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– A –

A.S. Napier, 1853-1916 (Ker) 405-6

Abercrombie, Lascelles 56, 437

Abnegation 246

About the House (Auden) 367-8

Ace Books 355, 356, 358, 364, 367

Ackerman, Forrest J. 270-7; 260, 261, 267, 447

Adunaic 175; Númenorean 279, 347

The Adventures of Tom Bombadil (poem) 26, 58, 178, 192, 308, 315, 318-19, 435, 445; first appeared in the Oxford Magazine 178, 192, 308, 435, 445; altered to fit LR 315, 318-19

The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book 308, 309, 312, 314-15, 316, 318-19, 322, 343, 377, 448, 449, 450; suggested by Jane Neave 308, 377; editorial fiction that poems come from Shire 315; illustrations 308, 309, 312, 315, 316, 318-19; reviews and sales 322, 450; see also titles of individual poems

AElfwine (The Lost Road) 347

Aeneid (Vergil) 93, 435, 440

Africa 30, 82

Aglarond 282, 407

Agnew, Lady 321, 450

Ainur 146, 259-60, 284; Authorities 193; Gods 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 186, 191, 193, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 235-6, 259, 284; Governors 203, 205, 354, 368; Guardians 387, 407; Lords 198, 201, 202, 205; Maiar 447; Maiar as ‘lesser’ beings 193, 205, 259, 284, 287, 411; Powers 146, 159, 176, 193, 198, 201, 202, 204, 206, 284, 332, 345, 368; Regents 411; Rulers 235, 237, 284, 285; Spirits 193, 235, 237, 259, 260, 284, 332; Valar 146, 153, 155, 156, 176, 177, 186, 193-4, 195, 198, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 235, 236, 237, 243, 281, 282-3, 284-5, 287, 307, 327, 335, 345, 347, 354, 360, 368, 386-7, 407, 411, 417; ‘angelic’ beings 146, 147, 193, 201-3, 205, 206, 259, 345, 354, 368, 387, 407, 411; occupy imaginative place of ‘gods’ 146, 193, 198, 205, 235, 259, 284, 368; not to be worshipped 193, 204; knowledge of Creation 146, 147, 149, 203, 236, 259-60, 285, 287; powers of sub-creation 146, 194, 195, 284, 287; limits of power over Elves, Men, etc. 147, 151, 194, 202-3, 204, 206, 260, 285, 345, 411; love for Children of God 147, 203, 260, 285; bound to the world 194, 259, 284; immortality 205, 332, 354, 411; incarnation 259, 260, 284, 285, 411; capable of error 202, 287; no language of own, names given by Elves 282-3; Music of the Ainur 284, 285, 335; Ban of the Valar 154-6, 204-5, 386; see also Fall, Wizards

Airplanes 88, 105, 112, 113, 115

Akallabêth see The Downfall of Númenor

Alboin 347

Aldarion 360

Aldarion arid Enemlis 360

Alexander 64

Alf 389

Alfirin 249, 402

Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, (Carroll) 21, 22, 25

All Hallows Eve (Williams) 349

Allegory 82, 121, 144, 145, 174, 212, 233, 239, 262, 297-8, 307, 351; and ‘applicability’ 262, 297-8; and Elves 190; and Fastitocalon 344; and Leaf by Niggle 195, 320-1; and the Light of Valinor 148; and LR 41, 120, 121, 212, 220, 232-3, 246, 262, 264, 283-4, 307; and Tom Bombadil 192; Allegory and Story meet in Truth 121

Allen, Walter 296-9

George Allen & Unwin (including letters to individuals at the firm) 14-12, 23-9, 31-5, 36-7, 38-9, 40-6, 85-6, 112-14, 117-24, 130-1, 132-3, 135-9, 140-2, 161-71, 173, 181-3, 184-5, 208, 209-10, 222-3, 224, 227, 229-30, 248-51, 256-7, 260-1, 262-4, 265-7, 299-300, 301-2, 304-7, 309, 312-15, 318, 322, 335, 342, 352, 355-6 362-3, 364-6, 368-9, 371, 379, 391, 411, 417-18, 442; 14, 117, 134, 135, 143, 169, 215, 217, 228, 245, 256, 296, 304, 313, 322, 346, 371, 374, 390, 406, 408, 421, 436, 443, 444

