◇ Ety/378,

nuitha- S. [nˈujθɑ] v. to stunt, to prevent from coming to completion, stop short, not allow to continue ◇ WJ/413

nûr I N. [nˈuːr] adj. deep ◇ Ety/378

nûr II N. [nˈuːr] n. race ◇ Ety/378

*nûr III S. [nˈuːr] adj. sad ← Núrnen UT/458, RC/457For an earlier discussion, see Klockzo, 4th volume, p. 160 §147: The meaning of Núrnen long remained highly hypothetical. The current definition is based on Christopher Tolkien's index to UT and on the unfinished index of names published in RC. The Gnomish Lexicon listed nur- (nauri) "growl, grumble", nurn "plaint, lament, a complaint" and nurna- "bewail, lament, complain of" (PE/11:61). Likewise, the Qenyaqetsa included a root NURU- with several derivatives with similar meanings (PE/12:68). See also Q. nurrula "mumbling" (from nurru- "murmur, grumble") in the final version of the poem The Last Ark (MC/222-23). Patrick Wynne therefore noted: S. *nûr in Núrnen "Sad Water" is apparently "sad" in the sense "bewailing, lamenting, complaining, grumbling", no doubt a reference to the general mood of the hapless laborers in "the great slave-worked fields" beside the lake. (See Lambengolmor/856-860)

nyrn S. pl.norn


o I S., N. [ɔ] (od S.) prep. from, of (preposition (as a proclitic) used in either direction, from or to the point of view of the speaker) ◇ Ety/360, WJ/366, WJ/369-70, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-31, RGEO/72According to WJ/366, the preposition "is normally o in all positions, though od appears occasionally before vowels, especially before o-". With a suffixed article, see also uin

o II N. [ɔ] prep. about, concerning ◇ Ety/378The Etymologies state that h- is prefixed to the word following this preposition, when it begins with a vowel: o Hedhil "concerning the Elves". Some scholars consider that this rule is not valid in Sindarin, but that the preposition would perhaps become oh in such a case (hence oh Edhil, to be compared with ah in Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth)

ochui S. [ˈɔxuj] adj. num. ord. seventh ◇ VT/47:42

od S.o I

ódhel S. [ˈɔːðɛl̡] pl. ódhil S. [ˈɔːðil̡] n. Pop. Deep Elf or Gnome, one of the Wise Folk ◇ WJ/364, WJ/366, WJ/378-379ódhellim S. n. class pl.

ódhellim S. [ɔːðˈɛl̡lim] n. class pl. of ódhel, Pop. Deep Elves or Gnomes, the Wise Folk ◇ WJ/364ódhel+rim

ódhil S. pl.ódhel

odhril N. [ˈɔðril̡] n. f. parent ◇ Ety/379

odhron N. [ˈɔðrɔn] n. m. parent ◇ Ety/379

odo S.odog

odog S., N. [ˈɔdɔg] (odo S.) adj. num. card. seven ◇ Ety/379, VT/42:25, VT/47:42, VT/48:6, PE/17:95

odothui S. [ˈɔdɔθuj] adj. num. ord. seventh ◇ TI/312, WR/436, VT/42:25Cf. othui

oear N.gaear

oegas N. pl. oeges N. n. abst. of aeg, Geog. mountain peak ◇ Ety/349, X/OE

oeges N. pl.oegas

oeglir N.aeglir

oel N. pl. aelin S. [ˈɑɛlin] (oelin N.) n. Geog. lake, pool, mere ◇ Ety/349, S/427, X/OE

oelin N. pl.oel

oer N.gaer II

oeruil N. n. Bot. seaweed ← gaer PM/363, Ety/396gaer+uil

ofr N.ovor

ogol S. [ˈɔgl̩] adj. wicked, evil ◇ VT/48:32

ôl N. [ˈɔːl] pl. elei N. n. dream ◇ Ety/370, Ety/379

old N.oll

oll N. [ˈɔld] (old N.) n. Geog. torrent, mountain-stream ◇ Ety/396

oltha- N. [ˈɔlθɑ] v. to dream ◇ Ety/370, Ety/379

ónen S. [ˈɔːnɛn] irreg. pa. t. 1st of anna-, I gave ◇ LotR/A(v)Written onen in some editions of LotR. In the Qenyaqetsa, Qenya anta- is marked as having an irregular past tense áne. Assuming the same sound-shifts as observed in other words, this would indeed lead to onen in Sindarin, see PE/12:31 and TT/14:48-49

*oneth S. [ˈɔnɛθ] n. f. giver ← besoneth PM/404-05

*onna- S. [ˈɔnnɑ] v. to beget ← Abonnen, Eboennin WJ/387*onnen S. pp.

*onnen S. [ˈɔnnɛn] pl. *ennin S. [ˈɛnnin] pp. of onna-, born ← Abonnen, Eboennin WJ/387

onod S. [ˈɔnɔd] pl. enyd S. [ˈɛnyd] n. Pop. Ent ◇ LotR/F, Letters/224onodrim S. n. class pl.

onodrim S. [ɔnˈɔdrim] n. class pl. of onod, Pop. the Ents, as a race ◇ Letters/224, TC/165onod+rim

or N. [ɔr] prep. above, over ◇ Ety/379

or- N. [ɔr] pref. above, over ◇ Ety/379

oraearon S. [ɔrˈɑɛ.ɑrɔn] n. Cal. seventh day of the Númenórean week, Sea-day ◇ LotR/Daur+aearon

oranor S. [ˈɔrɑnɔr] n. Cal. second day of the week, day of the Sun ◇ LotR/Daur+anor

orbelain S. [ˈɔrbɛlɑjn] n. Cal. sixth day of the week, day of the Powers or Valar ◇ LotR/Daur+belain

orch S., N. [ˈɔrx] pl. yrch S., N. [ˈyrx] (eirch N., erch N.) n. Pop. Goblin, Orc ◇ Ety/379, LR/406, WJ/390, LotR/II:VI, LotR/F, Letters/178*erchion N. der. pl.orchoth S. n. class pl.

orchal S., N. [ˈɔrxl̩] (orchall N., orchel N.) adj. 1. superior, lofty, eminent ○ 2. tall ◇ Ety/363, Ety/379, WJ/305In his article Probable errors in the Etymologies, Helge Fauskanger lists orchel as a misreading, following Christopher Tolkien's note admitting that the e is uncertain. However, though orchal is attested in WJ/305, it does not necessarily mean that the form orchel is incorrect. It might be constructed by analogy with words such as hathol "axe" (from WJ/234 and the name of a Númenórean, Hatholdir, UT:444), which is also found as hathal (in Hathaldir, name of a companion of Barahir, LR/433, untranslated but conceivably cognate) and hathel (LR/389). Without entering into the details, such words end with a syllabic consonant (as in English "people"), and several vocalizations are apparently possible in Sindarin. The epenthetical vowel is generally o, but it seems that a or e are also allowed. Regarding orchal, its origin is of course different, as it is a compound word where the second element clearly derives from KHAL, but it may have been assimilated, later, to this class of words by analogy. We may therefore consider that orchel is a perfectly valid dialectal variantor+hall, OS *orkʰalla

orchall N.orchal

orchel N.orchal

orchoth S. [ˈɔrxɔθ] n. class pl. of orch, Pop. the Orcs (as a race) ◇ WJ/390orch+hoth

orgaladh S. [ˈɔrgɑlɑð] n. Cal. fourth day of the Númenórean week, day of the White Tree ◇ LotR/DThis day was formerly called orgaladhad in the Elvish calendaraur+galadh

orgaladhad S. [ɔrgˈɑlɑðɑd] n. Cal. fourth day of the Elvish week, day of the Two Trees ◇ LotR/DThis day was renamed orgaladh in the Númenórean calendaraur+galadh, with quenya influenced dual ending

orgilion S. [ɔrgˈili.ɔn] n. Cal. first day of the week, day of the Stars ◇ LotR/Daur+gil, with archaic genitive

orithil S. [ˈɔriθil̡] n. Cal. third day of the week, day of the Moon ◇ LotR/Daur+ithil

ormenel S. [ˈɔrmɛnɛl̡] n. Cal. fifth day of the week, Heavens' day ◇ LotR/Daur+menel

orn S., N. [ˈɔrn] pl. yrn N. [ˈyrn] n. Bot. (any large) tree ◇ Ety/379, S/435, Letters/426

orod S., N. [ˈɔrɔd] pl. ered S., N. [ˈɛrɛd] (eryd S., N., ereid N.) n. Geog. mountain ◇ Ety/379, S/435, Letters/263, TC/178, RC/621orodrim N. n. class pl.

