Hiswelókë's Sindarin dictionary - Grammatical view

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1. pos

Prototype: pos
Selection axis: //entry[gramGrp/pos]

1.1. article

Template: article
Expansion pattern: //entry[contains(gramGrp/pos, 'art.')]

en S. [ɛn] art. of the (genitival article) ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308i+na (?)

i S., N. [i] pl. in S., N. [in] art. and pron. rel. 1. the ○ 2. who ◇ Ety/361, SD/129-31, Letters/308, Letters/417

1.2. noun

Template: noun
Expansion rule: $noun ::= //entry[starts-with(gramGrp/pos, 'n.')]

1.2.1. gender

Prototype: gender
Selection axis: $noun[gramGrp/gen]

1.2.1.1. masculine

Template: masculine
Expansion pattern: $noun[gramGrp/gen = 'm.']

ada N. [ˈɑdɑ] n. m. hypo. of adar, father, daddy ◇ Ety/349

adar S., N. [ˈɑdɑr] pl. edair S. [ˈɛdɑjr] (eder N., edeir N.) n. m. father ◇ Ety/349, PM/324, MR/373, LotR/II:II, VT/44:21-22, X/EI

atheg S. [ˈɑθɛg] n. m. dim. of adar, 1. "litte father" ○ 2. Biol. thumb (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,17

benn N. [bˈɛnn] n. m. man, male ◇ Ety/352, VT/45:9"husband"

brannon N. [brˈɑnnɔn] n. m. lord ◇ Ety/351

*cirion S. [kˈiri.ɔn] n. m. shipman, sailor ← Cirion (name)

condir S. [kˈɔndir] n. m. mayor ◇ SD/129-31caun+dîr

curunír S. [kˈurunˌiːr] (curunir N.) n. m. man of craft, wizard ◇ Ety/366, LotR/III:VIII, LotR/B, VT/45:24curu+dîr "man of skill"

dîr N. [dˈiːr] n. m. Arch. man, referring to an adult male (elf, mortal, or of any other speaking race)Ety/354, Ety/352

ellon S. [ˈɛl̡lɔn] n. m. elf ◇ WJ/363-364

erchamon S. n. m. one-handed man ◇ VT/47:7, X/Z

*faron N. [fˈɑrɔn] n. m. hunter ← Elfaron Ety/387

firion S. [fˈiri.ɔn] n. m. mortal man ◇ WJ/387

gwador N. [gwˈɑdɔr] pl. gwedeir N. n. m. brother (especially used of those not brothers by blood, but sworn brothers or associates) ◇ Ety/394

hadron N. [hˈɑdrɔn] n. m. Mil. thrower (of spears and darts) ◇ Ety/363

hanar S. [hˈɑnɑr] n. m. brother ◇ VT/47:14

hawn S. [hˈɑwn] n. m. Arch. brother ◇ VT/47:14Cf. hanar

*herdir S. [hˈɛrdir] n. m. master ← i-Cherdir SD/129-31hîr+dîr

heron N. [hˈɛrɔn] n. m. master ◇ VT/45:22

hervenn N. [hˈɛrvɛn] (herven N.) n. m. husband ◇ Ety/352, Ety/364, X/ND4hîr+benn

hîr S., N. [hˈiːr] n. m. master, lord ◇ Ety/364, S/432, SD/129-31, Letters/382, LB/354, VT/45:22

honeg S. [hˈɔnɛg] n. m. dim. of hawn, 1. "litte brother" ○ 2. Biol. middle finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,16-17Given as honig in VT/47:14, but see VT/48:17 n. 13 for discussionCf. toleg

ion S. [jˈɔn] (ionn N.) n. m. 1. son ○ 2. by ext., scion, male descendant ◇ Ety/400, MR/373, X/ND1, X/ND2For the second meaning, cf. Hadorion, a Húrin's epithet in WJ/294, Hurinionath referring to the house of Húrin the Steward in PM/202-3,218, and Gil-Galad's epithet Ereinion, cf. also the gloss of the old Qenya cognate yondo "descendant of" in PE/12:106, or the use of the same suffix in later Quenya names such as Isildurioni and Anárioni "Heirs of Isildur (resp. Anárion)" in PM/192,196

meldir N. [mˈɛl̡dir] n. m. friend ◇ Ety/372mell+dîr

melethron N. [mɛlˈɛθrɔn] n. m. lover ◇ Ety/372

muindor N. [mˈujndɔr] pl. muindyr N. [mˈujndyr] n. m. brother ◇ Ety/394muin+tôr

odhron N. [ˈɔðrɔn] n. m. parent ◇ Ety/379

randír S. [rˈɑndiːr] (rhandir N.) n. m. wanderer, pilgrim ◇ Ety/383, VT/42:13, X/RH

tôr N. [tˈɔːr] pl. terein N. n. m. Arch. brother ◇ Ety/394, X/ZThe word muindor is more usual

1.2.1.2. feminine

Template: feminine
Expansion pattern: $noun[gramGrp/gen = 'f.']

adaneth S. [ˈɑdɑnɛθ] n. f. (mortal) woman ◇ MR/349adan+-eth

*arwen S. [ˈɑrwɛn] n. f. noble woman ← Arwen (name) LotRar-+gwend

besoneth S. n. f. bread-giver ◇ PM/404-405, X/ZSee bass for a discussion regarding this wordbass+oneth

bereth S., N. [bˈɛrɛθ] n. f. queen, spouse ◇ Ety/351, RGEO/74

bess S., N. [bˈɛss] n. f. 1. (young) woman ○ 2. wife ◇ Ety/352, SD/129-31

besain S. n. f. bread-giver ◇ PM/404-405, X/ZSee bass for a discussion regarding this word

brennil N. [brˈɛnnil̡] n. f. lady ◇ Ety/351

dess N. [dˈɛss] n. f. young woman ◇ Ety/375

N. [dˈiː] n. f. Poet. woman, lady ◇ Ety/352, Ety/354

dîs N. [dˈiːs] n. f. bride ◇ Ety/352, Ety/375

elleth S. [ˈɛl̡lɛθ] n. f. elf-maid ◇ WJ/148, WJ/256, WJ/363-364

emel S. [ˈɛmɛl] (emmel S.) n. f. mother ◇ Emeldir S/155, VT/48:17

emig S. [ˈɛmig] n. f. dim. of emel, 1. "litte mother" ○ 2. Biol. index finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,17

emil N. [ˈɛmil] n. f. Poet. mother ◇ VT/45:5

fíriel S. [fˈiri.ɛl̡] (firiel N.) n. f. mortal maid ◇ Ety/382, PM/195, PM/232

firieth S. [fˈiri.ɛθ] n. f. mortal woman ◇ WJ/387fair+-eth (PHIR)

gwathel N. [gwˈɑθɛl̡] pl. gwethil N. [gwˈɛθil̡] n. f. sister, associate ◇ Ety/392

gwend N. [gwˈɛnd] (gwenn N.) n. f. maiden ◇ Ety/398, X/ND1

hervess N. [hˈɛrvɛs] (herves N.) n. f. wife ◇ Ety/352, Ety/364hîr+bess

*heryn S. [hˈɛryn] n. f. lady ← Roheryn S/436hîr+dî

hiril N. [hˈiril̡] n. f. lady ◇ Ety/364

iell N. [jˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid ◇ Ety/385, Ety/400Stated to be an alteration of sell, remodelled after ion "son" (OS *jondo). It was "a change assisted by the loss of s in compounds and patronymics", hence the ending -iel in several feminine words

lhethril N. n. f. hearer, listener, eavesdropper ◇ VT/45:26, X/LH

meldis N. [mˈɛl̡dis] n. f. friend ◇ Ety/372mell+dîs

melethril N. [mɛlˈɛθril̡] n. f. lover ◇ Ety/372

muinthel N. [mˈujnθɛl̡] pl. muinthil N. [mˈujnθil̡] n. f. sister ◇ Ety/392muin+thêl

neth S. [nˈɛθ] n. f. 1. hypo. of nîth sister ○ 2. girl (in her teens, approaching the adult) ◇ VT/47:14-16,33, VT/48:6

nethig S. [nˈɛθig] n. f. dim. of neth, 1. "litte sister" ○ 2. Biol. ring finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/47:14, VT/47:38-39, VT/48:6,17First given in the manuscript as netheg in VT/47:14-15, but see especially VT/48:17 n. 13 for discussion

nîth S. [nˈiːθ] n. f. sister ◇ VT/47:14

odhril N. [ˈɔðril̡] n. f. parent ◇ Ety/379

*oneth S. [ˈɔnɛθ] n. f. giver ← besoneth PM/404-05

rhîs N. n. f. queen ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

sell N. [sˈɛl̡l] n. f. 1. daughter ○ 2. girl, maid (child) ◇ Ety/385

thêl N. [θˈɛːl] pl. thelei N. n. f. sister ◇ Ety/392

*toniel S. [tˈɔni.ɛl̡] n. f. kindler ← Gilthoniel LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74

1.2.2. register

Prototype: register
Selection axis: $noun[gramGrp/usg[@type = 'reg']]

1.2.2.1. abstract

Template: abstract
Expansion pattern: $noun[gramGrp/usg[@type = 'reg'] = 'abst.']

oegas N. pl. oeges N. n. abst. of aeg, Geog. mountain peak ◇ Ety/349, X/OE

bellas N. [bˈɛl̡lɑs] n. abst. of belt, bodily strength ◇ Ety/352

bregolas N. [brˈɛgɔlɑs] n. abst. of bregol, fierceness ◇ Ety/352

*cannas N. [kˈɑnnɑs] n. abst. of cant, shaping ← Dorgannas WJ/192, WJ/206

certhas S. [kˈɛrθɑs] n. abst. of certh, Ling. runic alphabet, rune-rows ◇ LotR/Ecerth+-as

faras N. [fˈɑrɑs] n. abst. of fara-, hunting ◇ Ety/387

fennas S. [fˈɛnnɑs] n. abst. of fen, doorway, gateway ◇ LotR/II:IV, RS/463, RGEO/75

galas N. [gˈɑlɑs] n. abst. of gala-, Bot. growth, plant ◇ Ety/357

gammas N. [gˈɑmmɑs] n. abst. of gamp, Ling. s-sign (special sign used to mark a final -s in Tengwar) ◇ VT/45:14

gonathras N. [gɔnˈɑθrɑs] n. abst. of gonathra-, entanglement ◇ Ety/375

hannas N. [hˈɑnnɑs] n. abst. of hand, understanding, intelligence ◇ Ety/363

hobas N. [hˈɔbɑs] n. abst. of hûb, harbourage ◇ Ety/364

iavas S. [jˈɑvɑs] n. abst. of iau, Cal. season of autumn ◇ LotR/D

ínias N. [ˈiːni.ɑs] n. abst. of în, annals ◇ Ety/400

innas S. [ˈinnɑs] n. abst. of ind, will ◇ VT/44:21,26

lammas S. [lˈɑmmɑs] (lhammas N.) n. abst. of lam, Ling. account of tongues ◇ LR/167, WJ/206, WJ/393, X/LH

maenas N. [mˈɑɛnɑs] n. abst. of maen, craft ◇ Ety/371

minas S. [mˈinɑs] (minnas N.) n. abst. 1. tower ○ 2. by ext., fort, city with a citadel and central watch-tower ◇ Ety/373, S/434, VT/42:24

moeas N. [mˈɔɛ.ɑs] n. abst. of moe, dough ◇ Ety/371

nadhras N. [nˈɑðrɑs] n. abst. of nadhor, pasture ◇ Ety/374

ovras N. [ˈɔvrɑs] n. abst. of ovor, crowd, heap. ◇ Ety/396

panas N. [pˈɑnɑs] n. abst. of pân, floor ◇ Ety/380

pennas N. [pˈɛnnɑs] n. abst. of pent, history, historical account ◇ Ety/366, WJ/192, WJ/206

rammas S. [rˈɑmmɑs] n. abst. of ram, (great) wall ◇ LotR/V:I, LotR/Index

sarnas N. [sˈɑrnɑs] n. abst. of sarn, cairn, pile of stones ◇ LR/406

sennas S. [sˈɛnnɑs] n. abst. of send, guesthouse ◇ RC/523"resting place", from *send, *senn (SED) ?