Almqvist & Wiksell FörIag 263, 447

Altmark 72, 438

Aman 194, 386, 410-11; Ards Unmarred 328; Blessed Realm 150, 156, 204, 205, 206, 386; Eldamar (Elvenhome) 180, 198, 204, 281, 445; Eressëa 150, 151, 154, 156, 186, 198, 386, 410, 442; Lonely Isle (Eressëa) 150; Land of the Gods 150; Land of the Valar 177, 237; Undying Land 194; undying lands of Valinor and Eressëa 410; Valimar 186; Valinor 148, 150, 151, 152, 156, 186, 198, 333, 410, 425, 426, 427; Mountains of Valinor 278; West 94, 148, 150, 151, 155, 156, 157, 159, 176, 180, 186, 198, 207, 318, 327, 354, 410-11, 451; immortal lands 154, 186; does not confer immortality 205; paradise 148, 156, 198, 237, 328, 387; removed from physical world 156, 186, 194, 198, 206, 386, 410-11

Amandil 347

America see United States of America

Amon Uilos (Oiolosse) 278

Anárion 156-7, 198, 206

Ancrene Wisse (anon.) 211, 315, 319, 449

Ancrene Wisse (Ancrene Riwle, ed. Tolkien) 36, 114, 164, 165, 301-2, 319, 322, 436, 441, 449

Andersen, Hans Christian 311; The Ugly Duckling 232

Anduin 156, 157, 179, 376, 381; Great River 157, 158, 231

Andúril 273, 425

Andvari 314

Angamaitë 425

Angband, fortress of the Devil 376; Gates of Hell 193; stronghold 148, 149, 150, 307

Angelic beings see Ainur

Angels, guardian 66, 99, 159, 288; see also Fall (of angels)

Angerthas see Runes

Anglo-Saxon see Old English

Anglo-Saxon England (Stenton) 108

Aotrou and Itroun 118, 441

Applicability see Allegory

Ar-Adûnakhôr 279, 448

Aragorn 104, 160, 161, 180, 193, 200, 206, 237, 246, 247, 258, 267, 272, 273, 286, 307, 323-4, 327, 332, 334, 344, 346, 347, 384, 419, 420, 424, 426, 445, 446, 448, 450; Strider 216, 273, 346, 347, 440; Thorongil 427; Trotter 95, 97, 440; meaning of Aragorn 426; healing power 200; longevity 193, 307; Númenórean descent 160, 307, 448; Sauron’s opposite 180; could not have withheld Ring from Sauron 332; death 267, 286, 419; descendants 344; unknown to Tolkien when introduced 216

Aragorn and Arwen, Tale of see The Lord of the Rings: Appendices

Arathorn 424, 426, 427

Archeology, in Middle-earth 196

Archer 263

Arda 283, 185, 417, 447; Earth 150, 193, 194, 197, 198, 283, 411; world 150, 154, 156, 186, 195, 259, 283, 386, 411; flat world changed to round 154, 156, 186, 194, 197-8, 206, 386, 411; end of the world 149, 207, 284, 285, 325, 419; circles of the world 156, 206, 286, 287, 325, 354, 386, 419; and our own world 224, 283; Arda Unmarred 328; meaning of Arda 283; “Arda” used figuratively 417

Ardizzone, Edward 130

Ariosto, Ludovico 181, 184

Arms and the Man (Shaw) 94

Arnor 157-8, 199, 347, 424, 428; North Kingdom 199, 281; meaning of Arnor 428; diadem of 281; ‘North Kingdom’ used figuratively 223

Ar-Pharazôn 205-6, 277, 279, 443; Tar-Calion 155-6, 443

Art, by Tolkien see Tolkien, J.R.R.: Artistic abilities

Art, pictorial 223, 413

Arthedain 426

Arthur, King, matter of 59, 199, 241, 280; anachronisms in 133; British, not English 144; poem by Tolkien 219

Arvedui 199

Arwen (Undómiel) 160, 161, 180, 193, 198, 237, 327-9, 423, 445; not reincarnation of Lúthien 193; and Frodo’s journey into West 198, 327-9

Asfaloth 211, 277, 279

Asimov, Isaac 377

Assisi 223

A_xx_alsteinsdottir, Ungfrú 430

L’Atlantide et le règne des géants (Saurat) 198

Atlantis, myth used in Tolkien’s writings 151, 175, 186, 197-8, 206, 213, 232, 303, 342, 347, 361, 378; see also Númenor