orodben S. [ɔrˈɔdbɛn] pl. œrydbin S. [ɛrˈydbin] n. mountaineer, one living in the mountains ◇ WJ/376orod+pen

orodrim N. [ɔrˈɔdrim] n. class pl. of orod, Geog. range of mountains ◇ Ety/379orod+rim

oronte N. Arch. pa. t.eria-

*ortha- N. [ˈɔrθɑ] inf. ortho N. [ˈɔrθɔ] pa. t. orthant N. [ˈɔrθɑnt] v. to raise ◇ Ety/379Cf. eria-orthad S. ger.

orthad S. [ˈɔrθɑd] ger. of ortha-, rising ◇ MR/373

orthant N. pa. t.ortha-

*orthel- N. [ˈɔrθɛl] inf. ortheli N. [ˈɔrθɛli] v. to roof, screen above ◇ Ety/391

ortheli N. inf.orthel-

orthelian N. [ɔrθˈɛli.ɑn] n. canopy ◇ Ety/391

ortheri N. inf.orthor-

ortho N. inf.ortha-

orthor N. [ˈɔrθɔr] v. pres. 3rd of orthor-, (he) masters, conquers ◇ Ety/395

*orthor- N. [ˈɔrθɔr] inf. ortheri N. [ˈɔrθɛri] v. to master, conquer ◇ Ety/395orthor N. v. pres. 3rd

œrydbin S. pl.orodben

os- N. [ɔs] pref. about, around ◇ Ety/379

osgar N. [ˈɔsgɑr] v. pres. 3rd of osgar-, (he) cuts, amputates ◇ Ety/379

*osgar- N. [ˈɔsgɑr] inf. esgeri N. [ˈɛsgɛri] v. to cut round, to amputate ◇ Ety/379osgar N. v. pres. 3rd

osp N. [ˈɔsp] n. reek, smoke ◇ Ety/396

ost S., N. [ˈɔst] n. 1. city, town with wall round ○ 2. citadel, fortress or stronghold, made or strenghtened by art ◇ Ety/379, S/435, WJ/414, RC/232

ostrad N. n. street ◇ Ety/383, X/Zost+râd

othlon N.othlond

othlond N. (othlon N.) n. paved way ◇ Ety/370, X/ND4ost+lond

othrond S., N. n. fortress or city in underground caves, underground stronghold ◇ Ety/379, Ety/384, WJ/414, X/ND4ost+rond

othui S. [ˈɔθuj] adj. num. ord. seventh ◇ VT/42:10,25

ovor N. [ˈɔvr̩] (ovr N., ofr N.) adj. abundant ◇ Ety/396ovras N. n. abst.

ovr N.ovor

*ovra- N. [ˈɔvrɑ] inf. ovro N. [ˈɔvrɔ] v. to abound ◇ Ety/396

ovras N. [ˈɔvrɑs] n. abst. of ovor, crowd, heap. ◇ Ety/396

ovro N. inf.ovra-


*pâd S. [pˈɑːd] n. way ← Aphadon (*ap-pata), Tharbad (*thara-pata) WJ/387, S/438

*pada- S. [pˈɑdɑ] v. to walk ← Aphadon (*ap-pata), Tharbad (*thara-pata) WJ/387, S/438

pae S. [pˈɑɛ] adj. num. card. ten ◇ VT/42:25, VT/48:6Cf. cae, caer

paenui S. [pˈɑɛnuj] adj. num. ord. tenth ◇ VT/42:25

*pain S. pl.pân II

palan- S. [pˈɑlɑn] adv. afar, abroad, far and wide ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74Q palan

palath N. [pˈɑlɑθ] n. surface ◇ Ety/380

pân I N. [pˈɑːn] pl. pein N. n. plank, fixed board (especially in floor) ◇ Ety/380, X/EIpanas N. n. abst.

*pân II S. [pˈɑːn] pl. *pain S. [pˈɑjn] adj. all, in totality ← mhellyn în phain SD/129-31As no other word beginning in ph- is attested, it is assumed that a nasal mutation is triggered by the pronoun în I, hence the form observed in the "King's Letter"phain S. nasal mut. pl.

panas N. [pˈɑnɑs] n. abst. of pân I, floor ◇ Ety/380

pann I N. n. courtyard ◇ Ety/380, X/ND1

pann II N. [pˈɑnn] adj. wide ◇ Ety/380

*panna- N. [pˈɑnnɑ] inf. panno N. [pˈɑnnɔ] v. to open, to enlarge ◇ Ety/380

panno N. inf.panna-

pannod N. v. to fill ◇ Ety/366, X/Z

pant S., N. [pˈɑnt] adj. full ◇ Ety/366, SD/129-31

paran S. [pˈɑrɑn] adj. smooth, shaven (often applied to hills without trees) ← Dol Baran RC/433baran S. soft mut.

parch N. [pˈɑrx] adj. dry ◇ Ety/380, VT/45:5Cf. afarch

parf N. [pˈɑrv] pl. perf N. [pˈɛrv] n. book ◇ Ety/380

parth S. [pˈɑrθ] n. Geog. field, enclosed grassland, sward ◇ UT/260, PM/330, RC/349

path N. [pˈɑθ] adj. smooth ◇ Ety/380

*pathra- N. [pˈɑθrɑ] inf. pathro N. [pˈɑθrɔ] v. to fill ◇ Ety/366

pathred N. [pˈɑθrɛd] n. fullness ◇ Ety/366

pathro N. inf.pathra-

pathw N. n. level space, sward ◇ Ety/380, X/W

paur S., N. [pˈɑur] n. Biol. fist (often used to mean "hand", its chief use was in reference of the tighly closed hand, as in using an implement or a craft-tool, rather than to the fist used in punching) ◇ Ety/366, S/429, PM/179, PM/318, VT/47:8

paw N. [pˈɑw] n. sickness ◇ Ety/366

*pêd S. [pˈɛːd] v. pres. 3rd of ped-, (he) says ← guren bêd enni VT/41:11bêd S. soft mut.

*ped- S. [pˈɛd] pa. t. *pent S. [pˈɛnt] v. to speak, to say ← pedo, arphent LotR/II:IV, TL/21:09*pêd S. v. pres. 3rdpedo S. v. imp.

pedo S. [pˈɛdɔ] v. imp. of ped-, speak! say! ◇ LotR/II:IV, Letters/424

peg N. [pˈɛg] n. small spot, dot ◇ Ety/382

peich N. n. juice, syrup ◇ Ety/382, X/EI

pein N. pl.pân I

pel N. [pˈɛl̡] pl. peli N. [pˈɛli] n. fenced field (= Old English tún) ◇ Ety/380

*peleth S. [pˈɛlɛθ] n. fading, withering ← Narbeleth LotR/D

peli N. pl.pel

*pelia- N. [pˈɛli.ɑ] inf. pelio N. [pˈɛli.ɔ] v. to spread ◇ Ety/380

*pelin N. [pˈɛlin] n. fading, withering ← Lhasbelin Ety/366

pelio N. inf.pelia-

pelthaes N. [pˈɛl̡θɑɛs] n. pivot ◇ Ety/380, Ety/390

*pen I S. [pɛn] prep. without, lacking, -less ← Iarwain ben-adar LotR/II:IIben S. soft mut.

pen II S. [pɛn] pron. one, somebody, anybody ◇ WJ/376Usually enclitic and mutated as ben IIben S. soft mut.

pend N. [pˈɛnd] (penn S., N.) pl. *pind N. [pˈind] (pinn N.) n. declivity, slope ◇ Ety/380, RC/525, X/ND1penneth S. n. coll.pinnath S. n. coll.

pendrad N.pendrath

pendrath N. [pˈɛndrɑθ] (pendrad N.) n. passage up or down slope, stairway ◇ Ety/380, X/ND3pend+rath, pend+râd

peng N. [pˈɛŋ] n. Mil. bow (for shooting) ◇ Ety/366

*penia- N. [pˈɛni.ɑ] inf. penio N. [pˈɛni.ɔ] v. to fix, to set ◇ Ety/380

penio N. inf.penia-

penn S., N.pend

penna- S. [pˈɛnnɑ] v. to slant down ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

pennas N. [pˈɛnnɑs] n. abst. of pent II, history, historical account ◇ Ety/366, WJ/192, WJ/206

penneth S. [pˈɛnnɛθ] n. coll. of pend, ridges, group of downs ◇ RC/525Cf. pinnath

penninar N. n. Cal. last day of the year ◇ Ety/400, X/Zpant+în+aur

*pent I S. pa. t.ped-

pent II N. [pˈɛnt] n. tale ◇ Ety/366pennas N. n. abst.