tarias N. [tˈɑri.ɑs] n. abst. stiffness, toughness, difficulty ◇ Ety/390

thamas N. [θˈɑmɑs] (thambas N.) n. abst. of tham, great hall ◇ Ety/387

thinnas N. [θˈinnɑs] n. abst. of thent, Ling. lit. "shortness" (name of a mark indicating short quality of vowel) ◇ Ety/388

tobas N. [tˈɔbɑs] n. abst. of toba-, roofing, roof ◇ Ety/394, VT/46:19

1.2.2.2. diminutive

Template: diminutive
Expansion pattern: $noun[gramGrp/usg[@type = 'reg'] = 'dim.']

atheg S. [ˈɑθɛg] n. m. dim. of adar, 1. "litte father" ○ 2. Biol. thumb (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,17

emig S. [ˈɛmig] n. f. dim. of emel, 1. "litte mother" ○ 2. Biol. index finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,17

gwinig S. [gwˈinig] n. dim. 1. "litte baby" ○ 2. Biol. little finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,16-17

honeg S. [hˈɔnɛg] n. m. dim. of hawn, 1. "litte brother" ○ 2. Biol. middle finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,16-17Given as honig in VT/47:14, but see VT/48:17 n. 13 for discussionCf. toleg

lebig S. [lˈɛbig] n. dim. Biol. little finger ◇ VT/48:5,15Cf. niged

naugol N. [nˈɑugl̩] (naugl N.) pl. nauglin S. [nˈauglin] n. dim. of naug, dwarf ◇ Ety/375

nethig S. [nˈɛθig] n. f. dim. of neth, 1. "litte sister" ○ 2. Biol. ring finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/47:14, VT/47:38-39, VT/48:6,17First given in the manuscript as netheg in VT/47:14-15, but see especially VT/48:17 n. 13 for discussion

nogotheg S. [nˈɔgɔθɛg] n. dim. of nogoth, Pop. lit. "dwarflet", a name of the Petty-Dwarves ◇ WJ/388

toleg S. [tˈɔlɛg] (tolch S.) n. dim. 1. (?) "litte prominent one" ○ 2. Biol. middle finger (Elvish play-name used by and taught to children) ◇ VT/48:6,16-17Cf. honeg

1.2.2.3. augmentative

Template: augmentative
Expansion pattern: $noun[gramGrp/usg[@type = 'reg'] = 'augm.']

aearon S. [ˈɑɛ.ɑrɔn] n. augm. of aear, Geog. great sea, ocean ◈ Tolkien changed this word several times, see gaearon

annon S., N. [ˈɑnnɔn] pl. ennyn S., N. [ˈɛnnyn] n. augm. great door or gate ◇ Ety/348, S/428, LotR/II:IV, TAI/150

ardhon S. [ˈɑrðɔn] n. augm. of ardh, 1. Geog. great region, province ○ 2. by ext., world ← Calenardhon S/386, PM/348

gaearon S. [gˈɑɛ.ɑrɔn] (gaeron S.) n. augm. of gaear, Geog. great sea, ocean ◇ PM/363, PM/348, RGEO/72-73

mirion N. [mˈiri.ɔn] pl. miruin N. [mˈirujn] n. augm. of mîr, Theo. great jewel, Silmaril ◇ Ety/373Cf. golovir, silevril

sirion N. [sˈiri.ɔn] n. augm. of sîr, Geog. great river ← Sirion Ety/385

1.2.2.4. hypocoristic

Template: hypocoristic
Expansion pattern: $noun[gramGrp/usg[@type = 'reg'] = 'hypo.']

ada N. [ˈɑdɑ] n. m. hypo. of adar, father, daddy ◇ Ety/349

nana N. [nˈɑnɑ] n. hypo. mother, mummy ◇ Ety/348, Ety/374

1.2.3. number

Prototype: number
Selection axis: $noun[gramGrp/number]

1.2.3.1. singulative

Template: singulative
Expansion pattern: $noun[gramGrp/number = 'sing.']

elloth S. [ˈɛl̡lɔθ] n. sing. of loth, Bot. (single) flower ◇ VT/42:18er- + loth

filigod N. [fˈiligɔd] n. sing. of fileg, Orn. small bird ◇ Ety/381

glamog S. [glˈɑmɔg] n. sing. of glam, Pop. an Orc, "a yelling one" ◇ WJ/390

gwanunig S. [gwˈɑnunig] n. sing. of gwanûn, a twin (one of a pair of twins) ◇ WJ/367

lhewig N. [ɬˈɛwig] n. sing. of lhaw, Biol. ear ◇ Ety/368, LotR/II:IXlhaw+-ig

lotheg S. [lˈɔθɛg] n. sing. of loth, Bot. (single) flower ◇ VT/42:18loth + -eg

lothod N. [lˈɔθɔd] (lhothod N.) n. sing. of loth, Bot. (single) flower ◇ VT/45:29, X/LHCf. lotheg

1.2.3.2. class plural

Template: class plural
Expansion pattern: $noun[gramGrp/number = 'class pl.']

anfangrim S. [ɑnfˈɑŋgrim] n. class pl. of anfang, Pop. the Longbeards (a tribe of Dwarves) ◇ WJ/322anfang+rim

aphadrim S. [ɑffˈɑdrim] n. class pl. of aphadon, Pop. followers, men (elvish name for men) ◇ WJ/387aphad-+rim

danwaith S. [dˈɑnwɑjθ] n. class pl. Pop. the Nandor (a tribe of Elves) ◇ WJ/385dan+gwaith

denwaith S. [dˈɛnwɑjθ] n. class pl. Pop. the Nandor (a tribe of Elves), the people of Denwe ◇ WJ/385Den(we)+gwaith

dornhoth S. [dˈɔrn.hɔθ] n. class pl. of dorn, Pop. the Dwarves, lit. "the Thrawn Folk" ◇ WJ/388dorn+hoth

drúwaith S. [drˈuːwɑjθ] n. class pl. of drû, the wilderness of the Drû-men (q.v.) ◇ UT/385drû+gwaith

egladhrim S. [ɛglˈɑðrim] n. class pl. of eglan, Pop. "The Forsaken", Elves of the Falathrim ◇ WJ/189, WJ/365, WJ/379eglan+rim

falathrim S. [fɑlˈɑθrim] n. class pl. of falas, people of the Falas ◇ WJ/378falas+rimCf. eglath, egladhrim

faradrim N. [fɑrˈɑdrim] n. class pl. of feredir, hunters ◇ Ety/387farad+rim

forodrim N. [fɔrˈɔdrim] n. class pl. of forod, Pop. Northmen ◇ Ety/392forod+rim

forodwaith N. [fɔrˈɔdwɑjθ] (forodweith N.) n. class pl. of forod, 1. Pop. Northmen ○ 2. by ext., the lands of the North ◇ Ety/382, Ety/398, X/EIforod+gwaith

galadhrim S. [gɑlˈɑðrim] n. class pl. of galadh, Pop. Elves of Lothlórien ◇ LotRgaladh+rim "people of the trees"

gaurhoth S. [gˈɑur.hɔθ] n. class pl. of gaur, group of werewolves ◇ LotR/II:IVgaur+hoth "wolf-host"

gaurwaith S. [gˈɑur.wɑjθ] n. class pl. of gaur, wolf-men ◇ UT/85, UT/90gaur+gwaith

glamhoth S., N. [glˈɑm.hɔθ] n. class pl. of glam, Pop. barbaric host of Orcs ◇ Ety/358, Ety/364, Ety/377, UT/39, UT/54, WJ/390glam+hoth "the dinhorde, the yelling horde"

gódhellim S. [gɔːðˈɛl̡lim] n. class pl. of gódhel, Pop. "Deep Elves" or "Gnomes", the Wise Folk ◇ WJ/364gódhel+rim

golodhrim S., N. [gɔlˈɔðrim] n. class pl. of golodh, Pop. Deep Elves, Gnomes ◇ Ety/377, WJ/323golodh+rim

*gorthrim S. [gˈɔrθrim] n. class pl. of gorth, the dead ← [Raith >] Fui 'Ngorthrim RC/526

gwathuirim S. [gwɑθˈujrim] n. class pl. of gwathui, Pop. The Dunlendings or People of Dunland ◇ PM/330gwathui+rim "shadowy people"

hadhodrim S. [hɑðˈɔdrim] n. class pl. of hadhod, Pop. the Dwarves (as a race) ◇ WJ/388hadhod+rim

haradrim S. [hɑrˈɑdrim] n. class pl. of harad, Pop. southerners, "Southrons" ◇ LotRharad+rim

iathrim S. [jˈɑθrim] n. class pl. of iâth, Pop. Elves of Doriath ◇ WJ/378iâth+rim

laegrim S. [lˈɑɛgrim] (laegeldrim S.) n. class pl. of laegel, Pop. the people of the Green Elves ◇ WJ/385laegel+rim

Lossoth S. [lˈɔssɔθ] n. class pl. of loss, the Snowmen ◇ LotR/A, RGEO/70loss+hoth

naugrim S. [nˈɑugrim] n. class pl. of naug, Pop. Dwarves ◇ WJ/388naug+rim

nogothrim S. [nɔgˈɔθrim] n. class pl. of nogoth, Pop. Dwarf-folk ◇ RGEO/75, UT/318, WJ/388nogoth+rim

nornwaith S. [nˈɔrn.wɑjθ] n. class pl. of norn, Pop. the Dwarves ◇ MR/93, MR/106norn+gwaith

nothrim S. [nˈɔθrim] n. class pl. of nost, kindred, family, house ← Nothrim [> Nost] Finarfin PM/360The word was rejected in favor of nost, but it may be interpreted as a valid class plural "those of the house"noss/nost + rim