Atomic bomb 116, 165, 303, 443

Atomic power 246

Attila 264, 447

Auden, W.H. 211-17, 355, 359, 367-8, 378-9, 452; 96, 322, 376, 446; About the House 367-8; The Elder Edda (trans. Auden and Taylor) 379, 452; The Orators 212, 445; reviews of LR 208, 211, 238-44, 412, 445; BBC talk on LR 211-17, 229; comments on Tolkien’s house 367-8, 373; Tolkien’s appreciation of Auden 411-12

Audoin 347

Auerbach, Frich, Mimesis 238-9, 241

Aulë 285, 287, 335

Aunts 308

Austen, Jane 72, 83

Austin, Ruth 407

 

– B –

Bag End 216

Baggins (name) 299

Baggins family 24, 31, 294, 295-6, 448

Baggins, Bilbo (Mr Baggins, the hobbit) 20, 21, 24, 30, 31, 32, 35, 38, 101, 104, 105, 119, 121, 122, 134, 158, 159, 186, 187, 191, 198, 219, 239, 277, 291, 294, 295, 296, 307, 319, 328-9, 334, 346, 365, 391, 406, 430, 435, 442, 446, 450, 452; appearance 30, 35; boots acquired at Rivendell 35; not like a rabbit 30, 35; an exceptional hobbit 192, 365; walking song 239; returns enlarged in vision and wisdom 159; journey into West 198, 328-9

Baggins, Bungo 294

Baggins, Frodo 69, 70, 71, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 97, 101, 103, 104, 105, 110, 115, 146, 153, 186, 191, 192, 197, 198, 201, 206, 216, 217, 214, 231, 232, 233-5, 240-1, 247, 251-3, 255, 259, 272, 273, 277, 291, 295, 308, 321, 325-32, 355, 365, 386, 411, 446, 447, 450; origin of name Frodo 224; hero 103, 153, 252-3, 326; duty ‘humane’ not political 240-1; undertook quest out of love, and in humility 317; his pity allowed quest to succeed 191, 234, 252-3, 330; his failure 232-4, 251-3, 325-7; sanctification 234; growth and change in character 105, 186, 191, 234, 331; not another Bilbo 186; less interesting than Sam 105; not a pacifist 255; instrument of Providence 326; specially graced and gifted 365; broken by burden and failure 186, 327-9; went to purgatory and healing before death 198, 328-9, 386, 411; and the Ring if story were different 330-2

Baggins, Laura 194

Baggins, Ponto 294, 448

Bailey, Colin 344

Bailey, George 350-1, 451

The Ballad of the White Horse (Chtesterton) 92

Ballantine Books 358, 362-3, 447

Balrogs 180, 274, 382

Bannister, Roger 182, 444

Barad-dûr 104, 153, 170, 178, 283, 450; Dark Tower 153, 157, 158, 173; ‘Barad-dûr’ used figuratively 165

Barfield, Owen, Medea 103; Poetic Diction 22, 435; and the Inklings 103; and C.S. Lewis 103, 341, 363, 451-2; approved LR 122, 441

Barrett, Anne 237-8, 349-51

Barrow, John 98

Batten-Phelps, Carole 411-14

Bayeux Tapestry 281

Baynes, Pauline (Mrs Gasch) 312, 318-19; 133, 280, 308, 309, 312, 315, 316, 350; illustrations for Farmer Giles of Ham 133, 280, 312; illustrations for Adventures of Tom Bombadil 308, 309, 312, 315, 316, 318-19

Bazell, Charles Ernest 419

BBC see British Broadcasting Corp.

Beare, Rhona 277-87, 307-8, 324-5

Beasly, John 238

Beethoven, Ludwig van 288

Beleg Finds Gwiador in Taur-nu-Fuin 17, 19, 434

Beleriand 334

Belgium 36, 184, 219

Belmont Hotel, Sidmouth 408

Benedictines 337

Bennett, H.S. 44, 436

Bent road 411

Beonr 178

Beorn’s Hall 15, 434

Beornings 248

Beowulf (anon.) 30, 31, 43-6, 72, 105, 134, 201, 241-2, 312, 314, 369, 438; discussion of 241-2; source for The Hobbit 30, 31

Beowulf (trans. Tolkien) 438

Beowulf and the Finnesburg Fragment see Prefatory Remarks…

Beowulf: The monster and the Critics 350

Beren 149, 180, 193, 204, 221, 282, 334, 345, 347, 386, 445; Tolkiten as Beren 417