per- N. [pɛr] pref. half, divided in middle

*peredhel S. [pˈɛrɛðɛl̡] pl. peredhil S. [pˈɛrɛðil̡] n. half-elf ◇ S/430, LotR/A(i)per-+edhel

peredhil S. pl.peredhel

perf N. pl.parf

periain S. pl.perian

perian S. [pˈɛri.ɑn] pl. periain S. [pˈɛri.ɑjn] n. Pop. Hobbit, Halfling ◇ LotR/VI:IV, LotR/E, RGEO/75, Letters/308, X/ND4per+-ianperiannath S. n. coll.pheriain S. nasal mut. pl.

periannath S. [pˌɛri.ˈɑnnɑθ] n. coll. of perian, Pop. the Hobbits, Halflings ◇ LotR/VI:IV, LotR/E-F, RGEO/75, Letters/308pheriannath S. nasal mut. coll.

perin N. [pˈɛrin] adj. half, divided in middle ◇ Ety/380

pesseg N. [pˈɛssɛg] n. pillow ◇ Ety/366

peth S., N. [pˈɛθ] n. word ◇ Ety/366, LotR/II:IV, RS/463beth S. soft mut.

pethron N. [pˈɛθrɔn] n. narrator ◇ Ety/366

phain S. nasal mut. pl. of pân II

pheriain S. nasal mut. pl. of perian

pheriannath S. nasal mut. coll. of periannath

pichen N. adj. juicy ◇ Ety/382, X/Z

pigen N. [pˈigɛn] adj. tiny ◇ Ety/382

pîn S. [pˈiːn] adj. little ← Cûl Bîn RC/536Similar words occur in Gnomish (pinig "tiny, little", PE/11:64) and in Qenya (pinea "small" etc., PE/12:73)bîn S. soft mut.

*pind N. pl.pend

pinn N. pl.pend

pinnath S. [pˈinnɑθ] n. coll. of pend, ridges, group of downs ◇ LotR/Index, RC/525Formed from the plural pinnCf. penneth

plad S. [plˈɑd] n. Biol. palm, flat of the hand, hand held upwards or forwards, flat and tensed (with fingers and thumb closed or spread) ◇ VT/47:9

plada- S. [plˈɑdɑ] v. to feel with the hand, to pass the sensitive palm over a surface ◇ VT/47:9

pôd N. [pˈɔːd] pl. pŷd N. [pˈyːd] n. Biol. animal's foot ◇ Ety/382

post N. [pˈɔst] n. pause, halt, rest, cessation, respite ◇ Ety/382

*presta- N. [prˈɛstɑ] inf. presto N. [prˈɛstɔ] v. to affect, trouble, disturb ◇ Ety/380prestannen N. pp.

prestannen N. [prɛstˈɑnnɛn] pp. of presta-, 1. affected ○ 2. Ling. mutated (of a mutated vowel) ◇ Ety/380

prestanneth N. [prɛstˈɑnnɛθ] n. Ling. affection of vowels, mutation ◇ Ety/380

presto N. inf.presta-

*puia- N. [pˈuj.ɑ] inf. puio N. [pˈuj.ɔ] v. to spit ◇ Ety/382

puig N. [pˈujg] adj. clean, tidy, neat ◇ Ety/382

puio N. inf.puia-

pŷd N. pl.pôd


*rach I S. [rˈɑx] pl. *raich S. [rˈɑjx] n. wain ← Gondraich UT/465Since this word is attested in a compound only, its unmutated form is uncertain. It could also be *grach or *rhach

rach II S. mut. of rhache-'Rach MR/373

râd N. [rˈɑːd] n. path, track ◇ Ety/383

*rada- N. [rˈɑdɑ] inf. rado N. [rˈɑdɔ] v. to make a way, find a way ◇ Ety/383

rado N. inf.rada-

raeda- S. [rˈɑɛdɑ] v. to catch in a net ◇ VT/42:12

raef S. [rˈɑɛv] (raew S. [rˈɑɛw]) n. net ◇ VT/42:12

raen S. [rˈɑɛn] adj. nettled, enlaced ◇ VT/42:11

raew S.raef

*raich S. pl.rach I

rain S. [rˈɑjn] (rein S.) n. erratic wandering ◇ VT/42:13

rais S. pl.ras

ram S. [rˈɑm] (rham N., rhamb N.) n. wall ◇ Ety/382, S/436, X/RHrammas S. n. abst.

rammas S. [rˈɑmmɑs] n. abst. of ram, (great) wall ◇ LotR/V:I, LotR/Index

randír S. [rˈɑndiːr] (rhandir N.) n. m. wanderer, pilgrim ◇ Ety/383, VT/42:13, X/RH

rant S., N. [rˈɑnt] n. 1. lode, vein ○ 2. Geog. course, riverbed ◇ Ety/383, S/436

*raph S. [rˈɑf] n. rope ← Udalraph UT/424

ras S. [rˈɑs] (rhas N.) pl. rais S. [rˈɑjs] n. horn (especially on living animal, but also applied to mountains) ◇ Ety/383, VT/46:10, LotR/E, S/436, X/RHThe form rhaes in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/46:10

rath S., N. [rˈɑθ] n. 1. course, riverbed ○ 2. street (in a city) ◇ Ety/383, LotR/Index, RC/523,551

raug S. [rˈɑug] (graug S., rhaug N.) n. a powerful, hostile and terrible creature, a demon ◇ Ety/384, S/436, WJ/415, X/RH

rein S.rain

rem S. [rˈɛm] n. mesh, net (esp. for catching, hunter's or fisher's net) ◇ LotR/E, VT/42:29

*remmen S. [rˈɛmmɛn] pl. remmin S. [rˈɛmmin] pp. woven, netted, tangled ← galadhremmin LotR/E, LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

remmin S. pl.remmen

*rhach S. [ɹ̥ˈɑx] n. curse ← e-'Rach MR/373rach S. mut.

rhaen N. adj. crooked ◇ Ety/382, X/RH

rhaew N. n. fathom ◇ Ety/382, X/RH

rhafn N. n. wing (horn), extended point at side, etc. ◇ Ety/382, X/RH

rhain N. (rhein N.) n. border ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

rham N.ram

rhamb N.ram

rhanc N. pl. rhenc N. (Arch. rhengy N.) n. arm ◇ Ety/382, X/RH

rhandir N.randír

rhas N.ras

rhasg N. n. horn (especially on living animal, but also applied to mountains) ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

rhass N. [ɹ̥ˈɑss] n. precipice ◇ Ety/363

rhaud N. n. metal ◇ Ety/383, X/RHGeneralized from OS *rauta "copper"

rhaudh N. adj. hollow, cavernous ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

rhaug N.raug

rhaun N. adj. errant ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

*rhavan S. [ɹ̥ˈɑvɑn] pl. rhevain S. [ɹ̥ˈɛvɑjn] n. wild man ◇ WJ/219

rhaw I N. n. Geog. bank (especially of a river) ◇ Ety/382, X/RH

rhaw II N. pl. rhui N. n. Zool. lion ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

rhaw III N. [ɹ̥ˈɑw] adj. wild, untamed ◇ Ety/382, X/RH, VT/46:10Meaning rectified according to VT/46:10

rhaw IV S. [ɹ̥ˈɑw] n. flesh, body ◇ MR/350, VT/47:12

*rhedh- N. inf. rhedhi N. v. to sow ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

rhedhi N. inf.rhedh-

rhein I N.rhain

rhein II N. (rhœin N.) n. slot, spoor, track, footprint ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

rhem N. (rhemb N.) adj. frequent, numerous ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

rhemb N.rhem

rhenc N. pl.rhanc

rhengy N. Arch. pl.rhanc

*rhenia- N. inf. rhenio N. v. to stray ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

rhenio N. inf.rhenia-

rhenn N. adj. circular ◇ Ety/383, VT/46:11, X/RH, X/ND1

rhess N.rhis

rhest N. n. cut ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

rhevain S. pl.rhavan

*rhevia- N. inf. rhevio (corr. rhenio) N. v. 1. to fly, sail ○ 2. to wander ◇ Ety/382, X/RH

rhevio (corr. rhenio) N. inf.rhevia-

rhî N.

rhib- N. v. to flow like a (torrent ?) ◇ Ety/384, X/RHThe reading of the gloss is uncertain

rhien N.rhîn

rhîf N. n. edge, hem, border ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

rhim I N.rim

rhim II N. (rhimb N.) n. Geog. cold pool or lake (in mountains) ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

rhimb I N.rim

rhimb II N.rhim II

rhîn N. (rhien N.) n. and adj. 1. crowned ○ 2. as a noun, by ext., crowned lady, queen ◇ Ety/393, Ety/389, X/RH

rhinc N. n. twitch, jerk, trick, sudden move ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

rhind N. (rhinn N.) n. circle ◇ Ety/383, X/RH, X/ND1

rhing N.ring

rhingorn N. n. circle ◇ Ety/365, X/RHrind+corn

rhinn N.rhind

rhîs N. n. f. queen ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

rhis N. (rhess N.) n. ravine ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