ódhellim S. [ɔːðˈɛl̡lim] n. class pl. of ódhel, Pop. Deep Elves or Gnomes, the Wise Folk ◇ WJ/364ódhel+rim

onodrim S. [ɔnˈɔdrim] n. class pl. of onod, Pop. the Ents, as a race ◇ Letters/224, TC/165onod+rim

orchoth S. [ˈɔrxɔθ] n. class pl. of orch, Pop. the Orcs (as a race) ◇ WJ/390orch+hoth

orodrim N. [ɔrˈɔdrim] n. class pl. of orod, Geog. range of mountains ◇ Ety/379orod+rim

rochirrim S. [rɔxˈirrim] n. class pl. of rochir, horse-lords, the people of Rohan ◇ LotR, etc.rochir+rim

tawarwaith S. [tɑwˈɑrwɑjθ] n. class pl. of tawar, Pop. Silvan elves ◇ UT/256tawar+gwaith "forest-elves"

telerrim S. [tɛlˈɛrrim] n. class pl. of teler, Pop. the Teleri, a tribe of Elves ◇ PM/385teler+rim

1.2.3.3. collective

Template: collective
Expansion pattern: $noun[gramGrp/number = 'coll.']

adanath S. [ˈɑdɑnɑθ] n. coll. of adan, men ◇ MR/373

conath S. [kˈɔnɑθ] n. coll. of caun, 1. many voices ○ 2. by ext., lamentation ◇ PM/361-362

dagorath S. [dˈɑgɔrɑθ] n. coll. of dagor, all the battles ◇ UT/395-396

drúath S. [drˈuːɑθ] n. coll. of drû, Pop. the people of the Drû, the Woses ◇ UT/385

dúath S., N. [dˈuːɑθ] (dúwath N.) n. coll. of , 1. darkness, shadow ○ 2. nightshade ◇ Ety/354, S/430Either the collective plural of , or a compound dû+gwath "night shade" (hence dúwath)

eglath S. [ˈɛglɑθ] n. coll. of egol, Pop. "The Forsaken", Elves of the Falathrim ◇ WJ/189, WJ/344Cf. egladhrim

elenath S. [ˈɛlɛnɑθ] n. coll. of êl, starry host, all the host of the stars of heaven ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/73-75, WJ/363

ennorath S. [ˈɛnnɔrɑθ] n. coll. of ennor, central lands, middle-earth ◇ LotR/E, LotR/II:I, RGEO/72-75

firiath S. [fˈiri.ɑθ] n. coll. of feir, mortals, human beings ◇ WJ/219, WJ/387

giliath S., N. [gˈili.ɑθ] n. coll. of gil/geil, all the host of stars ◇ Ety/358, RC/232

ionnath S. [jˈɔnnɑθ] n. coll. of ion, all the sons ◇ SD/129-31

lamath S. [lˈɑmɑθ] n. coll. of lam, echoing voices ◇ PM/349

*liniath N. [lˈini.ɑθ] n. coll. of lhîn, pools ← Hithliniath WJ/194

lonnath S. [lˈɔnnɑθ] n. coll. of lond, havens ◇ WR/294, WR/370

*menniath N. [m'ɛnni.ɑθ] n. coll. of ment, 1. many points ○ 2. Geog. by ext., range of mountains ← Mornvenniath TI/124, Lambengolmor/799

naglath N. [nˈɑglɑθ] n. coll. of nagol, Biol. the teeth ◇ WR/122

penneth S. [pˈɛnnɛθ] n. coll. of pend, ridges, group of downs ◇ RC/525Cf. pinnath

periannath S. [pˌɛri.ˈɑnnɑθ] n. coll. of perian, Pop. the Hobbits, Halflings ◇ LotR/VI:IV, LotR/E-F, RGEO/75, Letters/308

pinnath S. [pˈinnɑθ] n. coll. of pend, ridges, group of downs ◇ LotR/Index, RC/525Formed from the plural pinnCf. penneth

sammath S. [sˈɑmmɑθ] n. coll. of sam, chambers ◇ LotR/VI:III, S/435

sellath S. [sˈɛl̡lɑθ] n. coll. of sell, all the daughters ◇ SD/129-31

siniath N. [sˈini.ɑθ] n. coll. news, tidings ◇ Ety/385

thoronath S. [θˈɔrɔnɑθ] n. coll. of thoron, eagles ◇ S/387, S/438

1.2.3.4. dual

Template: dual
Expansion pattern: $noun[gramGrp/number = 'dual pl.']

*galadhad S. [gˈɑlɑðɑd] n. dual pl. of galadh, Theo. the Two Trees of Valinor ← Orgaladhad LotR/D

hent N. [hˈɛnt] n. dual pl. of hen, Biol. the two eyes (referring to one person's eyes) ◇ VT/45:22

nobad S. [nˈɔbɑd] n. dual pl. of nawb, Biol. the pair of fingers composed of the thumb and the index (grouped together as in the act of picking something) ◇ VT/48:5,16Cf. nawb, lebdas

samarad S. [sˈɑmɑrɑd] n. dual pl. of sammar, two neighbours ◇ VT/48:20

1.3. derivative

Template: derivative
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/pos = 'der.']

*erchion N. [ˈɛrxi.ɔn] der. pl. of orchAnnerchion TI/114

eregion S., N. [ɛrˈɛgi.ɔn] der. pl. of eregEregion Ety/356, LotR, UT

galadhon S. [gˈɑlɑðɔn] der. pl. of galadhCaras Galadhon LotR/II:VII, LotR/F, UT/425

*gilion S. [gˈili.ɔn] der. pl. of gilOrgilion LotR/D

*gwethion N. [gwˈɛθi.ɔn] der. pl. of gwathEredwethion TI/345, Ety/379, Ety/397

*gwinion S., N. [gwˈini.ɔn] der. pl. of gwînDorwinion LotR/Map, LB/11,26,17,112, LR/334,338, H/IX

*ningloron S. [nˈiŋglɔrɔn] der. pl. of ninglorLoeg Ningloron UT/281, UT/450

rhovanion S. [ɹ̥ɔvˈɑni.ɔn] der. pl. of rhovanRhovanion LotR/Map

*sirion S. [siri.ɔn] der. pl. of sîrNanduhirion LotR

*thonion S., N. [θɔni.ɔn] der. pl. of thônDorthonion S/390, S/438, Ety/392

1.4. gerund

Template: gerund
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/pos = 'ger.']

aderthad S. [ɑdˈɛrθɑd] ger. of adertha-, reuniting, reunion ◇ S/409OS *atertʰata

avad S. [ˈɑvɑd] ger. of ava-, refusal, reluctance ◇ WJ/371

*bronad N. [brˈɔnɑd] ger. of brona-, survival ← bronadui Ety/353

cabed S. [kˈɑbɛd] ger. of cab-, 1. leap ○ 2. by ext., deep gorge ◇ S/386, WJ/100Emended by Tolkien from earlier cabad. This is our sole late example that basic verbs should perhaps form their gerund in -ed, whereas derived verbs are well attested to use -ad (cf. aderthad)

calad S., N. [kˈɑlɑd] ger. light ◇ Ety/362, UT/65

*cared N. [kˈɑrɛd] ger. of car-, making, doing ← ceredir Ety/354

*cened N. [kˈɛnɛd] ger. of cen-, seeing, sight ← cenedril TI/184

*edlothiad (corr. edlothiand) S. [ɛdlˈɔθi.ɑd] ger. of edlothia-, blossoming, flowering ← edlothiand WR/293Actually, edlothiand might be a misreading, according to David Salo who checked the original manuscript at Marquette and reported that his reading was unmistakably edlothiad

eithad S. [ˈɛjθɑd] ger. of eitha-, insult ◇ WJ/365

*erthad S. [ˈɛrθɑd] ger. of ertha-, union, uniting ← Aderthad S/409

*farad N. [fˈɑrɑd] ger. of fara-, hunting ← faradrim Ety/387

gawad N. [gˈɑwɑd] ger. of gaw-, howling ◇ Ety/377

genediad S. [gɛnˈɛdi.ɑd] ger. of genedia-, 1. reckoning ○ 2. by ext., calendar ◇ SD/129-31

hammad N. [hˈɑmmɑd] ger. of hamma-, clothing ◇ Ety/363

harthad S. [hˈɑrθɑd] ger. of hartha-, hope ◇ SD/62

heniad N. [hˈɛni.ɑd] ger. of henia-, understanding, intelligence ◇ VT/45:21

*luithiad S. [lˈujθi.ɑd] ger. of luithia-, quenching ← uluithiad SD/62

nestad N. [nˈɛstɑd] ger. of nesta-, healing ◇ WR/379-80

orthad S. [ˈɔrθɑd] ger. of ortha-, rising ◇ MR/373

suilad S. [sˈujlɑd] ger. of suila-, greeting ◇ SD/129-31

suilannad S. [sujlˈɑnnɑd] ger. of suilanna-, greeting, giving of greetings ◇ SD/129-31

tírad S. [tˈiːrɑd] ger. of tíra-, to see, for the seing ◇ SD/129-31

1.5. conjunction

Template: conjunction
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/pos = 'conj.']

a S. [ɑ] (ar S.) conj. and ◇ LotR/II:IV, LotR/VI:IV, S/428, SD/129-31, LB/354, Letters/308See ah for the form that this conjunction might take before a vowel

egor S. [ˈɛgɔr] conj. or ◇ SD/129-31

ir S. [ˈir] conj. (?) when ◇ LB/354This word is not translated. It could be related to Quenya íre "when". Some scholars also consider that it could be the form taken by the article i before a vowel, on a pattern similar to ah. To this respect, it might be interesting to note the ir was the allative/dative form of the article in the old Gnomish lexicon, PE/11:9

sui S. [sˈuj] conj. as, like ◇ VT/44:21,27

1.6. preposition

Template: preposition
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/pos = 'prep.']

adel N. [ɑdɛl̡] prep. behind, in rear (of) ◇ Ety/392

am N. [ɑm] prep. up, upwards, upon ◇ Ety/348

an S. [ɑn] prep. to, towards, for ◇ LotR/II:IV, UT/39, SD/129-31With suffixed article and elision in aglar'ni Pheriannath

athan S. [ɑθɑn] prep. beyond ◇ SD/62

ben S. [bɛn] prep. according to the, in the ◇ SD/129-31OS *be, with suffixed article (?)