Beren and Lúthien, versions of tale see The Silmarillion

Berkshire 65

Bernardus Silvestris 34

Berúthiel 217, 228, 231, 446

Bestiaries 343

Betjeman, John 184, 322

Beveridge, William Henry 91

Bible: Corinthians 152, 394, 446; Daniel 400; Ephesians 370; Genesis 109-10; Gospels 100, 237, 338, 393; John 338; Jonah 378; Luke 99; New Testament 109, 358, 395; Old Testament 398; Psalms 400; Samuel 384; Jerusalem Bible 378

Bilho comes to the Huts of the Raft-elves 19, 27

Bilbo woke with the Early Sun in His Eyes 19, 27, 34, 35

Bill the pony 104

Binney, John 23, 47, 89, 435

Biography, literary 257, 288, 305, 321, 367, 414

Bird and Baby see Eagle and Child

Birmingham 7, 54, 69-70, 96, 179, 218, 219, 235, 245, 348, 410, 451, 452; Brummagem (Brum) old form of name 69, 348, 451; changed since Tolkien’s boyhood 70; Beaufort Road 348; Bristol Road 70; Duchess Road 348, 451; Edgbaston 348; Edgbaston Park Road 70; New Street 395

Birmingham, University of 245

Birmingham Oratory 7, 395, 434

Birnam Wood 212

The Black Douglas (Crockett) 391

Black Gate see Morannon

Black Riders see Ringwraiths

Black Speech 175, 178, 382, 384-5, 444

Blackfriars, Oxford 115, 370

Blackwell, Basil 47, 94, 114, 437, 440

Blackwell’s Bookshop, Oxford 47

Blake, William, Milton 90

Blasphemy 97-8

Blickling Homilies 385

Bloemfontein 75, 213, 219

Blunderbuss 133

Blyton, Carey 350

Blyton, Enid 312

Boarland family 408

Boffin family 31

Bolger family 31

Bolger, Belisarius 120, 122

Bolger, Fredegar (Fatty) 441

Bolger, Hamilcar 110, 122

Bombadil, Tom 26, 104, 174, 178-9, 187, 191-2, 216, 228, 267, 272, 307, 308, 315, 318-19, 445, 449; spirit of (vanishing) Oxford and Berkshire countryside 26; inserted into LR 315, 318-19; function in LR 178-9, 192; intentional enigma 174; not improved by philosophizing about 192; exemplar of natural science 179, 192; and pacifist view 179; Eldest in Time 191; no fear or desire of possession or domination 191; ‘He is’ 187, 191-2; and the Entwives 179

Bombadil Goes Boating 315, 318-19, 449

Book of Mazarbul 168, 170, 171, 186, 248, 443

Boorde, Andrew 320, 450

Boromir 79, 197, 266, 323

Bournemouth 316, 335-6, 391, 429, 430, 431, 450; East Overcliff 431; Little Forest Road 431, 432; see also Tolkien, J.R.R.: Homes

Bowen, R. 159-60

Bowra, Maurice 162, 443

Boyer, Robert H. 411-12

Boys’ Own Paper 184, 370

Bracegirdle family 31

Bradley, Henry 12, 434

Brainwashing 234, 252, 253, 327

Brandy Hall 294, 358

Brandybuck family 31

Brandybuck, Meriadoc (Merry) 246, 276, 334, 376, 448

Bratt, Edith see Tolkien, Edith

Bree 158, 216, 303, 360, 361, 447, 449

Breit Harvey 217-18, 219

Bretherton, Christopher 344-9

Brightman, F.E. 389, 452

Britain, and England 65, 107; and firearms 133; ‘air’ of 144; see also England

British (Celtic language) 214, 219; British-Welsh 176

British Broadcasting Corp. 187, 253-5; 63, 93, 164; talk on Anglo-Saxon verse 27, 340, 435, 450; broadcasts of Homecoming of Beorthnoth 187, 219; broadcast of Pearl 317, 449; dramatization of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight 183, 444; dramatization of LR 228, 229, 244, 253-5, 257; talk on LR 211, 229; film Tolkien in Oxford 389-90