*rhista- N. inf. rhisto N. v. 1. to cut ○ 2. to rend, rip ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

rhisto N. inf.rhista-

*rhitha- N. inf. rhitho N. v. to jerk, twitch, snatch ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

rhitho N. inf.rhitha-

rhîw S. [ɹ̥ˈiːw] n. Cal. winter season ◇ LotR/D

rhoeg N. adj. crooked, bent, wrong ◇ Ety/383, X/OE, X/RH

rhofal N.roval

rhofan N.rhovan

rhofel N.roval

rhœin N.rhein II

rhom N.rom

rhomru N. n. sound of horns ◇ Ety/384, X/RHrom+rû

rhond N.rond

rhonn N.rond

rhosc N. adj. brown ◇ Ety/385, X/Z

rhoss N. n. rain ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

*rhovan S. [ɹ̥ˈɔvɑn] (rhofan N.) n. wilderness ← Rhovanion LotR/Map, VT/46:10rhovanion S. der. pl.

rhovanion S. [ɹ̥ɔvˈɑni.ɔn] der. pl. of rhovanRhovanion LotR/Map

rhû N. n. Arch., Poet. loud-sound, trumpet-sound ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

rhufen N. n. Arch., Poet. east ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

rhui I N. pl.rhaw II

rhui II N. (rhuiw N.) n. hunt, hunting ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

rhuiw N.rhui II

rhûn S., N. [ɹ̥ˈuːn] n. east ◇ Ety/384, S/436, LotR/E

rhúnen S. [ɹ̥ˈuːnɛn] adj. eastern ← Talath Rhúnen S/420

rhŷn N. n. Zool. "chaser", hound of chase ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

S. [rˈiː] (rhî N.) n. crown, wreath, garland ◇ Ety/383, PM/347, X/RH

rîdh N. [rˈiːð] n. sown field, acre ◇ Ety/383, VT/46:11

*rîf S. [rˈiːv] n. bark ← Fladrif LotR/E, TC/169, TC/173

rim S. [rˈim] (rhim N., rhimb N.) n. crowd, host, great number ◇ Ety/383, S/436, Letters/178, Letters/382, X/RH

rîn S. [rˈiːn] n. remembrance ◇ PM/372

ring S. [rˈiŋ] (rhing N.) adj. cold ◇ Ety/383, S/436, VT/42:13, X/RH

roch S., N. [rˈɔx] n. Zool. horse, swift horse for riding ◇ Ety/384, S/436, Letters/178, Letters/282, Letters/382

rochben S. [rˈɔxbɛn] pl. rochbin S. [rˈɔxbin] (rœchbin S.) n. (horse) rider ◇ WJ/376roch+pen

rochbin S. pl.rochben

rœchbin S. pl.rochben

rochir S. [rˈɔxir] n. horse-lord ◇ Letters/178, Letters/282roch+hîrrochirrim S. n. class pl.

rochirrim S. [rɔxˈirrim] n. class pl. of rochir, horse-lords, the people of Rohan ◇ LotR, etc.rochir+rim

rochon S. [rˈɔxɔn] n. (horse) rider ◇ UT/463

*rodon S. [rˈɔdɔn] pl. rodyn S. [rˈɔdyn] n. Theo. Vala, divinity ◇ LotR/DOS *(a)råto(ndo) "noble one", CE *arâtô

rodwen S. [rˈɔdwɛn] n. high virgin noble ◇ WJ/317

rodyn S. pl.rodon

rom S. [rˈɔm] (rhom N.) n. horn, trumpet ◇ Ety/384, WJ/400, X/RH

rond S. [rˈɔnd] (rhond N., rhonn N.) n. 1. cave roof ○ 2. vaulted or arched roof, as seen from below (and usually not visible from outside), or a (large) hall of chamber so roofed ◇ Ety/384, VT/46:12, S/437, WJ/414, X/RH, X/ND1

ross S. [rˈɔss] adj. red-haired, copper coloured (especially used of animals, as fox, red deer, etc.) ◇ VT/41:10

*rosta- N. [rˈɔstɑ] inf. rosto N. [rˈɔstɔ] v. to hollow out, excavate ◇ Ety/384

rosto N. inf.rosta-

*roval S. [rˈɔvɑl] (rhofal N.) rhofel N. n. Biol. pinion, great wing (of eagle) ← Landroval LotR/VI:IV, Ety/382, X/RH

rûdh S. [rˈuːð] adj. bald ◇ S/379, WJ/187

ruin S. [rˈujn] adj. (fiery) red ◇ PM/366

rusc S. [rˈusk] n. Zool. fox ◇ VT/41:10

rust S. [rˈust] n. copper ◇ VT/41:10

rustui S. [rˈustuj] adj. of copper ◇ VT/41:10

rûth S. [rˈuːθ] n. anger ◇ S/436


*sabar S. [sˈɑbɑr] n. delved mine ← Nornhabar, Anghabar WJ/209, WJ/419, S/380The unmutated form is reconstructed from the place name Nornhabar, assuming that the second word is mutated in composition. Though habar as the regular form might be possible as well, in the Qenyaqetsa we find the root SAPA "dig, excavate" (PE/12:82), so it seems most likely that Tolkien re-used this old base, and that the underlying form in those names would indeed be sabarhabar S. soft mut.

sad S. [sˈɑd] n. limited area naturally or artificially defined, a place, spot ◇ UT/425, VT/42:19-20

sâdh S. [sˈɑːð] n. Bot. sward, turf ◇ VT/42:20

*sador S. [sˈɑdr̩] n. faithful one ← Sador (name)Sador was Túrin's faithful servant. The meaning of this noun is deduced from sadron, assuming that these words are in the same kind of relation as hador and hadron

*sadron S. [sˈɑdrɔn] pl. sedryn S. [sˈɛdryn] n. faithful one ◇ UT/431Cf. sador

sael S. [sˈɑɛl] adj. wise ← Saelon WJ/233, MR/305, SD/129-31

saer N. [sˈɑɛr] adj. bitter ◇ Ety/385

saew N. [sˈɑɛw] n. poison ◇ Ety/385

said S. [sˈɑjd] adj. private, separate, not common, excluded ◇ VT/42:20

salab N. [sˈɑlɑb] pl. seleb N. n. Bot. herb ◇ Ety/385, X/EI

salff N. n. broth, liquid food, soup ◇ Ety/385, VT/46:12, X/PHThe form salf in the Etymologies is a misreading, see VT/45:12

*sam S. [sˈɑm] n. chamber ← Sammath LotR/VI:III, S/435Q sambesammath S. n. coll.

samarad S. [sˈɑmɑrɑd] n. dual pl. of sammar, two neighbours ◇ VT/48:20

sammar S. [sˈɑmmɑr] (ahamar S.) n. neighbour ◇ VT/48:20"one who dwells beside" = OE. neah+gebursamarad S. n. dual pl.

sammath S. [sˈɑmmɑθ] n. coll. of sam, chambers ◇ LotR/VI:III, S/435

sant S. [sˈɑnt] n. garden, field, yard (or other place in private ownership whether enclosed or not) ◇ VT/42:20

sarch S. [sˈɑrx] n. grave ◇ UT/463

sarn S., N. [sˈɑrn] n. 1. stone (as a material) ○ 2. small stone ◇ Ety/385, S/437, UT/463, VT/42:11, RC/327Sern in UT/463 is a misprint, see VT/42:11harn S. soft mut.sarnas N. n. abst.

sarnas N. [sˈɑrnɑs] n. abst. of sarn, cairn, pile of stones ◇ LR/406

sautha- N. [sˈɑuθɑ] v. to drain ◇ Ety/388

saw N. [sˈɑw] pl. sui N. n. juice ◇ Ety/385, X/Z

sedryn S. pl.sadron

seidia- S. [sˈɛjdi.ɑ] v. to set aside, appropriate to a special purpose or owner ◇ VT/42:20

sein N. pl. sîn N. [sˈiːn] adj. new ◇ Ety/385, X/EI

seleb N. pl.salab

sell N. [sˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid (child) ◇ Ety/385sellath S. n. coll.

sellath S. [sˈɛl̡lɑθ] n. coll. of sell, all the daughters ◇ SD/129-31

*sen S. [sɛn] pl. *sin S. [sin] adj. dem. this ← i thiw hin LotR/II:IVThis demonstrative adjective is probably enclitic. We have suggested that this possibility could perhaps explain why the mutated form of tîw on the Doors of Durin is thiw instead of the expected thîw, see HL/69hin S. soft mut. pl.