bo S. [bɔ] prep. on ◇ VT/44:21,26

dan S. [dɑn] prep. 1. against ○ 2. etym. back ◇ LotR/II:IV

erin S. [ɛrin] prep. on the ◇ SD/129-31or+i, MS *œrin

mîn S. [mˈiːn] (min- S.) prep. (in) between (referring to a gap, space, barrier or anything intervening between two other things) ← Minhiriath LotR/Map, VT/47:11,14

na S., N. [nɑ] prep. 1. with, by (also used as a genitive sign) ○ 2. to, towards, at ◇ Ety/374, LotR/I:XII

ned S. [nɛd] prep. (uncertain meaning) in, of (about time, e.g. giving a date) ◇ SD/129-31[Another possible interpretation: "another, one more" (related to Q. net(e)), VT/47:40]

nef S. [nɛv] prep. on this side of ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

nu S., N. [nu] (no N.) prep. under ◇ Ety/378, etc.With suffixed article, see also nuin

nuin S., N. [nujn] prep. under the ◇ Ety/378, etc.nu+i

o S., N. [ɔ] (od S.) prep. from, of (preposition (as a proclitic) used in either direction, from or to the point of view of the speaker) ◇ Ety/360, WJ/366, WJ/369-70, LotR/II:IV, SD/129-31, RGEO/72According to WJ/366, the preposition "is normally o in all positions, though od appears occasionally before vowels, especially before o-". With a suffixed article, see also uin

o N. [ɔ] prep. about, concerning ◇ Ety/378The Etymologies state that h- is prefixed to the word following this preposition, when it begins with a vowel: o Hedhil "concerning the Elves". Some scholars consider that this rule is not valid in Sindarin, but that the preposition would perhaps become oh in such a case (hence oh Edhil, to be compared with ah in Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth)

or N. [ɔr] prep. above, over ◇ Ety/379

*pen S. [pɛn] prep. without, lacking, -less ← Iarwain ben-adar LotR/II:II

trî N. [trˈiː] prep. through ◇ Ety/392

uin S. [ujn] prep. of the ◇ SD/129-31o+i

vi S. [vi] prep. in ◇ VT/44:21,27

1.7. adverb

Template: adverb
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/pos = 'adv.']

ambenn N. [ˈɑmbɛnn] (ambend N., amben N.) adv. uphill, sloping upwards ◇ Ety/348, Ety/380, X/ND3, X/ND4am+pend

anann S. [ˈɑnɑnn] adv. long, for a long time ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308an+and, OS *ananda

dad N. [dˈɑd] adv. down, downwards ◇ Ety/354

dadbenn N. [dˈɑdbɛnn] (dadben N.) adv. 1. downhill, inclined ○ 2. by ext., inclined, prone (to do something) ◇ Ety/354, Ety/380, VT/46:8, X/ND4dad+pend

edregol S. [ˈɛdrɛgl̩] adv. in especial ◇ SD/129-31

ennas S. [ˈɛnnɑs] adv. there, in that place ◇ SD/129-31

godrebh N. adv. through together ◇ TAI/150go-+tre-+be, OS *wotrebe, CE *wo-tere-be (?)

io N. [jɔ] (ia N.) adv. ago ◇ Ety/399

lim S. [lˈim] adv. swift, swiftly ← noro lim LotR/I:XII, RS/196, RC/195Untranslated in LotR, but written nora-lim and rendered as "ride on" in RS/196 (not a literal translation) and later translated as "run swift" in RC/195. Before the latter was published (confirming the exact translation of this adverb), Helios de Rosario Martinez had provided a thorough analysis of this word in his article "Musings on Limlight" (Tengwestie/20050107)

mae S. [mˈɑɛ] adv. well ◇ LotR/I:XII, Letters/308

palan- S. [pˈɑlɑn] adv. afar, abroad, far and wide ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74Q palan

sennui S. [sˈɛnnuj] adv. (?) rather, (?) instead (used as an adverb?) ◇ SD/129-31

si S. [si] adv. now ◇ LotR/IV:X, LB/354

S. [sˈiː] adv. here ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

sír S. [sˈiːr] adv. today ◇ VT/44:21,27

1.8. adjective

Template: adjective
Expansion rule: $adjective ::= //entry[contains(gramGrp/pos, 'adj.')]

1.8.1. subc

Prototype: subc
Selection axis: $adjective[gramGrp/subc]

1.8.1.1. possessive

Template: possessive
Expansion pattern: $adjective[gramGrp/subc = 'poss.']

în S. [ˈiːn] adj. poss. 3rd his (referring to the subject) ◇ SD/129-31

lín S. [lˈiːn] (lin S.) adj. poss. 2nd thy (reverential) ◇ VT/44:21,24

mín S. [mˈiːn] (min S.) adj. poss. 1st pl. our ◇ VT/44:21,22,28

nín S. [nˈiːn] adj. poss. 1st my ◇ UT/40, VT/44:22The acute accent in nín has sometimes been regarded as an error for a slanted macron in the manuscript, since all the other attested personal adjectives from Sauron defeated all have a circumflex accent. It was however noted that if the acute accent is confirmed, then this word is probably an enclitic, see HL/73. The acute accent is now confirmed by VT/44

*tîn S. [tˈiːn] adj. poss. 3rd his ← bess dîn SD/129-31

1.8.1.2. demonstrative

Template: demonstrative
Expansion pattern: $adjective[gramGrp/subc = 'dem.']

*sen S. [sɛn] pl. *sin S. [sin] adj. dem. this ← i thiw hin LotR/II:IVThis demonstrative adjective is probably enclitic. We have suggested that this possibility could perhaps explain why the mutated form of tîw on the Doors of Durin is thiw instead of the expected thîw, see HL/69

1.8.2. adjnum

Prototype: adjnum
Selection axis: $adjective[gramGrp/pos]

1.8.2.1. num

Template: num
Expansion rule: $num ::= $adjective[contains(gramGrp/pos, 'num.')]

1.8.2.1.1. subc

Prototype: subc
Selection axis: $num[gramGrp/subc]

1.8.2.1.1.1. cardinal

Template: cardinal
Expansion pattern: $num[gramGrp/subc = 'card.']

caer N. [kˈɑɛr] adj. num. card. ten ◇ Ety/363Cf. cae, pae

canad S., N. [kˈɑnɑd] (canath N.) adj. num. card. four ◇ Ety/362, VT/42:24,25, VT/48:6, VT/46:3

eneg S., N. [ˈɛnɛg] adj. num. card. six ◇ Ety/356, VT/42:25,31, VT/48:6,8

leben S. [lˈɛbɛn] (lheben N.) adj. num. card. five ◇ Ety/368, TAI/150, VT/42:24-25, VT/47:10, VT/47:24, VT/48:6, X/LH

*meneg S. [mˈɛnɛg] adj. num. card. thousand ← Menegroth "thousand caves" S/409

mîn S. [mˈiːn] (min S., N. [mˈin]) adj. num. card. one (first of a series) ◇ Ety/373, VT/42:24-25, VT/48:6

minib S. [mˈinib] adj. num. card. eleven ◇ VT/48:6-8

neder S., N. [nˈɛdɛr] adj. num. card. nine ◇ Ety/376, VT/42:25, VT/48:6, PE/17:95

nêl S. [nˈɛːl] adj. num. card. three ◇ VT/42:25Cf. neled

neled S., N. [nˈɛlɛd] (neledh S., N.) adj. num. card. three ◇ Ety/376, TAI150, VT/48:6

odog S., N. [ˈɔdɔg] (odo S.) adj. num. card. seven ◇ Ety/379, VT/42:25, VT/47:42, VT/48:6, PE/17:95

pae S. [pˈɑɛ] adj. num. card. ten ◇ VT/42:25, VT/48:6Cf. cae, caer

tâd S., N. [tˈɑːd] (tad S., N.) adj. num. card. two ◇ Ety/349, Ety/391, WJ/388, VT/42:25-27, VT/48:6

toloth N. [tˈɔlɔθ] (tolodh S.) adj. num. card. eight ◇ Ety/394, VT/42:25, VT/42:31, VT/48:6Tolkien emended toloth to tolodh, cf. VT/42:31 (and also VT/48:6). If we are to follow him, a word such as tolothen would be incorrect, unless the two forms coexisted

ýneg S. [ˈyːnɛg] (yneg S., yneb S., inib S.) adj. num. card. twelve ◇ VT/47:41, VT/48:6,8,12Dual of *enek "six", CE yûneke, Q. yunke, T. yûnece

cae S. [kˈɑɛ] (caen- S.) adj. num. card. ten ◇ PE/17:95Cf. caer, pae

mimp S. [mˈimp] adj. num. card. eleven ◇ PE/17:95Cf. minib

imp S. [ˈimp] adj. num. card. twelve ◇ PE/17:95Cf. ýneg

1.8.2.1.1.2. ordinal

Template: ordinal
Expansion pattern: $num[gramGrp/subc = 'ord.']

canthui S. [kˈɑnθuj] (Arch. cantui S., Arch. canhui S.) adj. num. ord. fourth ◇ VT/42:10, VT/42:25,27

edwen S. [ˈɛdwɛn] adj. num. ord. second ◇ SD/129-31

enchui S. [ˈɛnxuj] (enegui S., Arch. encui S.) adj. num. ord. sixth ◇ VT/42:10,25,28

enecthui S. [ɛnˈɛkθuj] adj. num. ord. sixth ◇ VT/42:25Cf. enchui

lefnui S. [lˈɛvnuj] (lhefneg N.) adj. num. ord. fifth ◇ WR/436, VT/42:25, TI/312

main S. [m'ɑjn] (mein S.) adj. num. ord. first, (only in the sense of) prime, chief, pre-eminent ◇ VT/42:10, VT/42:25

minui S. [mˈinuj] adj. num. ord. first ◇ VT/42:10, VT/42:25

nail S. [nˈɑjl] (neil S.) adj. num. ord. third ◇ VT/42:25

nedrui S. [nˈɛdruj] adj. num. ord. ninth ◇ VT/42:25

nelchaenen S. [nɛl̡xˈɑɛnɛn] adj. num. ord. thirtieth ◇ SD/129-131

nelui S. [nˈɛluj] adj. num. ord. third ◇ VT/42:25

ochui S. [ˈɔxuj] adj. num. ord. seventh ◇ VT/47:42

odothui S. [ˈɔdɔθuj] adj. num. ord. seventh ◇ TI/312, WR/436, VT/42:25Cf. othui

othui S. [ˈɔθuj] adj. num. ord. seventh ◇ VT/42:10,25

paenui S. [pˈɑɛnuj] adj. num. ord. tenth ◇ VT/42:25

tadui S. [tˈɑduj] adj. num. ord. second ◇ VT/42:25

tollui S. [tˈɔɬuj] (Arch. tolhui S., Arch. tolthui S.) adj. num. ord. eighth ◇ VT/42:25, VT/42:27, VT/47:32, VT/42:10, Tengwestie/20031207Cf. tolothen

tolothen S. [tˈɔlɔθɛn] adj. num. ord. eighth ← erin dolothen SD/129-31Cf. tollui

*caenen S. [kˈɑɛnɛn] adj. num. ord. tenth ← nelchaenen SD/129-131Cf. paenui, caenui

caenui S. [kˈɑɛnuj] adj. num. ord. tenth ◇ VT/42:10Cf. paenui, caenen

tadeg S. [tˈɑdɛg] adj. num. ord. second ◇ VT/42:10Cf. tadui, edwen

neleg S. [nˈɛlɛg] adj. num. ord. third ◇ VT/42:10Cf. nail, nelui

nerthui S. [nˈɛrθuj] adj. num. ord. ninth ◇ VT/42:10Cf. nedrui

1.8.2.1.1.3. quantity

Template: quantity
Expansion pattern: $num[gramGrp/subc = 'quant.']

