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Black Speech
Black Speech is the language of Mordor, invented by Sauron – therefore an artificial language inside the very world created by Tolkien. The Dark Lord wished to make it the language of all his servants but he failed, since the Orcs never achieved more than introducing many of its words in their numerous jargons.

Ash nazg durbatulûk – Extract of the Ring Poem. The Lord of the Rings, book II, chapter 2.
Uglúk u bagronk – Orc curse, in a “debased” variety of Black Speech. The Lord of the Rings, book III, chapter 3.
Names in Black Speech – Picked up from The Lord of the Rings, Unfinished Tales and the collection The History of Middle-earth.

The works of John Ronald Reuel and Christopher Tolkien are under the copyright of their authors and/or rights holders, including their publishers and the Tolkien Estate.
Quotations from other authors, editors and translators mentioned in the bibliography are under the copyright of their publishers, except for those whose copyright term has ended.
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