*send S. [sˈɛnd] (*senn S.) n. (?) rest ← sennas RC/523sennas S. n. abst.

*senn S.send

sennas S. [sˈɛnnɑs] n. abst. of send, guesthouse ◇ RC/523"resting place", from *send, *senn (SED) ?

sennui S. [sˈɛnnuj] adv. (?) rather, (?) instead (used as an adverb?) ◇ SD/129-31

sereg S. [sˈɛrɛg] n. blood ◇ S/437

seregon S. [sˈɛrɛgɔn] n. Bot. "Blood of Stone", a plant of the kind called in English "stonecrop", with deep red flowers, that grew on Amon Rûdh ◇ S/437sereg+gond

seron S. [sˈɛrɔn] n. lover ◇ PM/348

si S. [si] adv. now ◇ LotR/IV:X, LB/354hi S. soft mut.

S. [sˈiː] adv. here ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

sîdh N. [sˈiːð] n. peace ◇ Ety/385

sigil I N. [sˈigil̡] n. Mil. dagger, knife ◇ Ety/385Q sicil

sigil II N. [sˈigil̡] n. necklace ← Sigil Elu-naeth WJ/258

síla N. [sˈiːlɑ] v. pres. 3rd of síla-, (he) shines white ◇ LB/354

síla- N. [sˈiːlɑ] v. to shine white ◈ síla N. v. pres. 3rd

silevril N. [silɛvril̡] n. Theo. Silmaril ◇ Ety/373Cf. golovir, mirion

silivren S. [silˈivrɛn] adj. (white) glittering ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72silif+-ren

sîn N. pl.sein

*sin S. pl.sen

siniath N. [sˈini.ɑθ] n. coll. news, tidings ◇ Ety/385

sinnarn N. [sˈinnɑrn] n. novel tale ◇ Ety/385sain+narn

sint N. Arch. pa. t.ista-

sír S. [sˈiːr] adv. today ◇ VT/44:21,27

sîr S., N. [sˈiːr] n. Geog. river ◇ Ety/385, S/437, RC/384sirion N. n. augm.*sirion S. der. pl.

*siria- N. [sˈiri.ɑ] inf. sirio N. [sˈiri.ɔ] v. to flow ◇ Ety/385

sirio N. inf.siria-

sirion I N. [sˈiri.ɔn] n. augm. of sîr, Geog. great river ← Sirion Ety/385

*sirion II S. [siri.ɔn] der. pl. of sîrNanduhirion LotRhirion S. soft mut.

sirith S. [sˈiriθ] n. flowing ◇ S/437, VT/42:11

sôg N. [sˈɔːg] v. pres. 3rd of sog-, (he) drinks ◇ Ety/388

*sog- N. [sˈɔg] inf. sogo N. [sˈɔgɔ] pa. t. sogant N. [sˈɔgɑnt] (sunc N.) v. to drink ◇ Ety/388, VT/46:16sôg N. v. pres. 3rdsogannen (corr. sogennen) N. pp.

sogannen (corr. sogennen) N. [sɔgˈɑnnɛn] pp. of sog-, drunk ◇ Ety/388

sogant N. pa. t.sog-

sogo N. inf.sog-

solch N. [sˈɔlx] n. Bot. root (especially as edible) ◇ Ety/388

sui I N. pl.saw

sui II S. [sˈuj] conj. as, like ◇ VT/44:21,27

*suil S. [sˈujl] n. greeting ← Arassuil LotR/A(ii)Deduced from Arassuil, conceivably aran+suil. For the meaning, see suilad

*suila- S. [sˈujlɑ] v. to greet ← suilad SD/129-31suilad S. ger.

suilad S. [sˈujlɑd] ger. of suila-, greeting ◇ SD/129-31

*suilanna- S. [sujlˈɑnnɑ] v. to greet, to give greetings ← suilannad SD/129-31suilannad S. ger.

suilannad S. [sujlˈɑnnɑd] ger. of suilanna-, greeting, giving of greetings ◇ SD/129-31

sûl I S. [sˈuːl] n. wind ◇ S/437Q súlë

sûl II N. [sˈuːl] n. goblet ◇ Ety/388

sunc N. pa. t.sog-

sûth N. n. draught ◇ Ety/388, X/Z


tachl N.tachol

tachol N. [tˈɑxl̩] (tachl N.) n. pin, brooch ◇ Ety/389

tad S., N.tâd

tâd S., N. [tˈɑːd] (tad S., N.) adj. num. card. two ◇ Ety/349, Ety/391, WJ/388, VT/42:25-27, VT/48:6

tad-dail S. pl.tad-dal

*tad-dal S. [tˈɑd.dɑl] pl. tad-dail S. [tˈɑd.dɑjl] n. and adj. Zool. biped, two-legged animal ◇ WJ/388tâd+tâl

tadeg S. [tˈɑdɛg] adj. num. ord. second ◇ VT/42:10Cf. tadui, edwen

tadol N. [tˈɑdɔl] adj. num. quant. double ◇ Ety/391

tadui S. [tˈɑduj] adj. num. ord. second ◇ VT/42:25

taeg S. [tˈɑɛg] n. boundary, limit, boundary line ◇ WJ/309

taen I N. [tˈɑɛn] n. height, summit of high mountain ◇ Ety/389

taen II N. [tˈɑɛn] adj. long (and thin) ◇ Ety/391

*taen III S. [tˈɑɛn] n. sign ← Taengyl, Tengyl MR/385

taer N. [tˈɑɛr] adj. straight ◇ Ety/392, VT/46:18Written tær (with ae-ligature) in the Etymologies, rectified here according to VT/46:18 (which also lists the ligature)

taes N. [tˈɑɛs] n. nail ◇ Ety/390

*taetha- N. [tˈɑɛθɑ] inf. taetho N. [tˈɑɛθɔ] v. to fasten, tie ◇ Ety/389

taetho N. inf.taetha-

taew N. [tˈɑɛw] n. holder, socket, hasp, clasp, staple ◇ Ety/390, VT/46:17

*tafnen S. [tˈɑvnɛn] adj. closed, blocked, stopped ← uidavnen WR/341Orthography normalized to tafnen, as in lefnui

tafr N.tavor

*tagol S. [tˈɑgl̩] n. post, mark ← glandagol VT/42:8, VT/42:28

taid S. [tˈɑjd] adj. second (in the sense of supporting, second in command) ◇ VT/42:25

tail S. pl.tâl

tâl N. [tˈɑːl] pl. tail S. [tˈɑjl] (teil N.) n. Biol. foot ← tad-dail WJ/388, Ety/390, S/429, S/437, X/EI

talad N. [tˈɑlɑd] n. an incline, slope ◇ Ety/390

talaf N. [tˈɑlɑv] pl. teleif N. n. ground, floor ◇ Ety/390, X/EI

talagand N. n. harper ◇ Ety/377, X/ND4

talan S. [tˈɑlɑn] pl. telain S. [tˈɛlɑjn] n. wooden platform (in the trees of Lothlórien where the Galadhrim dwelt) ◇ UT/465, LotR/II:VI

talath S. [tˈɑlɑθ] (dalath N.) n. 1. flat surface, plane ○ 2. Geog. flat land, plain, (wide) valley ← Talath Dirnen UT/465, Ety/353, S/437

talf S. [tˈɑlv] n. Geog. flat field, flat land ← Nindalf TC/195, LotR/Map

*talraph S. [tˈɑlrɑf] n. stirrup ← Udalraph UT/424tâl+raph "foot-rope"

talt N. [tˈɑlt] adj. slipping, falling, insecure ◇ Ety/390

*tamma- N. [tˈɑmmɑ] inf. tammo N. [tˈɑmmɔ] v. to knock ◇ Ety/390, VT/46:17

tammo N. inf.tamma-

tanc N. [tˈɑŋk] adj. firm ◇ Ety/389

tang N. [tˈɑŋ] n. Mil. bowstring ◇ Ety/394

*tangada- N. [tˈɑŋgɑdɑ] inf. tangado N. [tˈɑŋgɑdɔ] v. to make firm, confirm, establish ◇ Ety/389

tangado N. inf.tangada-

tar- N.tara

tara N. [tˈɑrɑ] (tar- N.) adj. tough, stiff ◇ Ety/390

tarag N. [tˈɑrɑg] n. 1. horn ○ 2. by ext., steep mountain peak ◇ Ety/391, VT/46:17