edaid S. [ˈɛdɑjd] adj. num. quant. double ◇ VT/42:26-27

tadol N. [tˈɑdɔl] adj. num. quant. double ◇ Ety/391

1.9. pronoun

Template: pronoun
Expansion pattern: //entry[contains(gramGrp/pos, 'pron.')]

ai S. [ɑj] pron. rel. for those who ◇ VT/44:21,30

ammen S. [ˈɑmmɛn] pron. 1st pl. of us, for us, toward us ◇ LotR/II:IV, LB/354, VT/44:21,27an+men

anim S. [ˈɑnim] pron. 1st for myself ◇ LotR/A(v)an+imCf. enni

e S. [ɛ] pron. 3rd he ◇ SD/129-31The meaning "he" is deduced from the apparent function of this word in the so-called "King's Letter", but it also seems possible to interpret it as "indeed" (as in Q. e, LR/63, VT/45:11), used here in a way of formal address expressing the wishes or the will of the King

enni S. [ˈɛnni] pron. 1st to me ◇ VT/41:11an+niCf. enni

ha N. [hɑ] (hana N.) pl. hain S. [hɑjn] (hein N.) pron. 3rd it ◇ Ety/385, LotR/II:IV, X/EI

he N. [hɛ] (hen N., hene N.) pl. hîn N. [hiːn] pron. 3rd f. she ◇ Ety/385

ho N. [hɔ] (hon N., hono N.) pl. huin N. pron. 3rd m. he ◇ Ety/385, X/Z

i S., N. [i] pl. in S., N. [in] art. and pron. rel. 1. the ○ 2. who ◇ Ety/361, SD/129-31, Letters/308, Letters/417

im S. [ˈim] pron. 1st I ◇ LotR/II:IV, LB/354, VT/47:14,37-38In late writings (see esp. VT/47:37-38), Tolkien reinterpreted this form as a reflexive pronoun (= "self").

le S. [lɛ] pron. 2nd to thee (reverential) ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-73, Letters/278, LB/354

man S. [mɑn] pron. (?) what? ◇ TL/21:09

men S., N. [mˈɛn] pron. 1st pl. us ← ammen LotR/II:IV, LB/354, tiro men VT/45:37

mín S. [mˈiːn] pron. us ◇ VT/44:21,28

nin S. [nin] pron. me ◇ LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72

pen S. [pɛn] pron. one, somebody, anybody ◇ WJ/376Usually enclitic and mutated as ben

*ten S. [dɛn] pron. (?) it (as object) ← caro den VT/44:21,25-6

*ti S. [ti] pron. them ← i gohenam di ai VT/44:21,30

1.10. auxiliary

Template: auxiliary
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/pos = 'aux.']

ava- S. [ˈɑvɑ] aux. will not

1.11. verb

Template: verb
Expansion rule: $verb ::= //entry[gramGrp/pos = 'v.']

1.11.1. bad code hack

Prototype: bad code hack
Selection axis: $verb[not(gramGrp/tns) and not(gramGrp/mood)]

1.11.1.1. stem (infinive, past tense)

Template: stem (infinive, past tense)
Expansion pattern: $verb[not(gramGrp/tns) and not(gramGrp/mood)]

*adertha- S. [ɑdˈɛrθɑ] v. to reunite ← Aderthad S/409ad- + ertʰa- "to make one again", OS *atertʰa-

*atlanna- N. inf. atlanno N. v. to slope, slant ◇ Ety/390, X/TL

*adleg- N. [ˈɑdlɛg] inf. adlegi N. [ˈɑdlɛgi] pa. t. adlenc N. [ˈɑdlɛŋk] v. Arch., Poet. to loose, let loose, release ◇ VT/45:27

*anglenna- S. [ɑŋglˈɛnnɑ] v. to approach ← anglennatha SD/129-31an+*glenna-, OS *añglenna-, CE *angledna-

aníra- S. [ɑnˈiːrɑ] v. to desire ◇ SD/129-31an+*íra- or *níra- (?) OS *anîra-

*anna- N. [ˈɑnnɑ] inf. anno N. [ˈɑnnɔ] v. to give ◇ Ety/348

aphad- S. [ˈɑffɑd] v. to follow ◇ WJ/387In WJ/387, the verbal stem is given as aphad-, and the etymology as *ap-pata. If we follow the latter, the verb should perhaps read aphada-ab-+pad- "to walk behind, on a track or path"

*athrada- N. [ˈɑθrɑdɑ] inf. athrado N. [ˈɑθrɑdɔ] v. to cross, traverse ◇ Ety/383ath-+rada-

awartha- N. [ɑwˈɑrθɑ] v. to forsake, abandon ◇ Ety/397

banga- N. [bˈɑŋgɑ] v. to trade ◇ Ety/372

*bartha- N. [bˈɑrθɑ] inf. bartho N. [bˈɑrθɔ] v. to doom ◇ Ety/372

*batha- N. [bˈɑθɑ] inf. batho N. [bˈɑθɔ] v. to trample ◇ Ety/352

*baugla- N. [bˈɑuglɑ] inf. bauglo N. [bˈɑuglɔ] v. to oppress ◇ Ety/372

*beria- N. [bˈɛri.ɑ] inf. berio N. [bˈɛri.ɔ] v. to protect ◇ Ety/351

*bertha- N. [bˈɛrθɑ] inf. bertho N. [bˈɛrθɔ] v. to dare ◇ Ety/352

*blab- N. [blˈɑb] inf. blebi N. [blˈɛbi] v. to beat, batter, flap (wings, etc.) ◇ Ety/380

boda- S. [bˈɔdɑ] v. to ban, prohibit ◇ WJ/372

*breitha- N. [brˈɛjθɑ] inf. breitho N. [brˈɛjθɔ] v. to break out suddenly ◇ Ety/352

*brenia- N. [brˈɛni.ɑ] inf. brenio N. [brˈɛni.ɔ] v. to endure ◇ Ety/353, VT/45:7The form bronio in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:7

*brona- N. [brˈɔnɑ] inf. brono N. [brˈɔnɔ] v. to last, to survive ◇ Ety/353

*buia- N. [bˈuj.ɑ] inf. buio N. [bˈuj.ɔ] v. to serve, to hold allegiance to ◇ Ety/353

*cab- S. [kˈɑb] v. to leap ← cabed S/386, WJ/100

can- S. [kˈɑn] v. to cry out, shout, call ◇ PM/361-362

*car- S. [kˈɑr] irreg. pa. t. agor S. [ˈɑgɔr] v. to do ← avo garo WJ/371, WJ/415

*cen- N. [kˈɛn] v. to see ← cenedril TI/184

*critha- N. [krˈiθɑ] inf. critho N. [krˈiθɔ] v. to reap ◇ Ety/365

*cuia- S. [kˈuj.ɑ] v. to live ← cuio LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308

*cuina- N. [kˈujnɑ] inf. cuino N. [kˈujnɔ] v. to be alive ◇ Ety/366

*dag- N. [dˈɑg] inf. degi N. [dˈɛgi] pa. t. danc N. [dˈɑŋk] (degant N.) v. to slay ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37

*dagra- N. [dˈɑgrɑ] inf. dagro N. [dˈɑgrɔ] v. to battle ◇ Ety/375

damma- N. [dˈɑmmɑ] pa. t. dammant N. [dˈɑmmant] v. to hammer ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37It was long considered that damna-, dammint in the Etymologies might have been misreadings. VT/45:37 confirms this, though the exact reading actually remains rather uncertain

dant- N. v. to fall ◇ Ety/354, X/ZWritten dant- in the Etymologies

*dar- N. [dˈɑr] inf. deri N. [dˈɛri] v. to stay, wait, stop, remain ◇ Ety/353

dartha- N. [dˈɑrθɑ] v. to wait, stay, last, endure, remain ◇ Ety/353, VT/45:8

delia- N. [dˈɛli.ɑ] inf. delio N. [dˈɛli.ɔ] (dœlio N.) v. to conceal ◇ Ety/355

díhena- S. [dˈiːhɛnɑ] v. to forgive (with matter forgiven as object?) ◇ VT/44:29Cf. gohena-

*dilia- N. [dˈili.ɑ] inf. dilio N. [dˈili.ɔ] pa. t. diliant N. [dˈili.ɑnt] v. to stop up ◇ Ety/354, VT/45:9

doltha- N. [dˈɔlθɑ] pa. t. Arch. daul N. [dˈɑul] v. to conceal ◇ Ety/355

*dortha- N. [dˈɔrθɑ] inf. dortho N. [dˈɔrθɔ] v. to dwell, stay ◇ Ety/376

*draf- N. [drˈɑv] inf. dravo N. [drˈɑvɔ] pa. t. drammen N. [drˈɑmmɛn] (dravant N., Arch. dramp N.) v. to hew ◇ Ety/354, VT/45:8

*drega- S. [drˈɛgɑ] v. to flee ◈ Only the imperative drego is attested. Therefore, the verb may also be dreg- (inf. dregi)

*dringa- N. [drˈiŋgɑ] inf. dringo N. [drˈiŋgɔ] v. to beat (with a hammer, etc.) ◇ Ety/355

*echad- N. [ˈɛxɑd] inf. echedi N. [ˈɛxɛdi] pa. t. echant S., N. [ˈɛxɑnt] v. to fashion, make ◇ Ety/363, LotR/II:IV

*egledhia- N. [ɛglˈɛði.ɑ] (*egledh- N. [ˈɛglɛð]) inf. egledhio (corr. eglehio) N. [ɛglˈɛði.ɔ] (egledhi N. [ˈɛglɛði]) pa. t. egledhas N. [ˈɛglɛðɑs] (Arch. eglant N.) v. to go into exile ◇ Ety/368, VT/45:27, X/TL

*edlothia- S. [ɛdlˈɔθi.ɑ] v. to blossom, flower ← edlothiand WR/293, X/TLThe sentence from WR/293 is hardly legible and is not translated, but this word is however a plausible form

edonna- N. [ɛdˈɔnnɑ] v. to beget ◇ Ety/379ed+*onna-

*edra- S., N. [ˈɛdrɑ] v. to open

*egleria- S. [ɛglˈɛri.ɑ] v. to glorify, to praise

eitha- S. [ˈɛjθɑ] v. 1. to prick with a sharp point, to stab ○ 2. by ext., to treat with scorn, insult ◇ WJ/365

*ercha- N. [ˈɛrxɑ] inf. ercho N. [ˈɛrxɔ] v. to prick ◇ Ety/356

*eria- N. [ˈɛri.ɑ] inf. erio N. [ˈɛri.ɔ] pa. t. erias N. [ˈɛri.ɑs] (Arch. oronte N.) v. to rise ◇ Ety/379, VT/46:7Cf. ortha-