British Commonwealth 65

Brittany 383

Broceliande 383

Brogan, Hugh 129, 131-2, 185-6, 224, 225-6, 230; 442

Bromsgrove 54

Brooke, Rupert, The Old Vicarage, Grantchester 110, 440

Brooke, V.J. 84, 439

Browne, Patrick,418

Browne, Thomas, Vulgar and Common Errors 319, 449

Browning, Robert, The Pied Piper 311, 449

Brown’s Hotel, London 417-18

Bruinen, Ford of 263

Buchan, Alexander 79, 439

Buckingham Palace 391, 417-18

Buckinghamshire 130

Buckland 296

Bucklebury Ferry 358

Buildings, modern 70, 84, 91, 439; slums and gas-works, shabby garages, arc-lit suburbs 96; houses north of old Oxford 130; reconstruction of Rotterdam 265

The Bull from the Sea (Renault) 377

Bumpus 217

Burchfield, R.W. 404-5

Bum, J. 251-2

Bume-Jones, Edward 128

Burnett-Stuart, John 162, 443

Burrowes family 31

Busman’s Honeymoon (Sayers) 82

Butler, Samuel, Erewhon 88

Butterbur, Barliman 272; used figuratively 181

Bywater 31

 

– C –

Calas Galadhon 426

Calenardon 383

Callaghan, James 340, 450

Cambridge 44, 124

Cambridge, University of 74, 164, 351

Campbell, Roy 95-6; Flaming Terrapin 95; Flowering Rifle 95

Canada 36, 73, 218

The Canterbury Tales (Chaucer) 39-40

Carcharoth 193

Carmelites, Barcelona 95-6

Carr, Charlie 416, 421, 432

Carroll, Lewis 21-2; Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland 21, 22, 25; Hiawatha’s Photographing 22; Sylvie and Bruno 22; Through the Looking-Glass 22, 94

Carryl, Charles E., Davy and the Goblin 104

Cars 82, 89, 109, 343; destroying Oxford for motor-cars 235, 446; traffic 165, 344-5; Tolkien’s car ‘JO’ 408, 453; ‘infernal combustion; engine 77

Carter, Douglas 419; 80, 99-102, 439

Cat 343

Cater, William 408, 415

Catholic Church, anti-Catholic feelings 52, 83-4, 95-6, 354, 394-5; Catholics and evil ends 190; habit of calling priests father 191; apparent failings in Church 337-9, 354; Second Vatican Council 339, 450; changes in the Church 393-5; pictured as a tree 394

Catholic Herald 112

Cats, of Queen Berúthiel 217, 228, 231, 448; Siamese 300

Causier family 431, 432, 453

Cecil, David 36, 71, 117, 122, 438

Celebdil (Silvertine) 392

Celeborn 308, 360, 424, 425; Telporno 425

Celebrían 193, 423

Celebrimbor 77, 110, 360; and sense of endless untold stories 110

Celtic Britain (Rhys) 410

Celtic languages 26, 214, 219, 227; see also British (Celtic language), Irish languages, Welsh language

Celtic legends 26, 144, 176; pseudo-Celtic fairy-story 40

Celtic scholars 229

Cerin Amroth 221

Certar see Rune

Chambers, E.K. 36

Chambers, R.W. 20, 435

Change, resistance to 151-2, 177, 197, 236, 267

Chapman, R.W. 56-8; 437

Character, development of 240

Chaucer, Geoffrey 39-10, 48, 215, 238, 317; Canterbury Tales 39-40

Cheddar Gorge cave 407

Cherryman, A.E. 184, 444

Cherwell, Lord 238

Cherwell Edge, convent at 215, 346,374

Chesterton, G.K. 92, 246, 402; The Ballad of the White Horse 92

Childe, Wilfrid 95, 440

Children, writing for 215-16, 297-9, 309-11, 346; for Tolkien’s own children 20-1, 25, 145, 215, 297, 298, 346; not interested in writing for children 216, 297, 309-10; should not write down to children 297-9, 309-11; regrets ‘children’s story’ manner of The Hobbit 159, 191, 215, 218, 297-8, 310, 346

Children of God 147, 149, 189, 195, 203, 204, 206, 235-6, 260, 283, 285, 287, 345; EruhTinúvielni 189, 194, 236, 345; Elves and Men so called, a private addition by the Creator 147, 149, 235-6, 260, 285; both akin and different to Ainur 147, 203, 236, 260, 285; object of love of Ainur 147, 203, 260, 285; and jurisdiction of the Valar 206, 285, 345; sea also Elves, Men, Mortality