tarch S. [tˈɑrx] adj. stiff, tough ← tarch-lang RC/536

tarias N. [tˈɑri.ɑs] n. abst. stiffness, toughness, difficulty ◇ Ety/390

tarlanc N. [tˈɑrlɑŋk] adj. stiff-necked, obstinate ◇ Ety/390tara+lanc, later tarch+lang

tars N.tass

tas S.lebdas

tass N. [tˈɑss] (tars N.) n. labour, task ◇ Ety/391

tathar S. [tˈɑθr̩] (tathor N.) n. Bot. willow-tree ◇ Ety/391, S/438

tathor N.tathar

tathren S., N. [tˈɑθrɛn] adj. of willow, having willows ◇ Ety/391, S/438

taur I N. [tˈɑur] n. king (only used of the legitimate kings of whole tribes) ◇ Ety/389, Ety/395In LotR/IV:IV, Frodo is called Daur, which might be the mutated form of this wordCf. aran

taur II S., N. [tˈɑur] n. great wood, forest ◇ Ety/391, S/420, S/438

taur III N. [tˈɑur] adj. mighty, vast, overwhelming, huge, awful, high, sublime ◇ Ety/395

tauron S. [tˈɑurɔn] n. forester ◇ S/421, PM/258

taus N. [tˈɑus] n. thatch ◇ Ety/395

tavor N. [tˈɑvr̩] (tavr N., tafr N.) n. Orn. woodpecker (bird) ◇ Ety/390"knocker"

tavr N.tavor

taw N. [tˈɑw] adj. of wool, woollen ◇ Ety/394

tawar S., N. [tˈɑwɑr] n. 1. wood (as a material) ○ 2. by ext., great wood, forest ← Tawar-in-Drúedain UT/467, Ety/391tawarwaith S. n. class pl.

tawaren N. [tˈɑwɑrɛn] pl. tewerin N. [tˈɛwɛrin] adj. wooden ◇ Ety/391

tawarwaith S. [tɑwˈɑrwɑjθ] n. class pl. of tawar, Pop. Silvan elves ◇ UT/256tawar+gwaith "forest-elves"

N. [tˈɛː] n. line, way ◇ Ety/391

tegi N. inf.tog-

tegil S. [tˈɛgil̡] n. pen ◇ PM/318Sindarized form of Quenya tekil, not known to the Sindar until the coming of the Ñoldor (but see however tegol for a possible dialectal variant)Q tekil

tegilbor S. [tɛgˈil̡bɔr] n. one skilled in calligraphy, a calligrapher ◇ PM/318, VT/47:8tegil+paur

tegl N.tegol

tegol N. [tˈɛgl̩] (tegl N.) n. pen ◇ Ety/391It is stated in PM/318 that "tegil was a Sindarized form of Quenya tekil "pen", not known to the Sindar until the coming of the Ñoldor". It must be assumed therefore that tegol was either rejected by Tolkien, or that it may perhaps have been considered as a dialectal variant. For a similar case where both a true Sindarin/Noldorin word and a Sindarized form conceivably coexist, see magol and megil "sword" (it is unlikely that weapons were not known to the Sindar before the coming of the Ñoldor)

teil N. pl.tâl

*teilia- N.telia-

teilien N.telien

teilio N. inf.telia-

teith N. n. mark ◇ Ety/391, X/EI

*teitha- N. [tˈɛjθɑ] inf. teitho N. [tˈɛjθɔ] pa. t. teithant N. [tˈɛjθɑnt] v. to write ◇ Ety/391, LotR/II:IV

teithant N. pa. t.teitha-

teitho N. inf.teitha-

telain S. pl.talan

telch N. [tˈɛl̡x] pl. tilch N. [tˈil̡x] n. stem ◇ Ety/391

tele N. [tˈɛlɛ] pl. telei N. [tˈɛlɛj] n. end, rear, hindmost part ◇ Ety/392

telei N. pl.tele

teleif N. pl.talaf

teler S. [tˈɛlɛr] pl. telir S. [tˈɛlir] n. Pop. an Elf, one of the Teleri ◇ PM/385telerrim S. n. class pl.

telerrim S. [tɛlˈɛrrim] n. class pl. of teler, Pop. the Teleri, a tribe of Elves ◇ PM/385teler+rim

teli N. inf.tol-

*telia- N. [tˈɛli.ɑ] (*teilia- N.) inf. telio N. [tˈɛli.ɔ] (teilio N.) v. to play ◇ Ety/395

telien N. [tˈɛli.ɛn] (teilien N.) n. sport, play ◇ Ety/395

telio N. inf.telia-

telir S. pl.teler

tellein N.tellen

tellen N. [tˈɛl̡lɛn] (tellein N., tellœin N.) n. Biol. sole of foot ◇ Ety/384, Ety/390, VT/46:12tâl+rein

tellœin N.tellen

telu N. [tˈɛlu] n. dome, high roof ◇ Ety/391

*ten S. [dɛn] pron. (?) it (as object) ← caro den VT/44:21,25-6den S. soft mut.

terein N. pl.tôr

ters N.tess

tess N. [tˈɛss] (ters N.) n. (fine pierced) hole ◇ VT/46:18

têw S. [tˈɛːw] pl. tîw S., N. [tˈiːw] n. Ling. letter, written sign ◇ Ety/391, WJ/396, LotR/II:IV, LotR/E, Letters/427thiw S. nasal mut. pl.thîw S. nasal mut. pl.

tewerin N. pl.tawaren

thafn N. [θˈɑvn] n. post, wooden pillar ◇ Ety/387

thala N. [θˈɑlɑ] adj. stalwart, steady, firm ◇ Ety/388

thalion S., N. [θˈɑli.ɔn] pl. thelyn N. [θˈɛlyn] n. hero, dauntless man (especially as surname of Húrin Thalion) ◇ Ety/388, S/438

tham N. [θˈɑm] (thamb N.) n. hall ◇ Ety/387thamas N. n. abst.

thamas N. [θˈɑmɑs] (thambas N.) n. abst. of tham, great hall ◇ Ety/387

thamb N.tham

thambas N.thamas

thanc S., N. [θˈɑŋk] adj. cleft, split, forked ← Orthanc S/415, Ety/388

*thand I S. [θˈɑnd] n. Mil. shield ← thangail UT/281-282

thand II N. [θˈɑnd] (thann N.) adj. firm, true, abiding ◇ Ety/388, VT/46:16Misreading thenid, thenin rectified according to VT/46:16

thang S., N. [θˈɑŋ] n. compulsion, duress, need, oppression ◇ Ety/388, S/438

thangail S. [θˈɑŋgɑjl] n. Mil. shield-fence, a battle formation of the Dúnedain ◇ UT/281-282thand+cail

thann N.thand II

thâr N. [θˈɑːr] n. Bot. stiff grass ◇ Ety/388

thar- S., N. [θɑr] pref. across, athwart, over, beyond ◇ Ety/388, S/438

tharas N. [θˈɑrɑs] n. hassock, footstool ◇ Ety/388

tharbad S. [θˈɑrbɑd] n. cross-way ◇ S/438thar-+pâd

tharn N. [θˈɑrn] adj. sapless, stiff, rigid, withered ◇ Ety/388

thaun N.thôn

thaur S. [θˈɑur] adj. abominable, abhorrent ◇ S/438

thavron N. [θˈɑvrɔn] n. carpenter, wright, builder ◇ Ety/388

thaw N. [θˈɑw] adj. corrupt, rotten ◇ Ety/393

thêl N. [θˈɛːl] pl. thelei N. n. f. sister ◇ Ety/392

thel- S. [θˈɛl̡] v. to intend, mean, purpose, resolve, will ◇ WJ/318-319

thela N. [θˈɛlɑ] n. point (of spear) ◇ Ety/388

thelei N. pl.thêl

*thelion S. [θˈɛli.ɔn] n. one who remains firm in his purpose ← Aegthelion WJ/318

thelyn N. pl.thalion

then S. [θˈɛn] adj. short ◇ VT/42:29Cf. thent, estent

thent S., N. [θˈɛnt] adj. short ◇ Ety/388, UT/146, WJ/311, WJ/315Cf. then, estentthinnas N. n. abst.

therein N. pl.thoron

thia N. [θˈi.ɑ] v. pres. 3rd of thia-, it appears ◇ Ety/392

*thia- N. [θˈi.ɑ] inf. thio N. [θˈi.ɔ] v. to appear, seem ◇ Ety/392thia N. v. pres. 3rd