*ertha- S. [ˈɛrθɑ] v. to unite ← Aderthad S/409

*esta- S. [ˈɛstɑ] v. to name ← estathar SD/129-31

*faltha- N. [fˈɑlθɑ] inf. faltho N. [fˈɑlθɔ] v. to foam ◇ Ety/381

*fara- N. [fˈɑrɑ] inf. faro N. [fˈɑrɔ] v. to hunt ◇ Ety/387

feira- N. [fˈɛjrɑ] v. to suffice ◇ VT/46:9

*fuia- N. [fˈuj.ɑ] inf. fuio N. [fˈuj.ɔ] v. to feel disgust at, abhor ◇ Ety/381

gad- N. [gˈɑd] inf. gedi N. [gˈɛdi] v. to catch ◇ Ety/358

*gala- N. [gˈɑlɑ] inf. galo N. [gˈɑlɔ] v. to grow ◇ Ety/357

*ganna- N. [gˈɑnnɑ] inf. ganno N. [gˈɑnnɔ] v. to play a harp ◇ Ety/377

*gannada- N. [gˈɑnnɑdɑ] inf. gannado N. [gˈɑnnɑdɔ] v. to play a harp ◇ Ety/377

*gar- N. [gˈɑr] inf. garo N. [gˈɑrɔ] v. to hold, have ◇ Ety/360

gaw- N. [gˈɑw] v. to howl ◇ Ety/377, X/Z

*genedia- S. [gɛnˈɛdi.ɑ] v. to reckon ← genediad SD/129-31

*gir- N. [gˈir] inf. giri N. [gˈiri] v. to shudder ◇ Ety/358

gladh- S. [glˈɑð] v. to laugh ← gladh- PM/359

*glavra- N. [glˈɑvrɑ] inf. glavro N. [glˈɑvrɔ] v. to babble ◇ Ety/358

gleina- S. [glˈɛjnɑ] v. to bound, enclose, limit ◇ VT/42:8, VT/42:28This entry should perhaps read gleinia-, cf. VT/42:28, note 13

gling- N. [glˈiŋ] v. to hang, dangle ◇ Ety/359, Ety/369, VT/45:15,27

glintha- S. v. to glance at ◇ WJ/337

glir- N. [glˈir] inf. gliri N. [glˈiri] v. to sing, trill, to recite a poem ◇ Ety/359, Ety/369, VT/45:15The form glin in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:15

gohena- S. [gˈɔhɛnɑ] v. to forgive (with person forgiven as object?) ◇ VT/44:29Cf. díhena-

gonathra- N. [gɔnˈɑθrɑ] v. to entangle, enmesh ◇ Ety/375

gonod- N. [gˈɔnɔd] v. to count, count up, reckon, sum up ◇ Ety/378, Ety/399, VT/46:6

gosta- N. [gˈɔstɑ] v. to fear exceedingly ◇ Ety/359

*govad- S. [gˈɔvɑd] v. to meet ← mae govannen LotR/I:XII, Letters/308Etym. "to walk together"

groga- S. [grˈɔgɑ] v. to feel terror ◇ WJ/415

gruitha- S. [grˈujθɑ] v. to terrify ◇ WJ/415

*gwaeda- N. [gwˈɑɛdɑ] inf. gwaedo N. [gwˈɑɛdɔ] v. to enfold ◇ VT/46:21

*gwanna- N. [gwˈɑnnɑ] inf. gwanno N. [gwˈɑnnɔ] v. to depart, die ◇ Ety/397

*gwatha- N. [gwˈɑθɑ] inf. gwatho N. [gwˈɑθɔ] v. to soil, stain ◇ Ety/397

gwathra- S. [gwˈɑθrɑ] v. to overshadow, dim, veil, obscure ◇ VT/42:9

*gwedh- N. [gwˈɛð] inf. gwedhi (corr. gwedi) N. [gwˈɛði] pa. t. gwedhant N. [gwˈɛðɑnt] (gwend N., gwenn N.) v. to bind ◇ Ety/397, X/ND1

*gweria- N. [gwˈɛri.ɑ] inf. gwerio N. [gwˈɛri.ɔ] v. to betray, cheat ◇ Ety/397

*gwesta- N. [gwˈɛstɑ] inf. gwesto N. [gwˈɛstɔ] v. to swear ◇ Ety/397

hab- N. [hˈɑb] v. to clothe ◇ Ety/363

*had- N. [hˈɑd] inf. hedi N. [hˈɛdi] pa. t. hant N. [hˈɑnt] v. to hurl ◇ Ety/363

haf- N. [hˈɑv] pa. t. hamp N. [hˈɑmp] (hafant N.) v. to sit ◇ VT/45:20

*hal- N. [hˈɑl] inf. heli N. [hˈɛli] pa. t. haul N. [hˈɑul] v. to lift ◇ VT/45:20

haltha- N. [hˈɑlθɑ] v. to screen ◇ Ety/386

hamma- N. [hˈɑmmɑ] v. to clothe ◇ Ety/363, VT/45:21The form hamnia- in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/45:21

*harna- N. [hˈɑrnɑ] inf. harno N. [hˈɑrnɔ] v. to wound ◇ Ety/386

*hartha- S. [hˈɑrθɑ] v. to hope ← Harthad SD/62

*hasta- N. [hˈɑstɑ] inf. hasto N. [hˈɑstɔ] v. to hack through ◇ Ety/389

*heb- S. [hˈɛb] v. to retain, keep, do not give away or release, keep hold of ← *khep VT/41:6

heltha- N. [hˈɛl̡θɑ] v. to strip ◇ Ety/386, VT/46:14The form helta- in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/46:14

*henia- N. [hˈɛni.ɑ] inf. henio N. [hˈɛni.ɔ] v. to understand ◇ Ety/363

*heria- N. [hˈɛri.ɑ] inf. herio N. [hˈɛri.ɔ] (hœrio N.) v. to begin suddenly and vigorously ◇ Ety/364, VT/45:22The forms heno, hœno in the Etymologies are misreadings according to VT/45:22

hortha- N. [hˈɔrθɑ] v. to urge on, speed ◇ Ety/364

*chwinia- N. inf. chwinio N. v. to twirl, whirl, eddy ◇ Ety/388

ialla- N. [jˈɑllɑ] v. to call ◇ VT/46:22

*ista- N. [ˈistɑ] inf. isto N. [ˈistɔ] pa. t. istas N. [ˈistɑs] (Arch. sint N.) v. to have knowledge ◇ Ety/361, VT/45:18

*iuitha- N. [jˈujθɑ] inf. iuitho N. [jˈujθɔ] v. to employ, to use ◇ Ety/400, VT/46:23The gloss was hardly legible and Christopher Tolkien read "to enjoy" in Ety/400, but the meaning "to employ", much more probable (Cf. iuith), was later confirmed in VT/45:23

*laba- S. [lˈɑbɑ] v. to hop ← Labadal UT/60This entry is interpolated from Sador's nickname, Labadal, which is rendered as "Hopafoot" in the text

*lacha- S. [lˈɑxɑ] v. to flame

*lasta- S. [lˈɑstɑ] v. to listen

*lhathra- N. inf. lhathro N. v. to listen in, eavesdrop ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

*lhathrada- N. inf. lhathrado N. v. to listen in, eavesdrop ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

*lhaf- N. inf. lhefi N. v. to lick ◇ Ety/367, X/LH

leithia- N. [lˈɛjθi.ɑ] (lheitho N.) v. to release ◇ Ety/368, X/LH

leutha- S. [lˈɛwθɑ] v. to pick up or out (with the fingers) ◇ VT/47:10,23

lhimmid N. pa. t. lhimmint N. v. to moisten ◇ Ety/369, X/LH

*linna- S. [lˈinnɑ] v. to sing ← linnathon LotR/II:I

*liria- N. [lˈiri.ɑ] inf. lirio N. [lˈiri.ɔ] v. to sing ◇ VT/45:28

lhoda- N. v. to float ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

*luithia- S. [lˈujθi.ɑ] v. to quench ← uluithiad SD/62Perhaps compare with Q. luita- "to flood, inundate, drench" and the root LUY - See VT/48:31

lhútha- N. v. to enchant ◇ Ety/370, X/LH

*mad- N. [mˈɑd] inf. medi N. [mˈɛdi] v. to eat ◇ Ety/371

maetha- N. [mˈɑɛθɑ] v. to fight ◇ Ety/371

maetha- S. [mˈɑɛθɑ] v. to handle, wield, manage, deal with ◇ VT/47:6

*matha- N. [mˈɑθɑ] inf. matho N. [mˈɑθɔ] v. to stroke, feel, handle ◇ Ety/371

*mel- N. [mˈɛl] inf. melo N. [mˈɛlɔ] pa. t. melant N. [mˈɛlɑnt] v. to love ◇ VT/45:34

minna- S. [mˈinnɑ] v. to enter

*mista- N. [mˈistɑ] inf. misto N. [mˈistɔ] v. to stray ◇ Ety/373

*muda- N. [mˈudɑ] inf. mudo N. [mˈudɔ] pa. t. mudas N. [mˈudɑs] v. to labour, toil ◇ Ety/373

*na- S. [nˈɑ] v. to be ← no aer i eneth lín VT/44:21,24

*negra- N. inf. negro N. v. to pain ◇ Ety/375, X/Z

nag- N. [nˈɑg] v. to bite ◇ Ety/374

*nalla- S. [nˈɑllɑ] v. to cry ← nallon LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278

*nara- N. [nˈɑrɑ] inf. naro N. [nˈɑrɔ] pa. t. narante N. [nɑrˈɑntɛ] v. Arch., Poet. to tell ◇ Ety/374, VT/45:36

narcha- N. [nˈɑrxɑ] v. to rend ◇ Ety/374

*nartha- N. [nˈɑrθɑ] inf. nartho N. [nˈɑrθɔ] v. to kindle ◇ VT/45:37

nasta- N. [nˈɑstɑ] v. to prick, point, stick, thrust ◇ Ety/375, VT/45:37

nautha- N. [nˈɑuθɑ] v. to conceive ◇ Ety/378

*nedia- S. [nˈɛdi.ɑ] (nœdia- N.) v. to count ◇ Ety/378, VT/46:6

*neitha- S. [nˈɛjθɑ] v. to wrong, to deprive ← Neithan UT/456

*neledh- N. [nɛlˈɛð] inf. neledhi N. [nɛlˈɛði] v. to enter ◇ TAI/150, HL/77Hammond and Scull apparently understand this word as a derivative of neledh "three", hence their translation neledh neledhi "three by three". However, we have shown in Hiswelókë (third issue, pp. 74-78) that this word is conceivably a verb derived from LED "to go". The prefix ne- also occurs in nestegi "to insert, stick in"OS *ne- + ledi- "to go into"

nella- N. [nˈɛl̡lɑ] v. to sound (of bells) ◇ Ety/379, VT/46:7

*nesta- N. [nˈɛstɑ] v. to heal ← nestad WR/379-380

*nestag- N. [nˈɛstɑg] inf. nestegi N. [nˈɛstɛgi] pa. t. nestanc N. [nˈɛstɑŋk] v. to insert, stick in ◇ Ety/388

nimmid N. pa. t. nimmint N. [nˈimmint] v. to whiten ◇ Ety/378, X/Z

nud- N. v. to tie, bind ◇ Ety/378, X/Z

*nor- S. [nˈɔr] v. 1. to run ○ 2. by ext., to ride

nuitha- S. [nˈujθɑ] v. to stunt, to prevent from coming to completion, stop short, not allow to continue ◇ WJ/413

oltha- N. [ˈɔlθɑ] v. to dream ◇ Ety/370, Ety/379

*onna- S. [ˈɔnnɑ] v. to beget ← Abonnen, Eboennin WJ/387

*ortha- N. [ˈɔrθɑ] inf. ortho N. [ˈɔrθɔ] pa. t. orthant N. [ˈɔrθɑnt] v. to raise ◇ Ety/379Cf. eria-