*thilia- N. [θˈili.ɑ] inf. thilio N. [θˈili.ɔ] v. to glisten ◇ Ety/392, VT/46:18

thilio N. inf.thilia-

thîn N. [θˈiːn] n. Poet. evening ◇ Ety/392, VT/46:18

thind S., N. [θˈind] (thinn N.) adj. grey, pale ◇ Ety/392, S/438

thinn N.thind

thinna- N. [θˈinnɑ] v. to fade, to grow towards evening ◇ Ety/392The punctuation in The Etymologies is considered incorrect (the full dot after this word should conceivably be a comma)

thinnas N. [θˈinnɑs] n. abst. of thent, Ling. lit. "shortness" (name of a mark indicating short quality of vowel) ◇ Ety/388

thio N. inf.thia-

thîr S., N. [θˈiːr] n. look, face, expression, countenance ◇ Ety/392, VT/41:10

thiw S. nasal mut. pl. of têwLotR/II:IVThe mutated form of tîw on the Doors of Durin is thiw instead of the expected thîw. See sen for a discussion of this form

thîw S. nasal mut. pl. of têwLetters/347Cf. thiw

thlaew N. (thloew N., flaew N.) adj. sickly, sick, ill ◇ Ety/386, X/OE, X/LH

thlê N. n. fine thread, spider filament ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

thlein N. pl. thlîn N. adj. lean, thin, meagre ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

thlîn N. pl.thlein

thlind N. (thlinn N.) adj. fine, slender ◇ Ety/386, X/LH, X/ND1

thling N. n. spider, spider's web, cobweb ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

thlingril N. n. spider ◇ Ety/386, X/LH

thlinn N.thlind

thliw N.fliw

thloew N.thlaew

thloss N.floss

thôl S. [θˈɔːl] n. Mil. helm ◇ S/438

thôn S. [θˈɔːn] (thaun N.) n. Bot. pine-tree ◇ Ety/392, S/438, RC/384*thonion S., N. der. pl.

thond S. [θˈɔnd] n. Bot. root ◇ LotR/E, Letters/178

*thoniel S. [θˈɔni.ɛl̡] mut. of tonielGilthoniel LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74

*thonion S., N. [θɔni.ɔn] der. pl. of thônDorthonion S/390, S/438, Ety/392

thôr I S., N. [θˈɔːr] n. Orn. eagle ← Belecthor S/322,365, LotR/A(ii), Ety/392

thôr II N. [θˈɔːr] adj. swooping, leaping down ◇ Ety/393

*thora- N. [θˈɔrɑ] inf. thoro N. [θˈɔrɔ] v. to fence ◇ Ety/393thoren N. pp.

thoren N. [θˈɔrɛn] pp. of thora-, fenced ◇ Ety/393

thoro N. inf.thora-

thórod N. [θˈɔːrɔd] n. torrent ◇ Ety/393

thoron S., N. [θˈɔrɔn] pl. therein N. n. Orn. eagle ◇ Ety/392, S/438, X/ZBack-formed from the plural, see thôrthoronath S. n. coll.

thoronath S. [θˈɔrɔnɑθ] n. coll. of thoron, eagles ◇ S/387, S/438

thost N. [θˈɔst] n. smell ◇ VT/46:19

*thosta- N. [θˈɔstɑ] inf. thosto N. [θˈɔstɔ] v. to stink ◇ VT/46:19

thosto N. inf.thosta-

*thrib- N. inf. thribi N. v. to scratch ◇ Ety/387, X/RH

thribi N. inf.thrib-

thross N. n. whisper or rustling sound ◇ Ety/386, X/RH

thû N. [θˈuː] n. stench ◇ Ety/393

*thuia- N. [θˈuj.ɑ] inf. thuio N. [θˈuj.ɔ] v. to breathe ◇ Ety/393

thuio N. inf.thuia-

thûl N. [θˈuːl] n. breath ◇ Ety/393

thurin N. [θˈurin] adj. secret, hidden ◇ LB/304, Ety/394

*ti S. [ti] pron. them ← i gohenam di ai VT/44:21,30di S. soft mut.

N. [tˈiː] n. line, row ◇ Ety/392

tilch N. pl.telch

tild N.till

till N. [tˈil̡l] (tild N.) n. horn, point ◇ Ety/393

*tîn I S. [tˈiːn] adj. poss. 3rd his ← bess dîn SD/129-31dîn S. soft mut.

tîn II S. [tˈiːn] adj. silent, quiet ◇ RC/551See also dîn I for a discussion regarding this wordCf. tínendîn S. soft mut.

tinc N. [tˈiŋk] n. metal ◇ Ety/394

tindu N.tinnu

tínen S. [tˈiːnɛn] adj. silent ◇ RC/551See also dîn I for a discussion regarding this wordCf. tîn IIdínen S. soft mut.

*tinna- N. [tˈinnɑ] inf. tinno N. [tˈinnɔ] v. to glint ◇ Ety/393

tinno N. inf.tinna-

tinnu N. [tˈinnu] (tindu N.) n. 1. dusk, twilight, early night (without Moon) ○ 2. by ext., starry twilight ◇ Ety/355, Ety/393, X/ND2tinu+dû

tint N. [tˈint] n. spark ◇ Ety/393

tinw N. n. Astron. spark, small star ◇ Ety/393, X/W

tîr N. [tˈiːr] adj. straight, right ◇ Ety/391

*tir- N. [tˈir] inf. tiri N. [tˈiri] v. to watch, to gaze, look at ◇ Ety/394*tirnen S. pp.tiro S. v. imp.

*tíra- S. [tˈiːrɑ] v. to see ← tírad SD/129-31tírad S. ger.

tírad S. [tˈiːrɑd] ger. of tíra-, to see, for the seing ◇ SD/129-31

tiri N. inf.tir-

*tiria- N. [tˈiri.ɑ] inf. tirio N. [tˈiri.ɔ] pa. t. tiriant N. [tˈiri.ɑnt] v. to watch, to gaze, look at ◇ Ety/394tiriel S. part.tíriel S. perf.

tiriant N. pa. t.tiria-

tiriel S. [tˈiri.ɛl̡] part. of tiria-, gazing ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74diriel S. soft mut.

tíriel S. [tˈiːri.ɛl̡] perf. of tiria-, having gazed ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74díriel S. soft mut.

tirio N. inf.tiria-

tirith S., N. [tˈiriθ] n. watch, guard (abstract noun), vigilance ◇ Ety/394, S/437, Letters/158, VT/42:11

*tirn N. [tˈirn] n. watcher ← heledirn Ety/394

*tirnen S. [tˈirnɛn] pp. of tir-, guarded ← Talath Dirnen UT/465, Ety/394, S/437

tiro S. [tˈirɔ] v. imp. of tir-, look! ◇ LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278-79, Letters/427

tithen N. [tˈiθɛn] pl. tithin N. [tˈiθin] adj. little, tiny ◇ Ety/394

tithin N. pl.tithen

tîw S., N. pl.têw

tiwdi N. [tˈiwdi] n. Ling. alphabet ◇ VT/46:18tîw+tî

*toba- N. [tˈɔbɑ] inf. tobo N. [tˈɔbɔ] v. to cover, roof over ◇ Ety/394tobas N. n. abst.

tobas N. [tˈɔbɑs] n. abst. of toba-, roofing, roof ◇ Ety/394, VT/46:19

tobo N. inf.toba-

tofn N. [tˈɔvn] adj. lowlying, deep, low ◇ Ety/394

tôg N. [tˈɔːg] v. pres. 3rd of tog-, (he) leads, brings ◇ Ety/395

*tog- N. [tˈɔg] inf. tegi N. [tˈɛgi] v. to lead, bring ◇ Ety/395tôg N. v. pres. 3rd

tol S. [tˈɔl] (toll N.) pl. tyll N. [tˈyll] n. Geog. island, (steep) isle rising with sheer sides from the sea or from a river ◇ Ety/394, S/438, VT/47:13, RC/333-334

tôl S., N. [tˈɔːl] v. pres. 3rd of tol-, (he) comes ◇ Ety/395, WJ/254According to WJ/301, the expression tôl acharn "vengeance comes" was later changed to tûl acharn by Tolkien

*tol- N. [tˈɔl] inf. teli N. [tˈɛli] v. to come ◇ Ety/395tôl S., N. v. pres. 3rdtolo S. v. imp.

tolch S.toleg

toleg S. [tˈɔlɛg] (tolch S.) n. dim. 1. (?) "litte prominent one" ○ 2. Biol. middle finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,16-17Cf. honeg

tolhui S. Arch.tollui

toll N.tol

tollui S. [tˈɔɬuj] (Arch. tolhui S., Arch. tolthui S.) adj. num. ord. eighth ◇ VT/42:25, VT/42:27, VT/47:32, VT/42:10, Tengwestie/20031207Cf. tolothen

tolo S. [tˈɔlɔ] v. imp. of tol-, come! ◇ VT/44:21,25

tolodh S.toloth

tolog N. [tˈɔlɔg] adj. stalwart, trusty ◇ Ety/395

toloth N. [tˈɔlɔθ] (tolodh S.) adj. num. card. eight ◇ Ety/394, VT/42:25, VT/42:31, VT/48:6Tolkien emended toloth to tolodh, cf. VT/42:31 (and also VT/48:6). If we are to follow him, a word such as tolothen would be incorrect, unless the two forms coexisted

tolothen S. [tˈɔlɔθɛn] adj. num. ord. eighth ← erin dolothen SD/129-31Cf. tolluidolothen S. soft mut.

*toltha- N. [tˈɔlθɑ] inf. toltho N. [tˈɔlθɔ] v. to fetch, summon, make come ◇ Ety/395

toltho N. inf.toltha-

tolthui S. Arch.tollui

tond N. [tˈɔnd] (tonn N.) adj. tall ◇ Ety/395, X/ND1

tong N. [tˈɔŋ] adj. taut, tight (of strings), resonant ◇ Ety/394

*toniel S. [tˈɔni.ɛl̡] n. f. kindler ← Gilthoniel LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74*thoniel S. mut.

tonn N.tond

tôr N. [tˈɔːr] pl. terein N. n. m. Arch. brother ◇ Ety/394, X/ZThe word muindor is more usual

torech N. [tˈɔrɛx] n. hole, excavation, lair ◇ WR/202, RC/490

torog S. [tˈɔrɔg] n. Pop. Troll ◇ LotR/F

*tortha- N. [tˈɔrθɑ] inf. tortho N. [tˈɔrθɔ] v. to wield, control ◇ Ety/395

tortho N. inf.tortha-

toss N. [tˈɔss] n. Bot. bush, low-growing tree (as maple, hawthorn, blackthorn, holly, etc.) ◇ Ety/379, Ety/395

*trann S. [trˈɑnn] n. shire, administrative district, division of a realm ← i-Drann SD/129-31drann S. soft mut.

*trannail S. [trˈɑnnɑjl] adj. of the Shire ← genediad Drannail SD/129-31drannail S. soft mut.

trasta- N. [trˈɑstɑ] v. to harass, trouble ◇ Ety/391

tre- N. [trɛ] (tri N.) pref. through (but denoting completeness when prefixed to verbs, cf. English idioms like "talk something through") ◇ Ety/392

*trenar- N. [trˈɛnɑr] inf. treneri N. [trˈɛnɛri] pa. t. trenor N. [trˈɛnɔr] (trener N.) v. to recount, to tell to end ◇ Ety/374

trenarn N. [trˈɛnɑrn] n. account, tale ◇ Ety/374tre-+narn

trener N. pa. t.trenar-

treneri N. inf.trenar-

trenor N. pa. t.trenar-

*trevad- N. [trˈɛvɑd] inf. trevedi N. [trˈɛvɛdi] pa. t. trevant N. [trˈɛvɑnt] v. to traverse ◇ Ety/352

trevant N. pa. t.trevad-

trevedi N. inf.trevad-

tri N.tre-

trî N. [trˈiː] prep. through ◇ Ety/392

trîw N. [trˈiːw] adj. fine, slender ◇ Ety/392

N. [tˈuː] n. muscle, sinew, vigour, physical strength ◇ Ety/394

tûg N. [tˈuːg] adj. thick, fat ◇ Ety/394

tui N.tuiw

*tuia- N. [tˈuj.ɑ] inf. tuio N. [tˈuj.ɔ] v. 1. to sprout, spring ○ 2. to swell ◇ Ety/394-395

tuilin N.tuilinn

tuilind N.tuilinn

tuilinn N. [tˈujlinn] (tuilind N., tuilin N.) n. Orn. swallow (bird) ◇ Ety/395, X/ND4"spring-singer"

tuio N. inf.tuia-

tuiw N. [tˈujw] (tui N.) n. Bot. a sprout, bud ◇ Ety/395

tulu N. [tˈulu] n. support, prop ◇ Ety/395

tulus N. [tˈulus] pl. tylys N. [ˈtylys] n. Bot. poplar-tree ◇ Ety/395

tum S., N. [tˈum] n. deep valley, under or among hills ◇ Ety/394, S/438

tump N. [tˈump] n. hump ◇ Ety/395

tund N. [tˈund] (tunn N.) n. Geog. hill, mound ◇ Ety/395, X/ND1

tunn N.tund

tûr N. [tˈuːr] n. mastery, victory ◇ Ety/395

tyll N. pl.tol

tylys N. pl.tulus

tyrn S. [tˈyrn] n. pl. Geog. downs ◇ LotR/A(iii), PM/194Tyrn Gorthad "the Barrow-downs"


ú S. [ˈuː] pref. no, not (negative prefix or particle) ◇ WJ/369, LotR/A(v)

úan N. [ˈuː.ɑn] n. monster ◇ Ety/351

uanui N. [ˈu.ɑnuj] adj. monstrous, hideous ◇ Ety/351

ubed N. [ˈubɛd] n. denial ◇ WR/132, WR/137-138

*úgarth S. [ˈuːgɑrθ] pl. úgerth S. [ˈuːgɛrθ] n. bad deed, sin, trespass ◇ VT/44:21,28ú+carthCf. carth

úgerth S. pl.úgarth

ui N. [ˈuj] n. Theo. envelope (especially of the Outer Sea or Air enfolding the world within the Ilurambar or world-walls) ◇ Ety/397

*ui- S. [uj] pref. ever ← uidafnen, uilos (see these words)Cognate of the quenya oi

uial S., N. [ˈuj.ɑl] n. twilight ◇ Ety/400, S/439, LotR/Dui-+gal

*uidafnen S. [ujdˈɑvnɛn] (uidavnen N.) adj. ever-closed ◇ WR/341, X/ZNormalized to uidafnen, as in lefnuiui+tafnen "ever-blocked"

uidavnen N.uidafnen

uil N. [ˈujl] n. Bot. seaweed ◇ Ety/396Cf. oeruil

uilos S. [ˈujlɔs] n. and adj. 1. always white, ever white as snow ○ 2. Bot. as a noun, a small white everlasting flower also called simbelmynë or "evermind" ◇ RGEO/74, Letters/278, UT/55Cf. alfirinui- + loss "everlasting snow, ever (white as) snow

uin S. [ujn] prep. of the ◇ SD/129-31o+i

uir N. [ˈujr] n. eternity ◇ Ety/379

uireb N. [ˈujrɛb] adj. eternal ◇ Ety/379

ûl N. [ˈuːl] n. odour ◇ Ety/378

uluithiad S. [ulˈujθi.ɑd] adj. unquenchable, without quenching ◇ SD/62ú+luithia-

ulun N.ulund

ulund N. (ulun N.) n. monster, deformed and hideous creature ◇ Ety/396, X/ND4

um N. [ˈum] adj. bad, evil ◇ Ety/396

ûn N. [ˈuːn] n. creature ◇ Ety/379

ungol S., N. [ˈuŋgl̩] n. Zool. spider ◇ Ety/366, WR/202, LotR, RC/490

ûr I N. [ˈuːr] n. fire, heat ◇ Ety/396

ûr II N. [ˈuːr] n. wide ◇ Ety/396

urug S. [ˈurug] n. 1. Orc (rarely used) ○ 2. Arch. "bogey", anything that caused fear to the Elves, any dubious shape or shadow, or prowling creature ◇ WJ/390Cf. orch

urui S. [ˈuruj] n. and adj. 1. hot ○ 2. Cal. as a noun, the month of august ◇ LotR/D

úthaes S. [ˈuːθɑɛs] n. inducement to do wrong, temptation ◇ VT/44:30


vedui S. soft mut. of medui

veleg S. soft mut. of belegCûl Veleg RC/536

*venniath N. soft mut. of menniathMornvenniath TI/124

vi S. [vi] prep. in ◇ VT/44:21,27

vín S. soft mut. of mín II

vîr S. soft mut. of mîr


ylf S. [ˈylv] n. drinking-vessel ◇ WJ/416

yneb S.ýneg

yneg S.ýneg

ýneg S. [ˈyːnɛg] (yneg S., yneb S., inib S.) adj. num. card. twelve ◇ VT/47:41, VT/48:6,8,12Dual of *enek "six", CE yûneke, Q. yunke, T. yûnece

yrch S., N. pl.orch

yrn N. pl.orn