*orthel- N. [ˈɔrθɛl] inf. ortheli N. [ˈɔrθɛli] v. to roof, screen above ◇ Ety/391

*orthor- N. [ˈɔrθɔr] inf. ortheri N. [ˈɔrθɛri] v. to master, conquer ◇ Ety/395

*osgar- N. [ˈɔsgɑr] inf. esgeri N. [ˈɛsgɛri] v. to cut round, to amputate ◇ Ety/379

*ovra- N. [ˈɔvrɑ] inf. ovro N. [ˈɔvrɔ] v. to abound ◇ Ety/396

*pada- S. [pˈɑdɑ] v. to walk ← Aphadon (*ap-pata), Tharbad (*thara-pata) WJ/387, S/438

*panna- N. [pˈɑnnɑ] inf. panno N. [pˈɑnnɔ] v. to open, to enlarge ◇ Ety/380

pannod N. v. to fill ◇ Ety/366, X/Z

*pathra- N. [pˈɑθrɑ] inf. pathro N. [pˈɑθrɔ] v. to fill ◇ Ety/366

*ped- S. [pˈɛd] pa. t. *pent S. [pˈɛnt] v. to speak, to say ← pedo, arphent LotR/II:IV, TL/21:09

*pelia- N. [pˈɛli.ɑ] inf. pelio N. [pˈɛli.ɔ] v. to spread ◇ Ety/380

*penia- N. [pˈɛni.ɑ] inf. penio N. [pˈɛni.ɔ] v. to fix, to set ◇ Ety/380

penna- S. [pˈɛnnɑ] v. to slant down ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

plada- S. [plˈɑdɑ] v. to feel with the hand, to pass the sensitive palm over a surface ◇ VT/47:9

*presta- N. [prˈɛstɑ] inf. presto N. [prˈɛstɔ] v. to affect, trouble, disturb ◇ Ety/380

*puia- N. [pˈuj.ɑ] inf. puio N. [pˈuj.ɔ] v. to spit ◇ Ety/382

*rada- N. [rˈɑdɑ] inf. rado N. [rˈɑdɔ] v. to make a way, find a way ◇ Ety/383

raeda- S. [rˈɑɛdɑ] v. to catch in a net ◇ VT/42:12

*rhedh- N. inf. rhedhi N. v. to sow ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

*rhenia- N. inf. rhenio N. v. to stray ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

*rhevia- N. inf. rhevio (corr. rhenio) N. v. 1. to fly, sail ○ 2. to wander ◇ Ety/382, X/RH

*thrib- N. inf. thribi N. v. to scratch ◇ Ety/387, X/RH

rhib- N. v. to flow like a (torrent ?) ◇ Ety/384, X/RHThe reading of the gloss is uncertain

*rhista- N. inf. rhisto N. v. 1. to cut ○ 2. to rend, rip ◇ Ety/384, X/RH

*rhitha- N. inf. rhitho N. v. to jerk, twitch, snatch ◇ Ety/383, X/RH

*rosta- N. [rˈɔstɑ] inf. rosto N. [rˈɔstɔ] v. to hollow out, excavate ◇ Ety/384

sautha- N. [sˈɑuθɑ] v. to drain ◇ Ety/388

seidia- S. [sˈɛjdi.ɑ] v. to set aside, appropriate to a special purpose or owner ◇ VT/42:20

síla- N. [sˈiːlɑ] v. to shine white

*siria- N. [sˈiri.ɑ] inf. sirio N. [sˈiri.ɔ] v. to flow ◇ Ety/385

*sog- N. [sˈɔg] inf. sogo N. [sˈɔgɔ] pa. t. sogant N. [sˈɔgɑnt] (sunc N.) v. to drink ◇ Ety/388, VT/46:16

*suila- S. [sˈujlɑ] v. to greet ← suilad SD/129-31

*suilanna- S. [sujlˈɑnnɑ] v. to greet, to give greetings ← suilannad SD/129-31

*taetha- N. [tˈɑɛθɑ] inf. taetho N. [tˈɑɛθɔ] v. to fasten, tie ◇ Ety/389

*tamma- N. [tˈɑmmɑ] inf. tammo N. [tˈɑmmɔ] v. to knock ◇ Ety/390, VT/46:17

*tangada- N. [tˈɑŋgɑdɑ] inf. tangado N. [tˈɑŋgɑdɔ] v. to make firm, confirm, establish ◇ Ety/389

*teitha- N. [tˈɛjθɑ] inf. teitho N. [tˈɛjθɔ] pa. t. teithant N. [tˈɛjθɑnt] v. to write ◇ Ety/391, LotR/II:IV

*telia- N. [tˈɛli.ɑ] (*teilia- N.) inf. telio N. [tˈɛli.ɔ] (teilio N.) v. to play ◇ Ety/395

thel- S. [θˈɛl̡] v. to intend, mean, purpose, resolve, will ◇ WJ/318-319

*thia- N. [θˈi.ɑ] inf. thio N. [θˈi.ɔ] v. to appear, seem ◇ Ety/392

*thilia- N. [θˈili.ɑ] inf. thilio N. [θˈili.ɔ] v. to glisten ◇ Ety/392, VT/46:18

thinna- N. [θˈinnɑ] v. to fade, to grow towards evening ◇ Ety/392The punctuation in The Etymologies is considered incorrect (the full dot after this word should conceivably be a comma)

*thora- N. [θˈɔrɑ] inf. thoro N. [θˈɔrɔ] v. to fence ◇ Ety/393

*thosta- N. [θˈɔstɑ] inf. thosto N. [θˈɔstɔ] v. to stink ◇ VT/46:19

*thuia- N. [θˈuj.ɑ] inf. thuio N. [θˈuj.ɔ] v. to breathe ◇ Ety/393

*tinna- N. [tˈinnɑ] inf. tinno N. [tˈinnɔ] v. to glint ◇ Ety/393

*tir- N. [tˈir] inf. tiri N. [tˈiri] v. to watch, to gaze, look at ◇ Ety/394

*tíra- S. [tˈiːrɑ] v. to see ← tírad SD/129-31

*tiria- N. [tˈiri.ɑ] inf. tirio N. [tˈiri.ɔ] pa. t. tiriant N. [tˈiri.ɑnt] v. to watch, to gaze, look at ◇ Ety/394

*toba- N. [tˈɔbɑ] inf. tobo N. [tˈɔbɔ] v. to cover, roof over ◇ Ety/394

*tog- N. [tˈɔg] inf. tegi N. [tˈɛgi] v. to lead, bring ◇ Ety/395

*tol- N. [tˈɔl] inf. teli N. [tˈɛli] v. to come ◇ Ety/395

*toltha- N. [tˈɔlθɑ] inf. toltho N. [tˈɔlθɔ] v. to fetch, summon, make come ◇ Ety/395

*tortha- N. [tˈɔrθɑ] inf. tortho N. [tˈɔrθɔ] v. to wield, control ◇ Ety/395

trasta- N. [trˈɑstɑ] v. to harass, trouble ◇ Ety/391

*trenar- N. [trˈɛnɑr] inf. treneri N. [trˈɛnɛri] pa. t. trenor N. [trˈɛnɔr] (trener N.) v. to recount, to tell to end ◇ Ety/374

*trevad- N. [trˈɛvɑd] inf. trevedi N. [trˈɛvɛdi] pa. t. trevant N. [trˈɛvɑnt] v. to traverse ◇ Ety/352

*tuia- N. [tˈuj.ɑ] inf. tuio N. [tˈuj.ɔ] v. 1. to sprout, spring ○ 2. to swell ◇ Ety/394-395

1.12. tense

Prototype: tense
Selection axis: //entry[gramGrp/tns]

1.12.1. present

Template: present
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/tns = 'pres.']

avam S. [ˈɑvɑm] v. pres. 1st pl. of ava-, we won't ◇ WJ/371

avon S. [ˈɑvɔn] v. pres. 1st of ava-, I won't ◇ WJ/371

blâb N. [blˈɑːb] v. pres. 3rd of blab-, (he) flaps, beats ◇ Ety/380The Etymologies seem to list this word as a noun, but it is clearly the third person singular of the verb

cerir S. [kˈɛrir] v. pres. 3rd pl. of car-, they do ◇ VT/44:22,30

*cuinar S. [kˈujnɑr] v. pres. 3rd pl. of cuina-, (they) live ← i-chuinar Letters/417

dihenam S. v. pres. 1st pl. of díhena-, we forgive ◇ VT/44:22,29In Tolkien's manuscript, the form dihenam was rejected in favor of gohenam

gerin N. [gˈɛrin] v. pres. 1st of gar-, I hold, I have ◇ Ety/360

gohenam S. [gˈɔhɛnɑm] v. pres. 1st pl. of gohena-, we forgive ◇ VT/44:21,29

*hebin S. [hˈɛbin] v. pres. 1st of heb-, I keep, I have kept ← ú-chebin LotR/A(v), VT/41:6Because of the mutation triggered by the first person pronominal ending, it is impossible to guess whether the stem of this should be heb-, *hab- or *hob-. The root KHEP listed in VT/41:6 apparently implies that heb- is the correct form

lhâf N. v. pres. 3rd of lhaf-, (he) licks ◇ Ety/367, X/LH

linnon S. [lˈinnɔn] v. pres. 1st of linna-, I sing ◇ LB/354

lhôd N. v. pres. 3rd of lhoda-, (he) floats ◇ VT/45:29, X/LH

nallon S. [nˈɑllɔn] v. pres. 1st of nalla-, I cry ◇ LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278

orthor N. [ˈɔrθɔr] v. pres. 3rd of orthor-, (he) masters, conquers ◇ Ety/395

osgar N. [ˈɔsgɑr] v. pres. 3rd of osgar-, (he) cuts, amputates ◇ Ety/379

*pêd S. [pˈɛːd] v. pres. 3rd of ped-, (he) says ← guren bêd enni VT/41:11

síla N. [sˈiːlɑ] v. pres. 3rd of síla-, (he) shines white ◇ LB/354

sôg N. [sˈɔːg] v. pres. 3rd of sog-, (he) drinks ◇ Ety/388

thia N. [θˈi.ɑ] v. pres. 3rd of thia-, it appears ◇ Ety/392

tôg N. [tˈɔːg] v. pres. 3rd of tog-, (he) leads, brings ◇ Ety/395

tôl S., N. [tˈɔːl] v. pres. 3rd of tol-, (he) comes ◇ Ety/395, WJ/254According to WJ/301, the expression tôl acharn "vengeance comes" was later changed to tûl acharn by Tolkien

1.12.2. future

Template: future
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/tns = 'fut.']

anglennatha S. [ɑŋglˈɛnnɑθɑ] v. fut. 3rd of anglenna-, (he) will approach ◇ SD/129-31

estathar S. [ˈɛstɑθɑr] v. fut. 3rd pl. of esta-, (they) will name ◇ SD/129-31

linnathon S. [lˈinnɑθɔn] v. fut. 1st of linna-, I will sing, I will chant ◇ LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

1.12.3. past participle

Template: past participle
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/tns = 'pp.']

dangen N. [dˈɑŋgɛn] pp. of dag-, slain ◇ Ety/375

dannen N. [dˈɑnnɛn] pp. of dant-, fallen ◇ Ety/354

dolen N. [dˈɔlɛn] pp. of doltha-, concealed, hidden ◇ Ety/355

govannen S. [gɔvˈɑnnɛn] pp. of govad-, met ◇ LotR/I:XII, Letters/308

hollen S. [hˈɔllɛn] pp. closed ← Fen Hollen LotR/V:IV, RC/550

*onnen S. [ˈɔnnɛn] pl. *ennin S. [ˈɛnnin] pp. of onna-, born ← Abonnen, Eboennin WJ/387

prestannen N. [prɛstˈɑnnɛn] pp. of presta-, 1. affected ○ 2. Ling. mutated (of a mutated vowel) ◇ Ety/380

*remmen S. [rˈɛmmɛn] pl. remmin S. [rˈɛmmin] pp. woven, netted, tangled ← galadhremmin LotR/E, LotR/II:I, RGEO/72

sogannen (corr. sogennen) N. [sɔgˈɑnnɛn] pp. of sog-, drunk ◇ Ety/388

thoren N. [θˈɔrɛn] pp. of thora-, fenced ◇ Ety/393

*tirnen S. [tˈirnɛn] pp. of tir-, guarded ← Talath Dirnen UT/465, Ety/394, S/437

1.12.4. perfective

Template: perfective
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/tns = 'perf.']

tíriel S. [tˈiːri.ɛl̡] perf. of tiria-, having gazed ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74

1.12.5. participle

Template: participle
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/tns = 'part.']

glavrol N. [glˈɑvrɔl] part. of glavra-, babbling ◇ Ety/358

chwiniol N. part. of chwinia-, whirling, giddy, fantastic ◇ Ety/388

míriel S. [mˈiːri.ɛl̡] part. sparkling like a jewel ◇ RGEO/64, LotR/II:I

tiriel S. [tˈiri.ɛl̡] part. of tiria-, gazing ◇ LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74

1.13. mood

Prototype: mood
Selection axis: //entry[gramGrp/mood]

1.13.1. imperative

Template: imperative
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/mood = 'imp.']

anno S. [ˈɑnnɔ] v. imp. of anna-, give! ◇ VT/44:21,27

avo S. [ˈɑvɔ] v. imp. of ava-, don't! ◇ WJ/371Used as a negative adverb before an imperative: avo garo "don't do it!". Sometimes used as prefix: avgaro

caro S. [kˈɑrɔ] v. imp. of car-, do! make! ◇ VT/44:21,25

cuio S. [kˈuj.ɔ] v. imp. of cuia-, live! ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308

daro S., N. [dˈɑrɔ] v. imp. of dar-, halt! stop! ◇ Ety/353, LotR/II:VI

díheno S. [dˈiːhɛnɔ] v. imp. of díhena-, forgive! ◇ VT/44:21,28

drego S. [drˈɛgɔ] v. imp. of drega-, flee! ◇ UT/65

edro S., N. [ˈɛdrɔ] v. imp. of edra-, open! ◇ Ety/357, LotR/II:IV

eglerio S. [ɛglˈɛri.ɔ] v. imp. of egleria-, glorify! praise! ◇ LotR/VI:IV, Letters/308

lacho S. [lˈɑxɔ] v. imp. of lacha-, flame! ◇ UT/65

lasto S. [lˈɑstɔ] v. imp. of lasta-, listen! ◇ LotR/II:IV, RS/463, LB/354

minno S. [mˈinnɔ] v. imp. of minna-, enter! (lit. to the inside!) ◇ LotR/II:IV

no S. [nˈɔ] v. imp. of na-, be! ◇ VT/44:21,24

noro S. [nˈɔrɔ] v. imp. of nor-, run! ride! ← noro lim LotR/I:XII, RS/196, RC/195Untranslated in LotR, but written nora-lim and rendered as "ride on" in RS/196 (not a literal translation) and later translated as "run swift" in RC/195. A verb nor- is attested in the old Gnomish lexicon, PE/11:61, with the meaning "to run, roll"

pedo S. [pˈɛdɔ] v. imp. of ped-, speak! say! ◇ LotR/II:IV, Letters/424

tiro S. [tˈirɔ] v. imp. of tir-, look! ◇ LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278-79, Letters/427

tolo S. [tˈɔlɔ] v. imp. of tol-, come! ◇ VT/44:21,25

1.14. interjection

Template: interjection
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/pos = 'interj.']

a S. [ɑ] interj. O! ◇ Letters/308See also ai and ae

ae S. [ˈɑɛ] interj. O! ◇ VT/44:21,22See also ai and a

ai S. [ˈɑj] interj. ah! ◇ LotR/I:XIIThough attested in LotR, this word might relate to ae, with the regular change from ai to ae between Noldorin and Sindarin

alae S. [ˈɑlɑɛ] interj. (?) behold! ◇ UT/40Uncertain meaning, but compare with Quenya ela! "imperative exclamation directing sight to an actually visible object" (WJ/362)

baw S. [bˈɑw] interj. no, don't! ◇ WJ/371

ego S. [ˈɛgɔ] interj. be off! ◇ WJ/365

elo S. [ˈɛlɔ] interj. an exclamation of wonder, admiration, delight ◇ WJ/362

nae N. [nˈɑɛ] interj. alas ◇ Ety/375

1.15. prefix

Template: prefix
Expansion pattern: //entry[gramGrp/pos = 'pref.']

ab- S. [ɑb] pref. after, later ← Abonnen WJ/387

ad- N. [ɑd] pref. back, again, re- ◇ Ety/349, VT/45:6

al- N. [ɑl] pref. no, not ◇ Ety/367

an- N. [ɑn] pref. with, by ◇ Ety/374

ar- N. [ɑr] pref. 1. Arch. etym. beside ○ 2. by ext., without ◇ Ety/349

ara- S. [ɑrɑ] (ar- S.) pref. high, noble, royal ◇ S/428Reduced form of aran, element in the names of the kings of Arnor and Arthedain

ath- N. [ɑθ] pref. on both sides, across ◇ Ety/349

athra- S. [ɑθrɑ] pref. across ← Athrabeth MR/329

di- S. [di] pref. beneath, under ← di-nguruthos LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72, Letters/278, VT/45:37The only known usage of this word is as prefix, but VT/45:37 lists it as a unitary word di

ed- N. [ɛd] pref. forth, out ◇ Ety/356

er- S., N. [ɛr] pref. alone, one ◇ VT/42:19

gal- N. [gɑl] pref. light ← galvorn, etc.

go- N. [gɔ] pref. together ◇ Ety/399, WJ/367

gwa- S., N. [gwɑ] pref. Arch. together (only in old compounds, the living form is go-) ◇ Ety/399, WJ/367

nedh- N. [nɛð] pref. in, inside, mid- ◇ Ety/376See also the preposition ned, and the noun ened for a discussion of this form

or- N. [ɔr] pref. above, over ◇ Ety/379

os- N. [ɔs] pref. about, around ◇ Ety/379

per- N. [pɛr] pref. half, divided in middle

thar- S., N. [θɑr] pref. across, athwart, over, beyond ◇ Ety/388, S/438

tre- N. [trɛ] (tri N.) pref. through (but denoting completeness when prefixed to verbs, cf. English idioms like "talk something through") ◇ Ety/392

ú S. [ˈuː] pref. no, not (negative prefix or particle) ◇ WJ/369, LotR/A(v)

*ui- S. [uj] pref. ever ← uidafnen, uilos (see these words)Cognate of the quenya oi

2. mutation

Prototype: mutation
Selection axis: //entry[descendant::itype[@type='sm' or @type='nm' or @type='mm']]

2.1. soft

Template: soft
Expansion pattern: //entry[descendant::itype[@type='sm' or @type='nm' or @type='mm'] = 'soft mut.']

baran S. soft mut. of paranDol Baran RC/433

bêd S. soft mut. of pêd

ben S. soft mut. of pen

ben S. soft mut. of pen

beth S. soft mut. of peth

bîn S. soft mut. of pînCûl Bîn RC/536

chaered S. soft mut. of haered

chebin S. soft mut. of hebin

cherdir S. soft mut. of herdir

den S. soft mut. of ten

di S. soft mut. of ti

dîn S. soft mut. of tîn

dîn S. soft mut. of tînRC/551

dínen S. soft mut. of tínenRC/551

diriel S. soft mut. of tiriel

díriel S. soft mut. of tíriel

dolothen S. soft mut. of tolothen

drann S. soft mut. of trann

drannail S. soft mut. of trannail

gerir S. soft mut. of cerir

habar S. soft mut. of sabar

harn S. soft mut. of sarnEdhelharn SD/129-131

hi S. soft mut. of si

hin S. soft mut. pl. of sen

hirion S. soft mut. of sirionNanduhirion LotR

*mbas S. soft mut. of bassimbas VT/44:21,27-8

mhellyn S. soft mut. pl. of mellon

vedui S. soft mut. of medui

veleg S. soft mut. of belegCûl Veleg RC/536

*venniath N. soft mut. of menniathMornvenniath TI/124

vín S. soft mut. of mín

vîr S. soft mut. of mîr

2.2. nasal

Template: nasal
Expansion pattern: //entry[descendant::itype[@type='sm' or @type='nm' or @type='mm'] = 'nasal mut.']

chîn S. nasal mut. pl. of hên

mbair S. nasal mut. pl. of bar

mbar S. nasal mut. of bar

ngaurhoth S. nasal mut. of gaurhoth

nguruthos S. nasal mut. of guruthos

phain S. nasal mut. pl. of pân

pheriain S. nasal mut. pl. of perian

pheriannath S. nasal mut. coll. of periannath

thiw S. nasal mut. pl. of têwLotR/II:IVThe mutated form of tîw on the Doors of Durin is thiw instead of the expected thîw. See sen for a discussion of this form

thîw S. nasal mut. pl. of têwLetters/347Cf. thiw

2.3. other

Template: other
Expansion pattern: //entry[descendant::itype[@type='sm' or @type='nm' or @type='mm'] = 'mut.']

rach S. mut. of rhache-'Rach MR/373

*thoniel S. [θˈɔni.ɛl̡] mut. of tonielGilthoniel LotR/II:I, LotR/IV:X, RGEO/72-74