Children of Húrin see The Silmarillion

Chopin, Frederic 89

Christ Church, Oxford 22, 235, 321, 446

Christian Behaviour (C.S. Lewis) 59-62, 437

Christian Council, Oxford 73, 84, 102

Christianity, Christians 91, 109, 127, 226; see also Catholic Church, Church of England, Fall, Lutherans

Christmas 68, 213, 300, 323

Christopher, John, The Death of Grass 377, 452

Chrysophylax 130-1

Chubb family 31

Chu-Bu and Sheernish (Dunsany) 375, 418, 453

Church of England 96, 256, 394

Churchill, Winston S. 63, 65, 66, 96, 192, 438

Circles of the world see Arda

Círdan 236, 327

Cirith (Kirith) Ungol 76-7, 79, 82, 170, 247; Cirith vs. Kirith 247; Stairs of Kirith Ungol 104, 106; Tower of Cirith Ungol 173, 444

Clarendon Press 114

Clayhanger family 294

Cloth”, in Farmer Giles of Ham 280; in Middle-earth 35, 196, 280-1

Coghill, Nevill 39, 359 406-7, 446

Collins (publishers) 134-5, 139-40, 143-61; 134, 143, 161

Comedy 120

Commercialism 55, 323

Common Speech 156, 175, 178, 180, 254, 381; Westron 175, 425; derived from Adunaic 175, 425; equated with English 175, 254, 343, 381; related languages represented by languages related to English 175; accents 253-4

Connaughton, Sarah 71, 438

Convent (word) 112

Conversation with Smaug 19, 27, 32, 35

Copyright, Ace Books dispute 355-6, 358, 364, 367; of names 349, 371; and sequel to LR 371

Cormallen, Field of 321

Cosman, Milein 130-1, 133

Cotton family 180, 245, 329, 348

Cotton, Rose 161

Couchman, A.E. 368

Council of Elrond 241, 326, 332

Country Lire 184, 444

Court of the Fountain 206

Courtly love 324

Coventry 112

Cowper, William 72; The Task 72

Cox and Wyman 313, 449

Cracks of Doom see Mount Doom

Craigic, W.A. 12, 13

Crankshaw, Edward 25-6, 113, 136

Creation 195; see also Sub-creation

Creation, in Tolkien’s mythology, secret life in 149; distinguished from making 188, 190, 195, 235, 287; by Evil 187, 190-1; primary and secondary reality 235, 259; Design (of Eru) 284-5, 345; re-forming of, in LR 146; and The Silmarillion 146-7, 360; see also Ainur, Eru, Sub-creation

Crete 430

Cricket 241, 257

Crickhollow 358

Crist (Cyncwulf) 150, 385, 387

Criterion, London 161

Criticism 125-9

The Critics 229

Crockett, S.R., The Black Douglas 391

Curiosity 239

Cynewulf, Crist 150, 385, 387

 

– D –

Daedalus 88

Dagnall, Susan 14; 215, 346, 374, 452

Daily Telegraph 419-20; 68, 184, 342, 367, 372, 415, 444

Daily Worker 48, 437

Dale, language of 175; men of 244

Dane, Clemence 261

Dante Alighieri 377

D’Arcy Martin 96, 440

D’Ardenne, Simonne (S.R.T.O.) 114, 124, 185, 441

Dark Lord see Morgoth, Sauron

Dark Tower see Barad-dûr

Dasent, George 384

Davidman, Joy 256

Davis, Norman 369; English and Medieval Studies Presented to J.R.R. Tolkien (ed. Davis and Wrenn) 322-3

Davy and the Goblin (Carryl) 104

Dawkins, R.M. 25, 435

De Bortadano, Joanna 246-7

De la Mare, Walter 253

Dead Marshes 72, 73, 76, 303

Dead Men 248

Déagol 290-2, 381

Death see Mortality

The Death of Grass (Christopher) 377, 452

The Death of Smaug 364-5

Democracy 64, 107, 215, 246

Denethor 197, 241, 244, 307, 324, 344; motives, politics 241

Denis (bicycle mender) 83, 87, 439

J.M. Dent 449

Devil 48, 228, 344; see also Satan

Devon 408

Diamond jubilee 230, 235

Di Capua Michael 351

Dickens, Charles, Pickwick Papers 349

Dionysus 64

Dior 193, 282, 334

Diplomat 221

Discus (club) 388

Disney (Studios) 17, 119, 261, 311

Divorce 51, 60-2; see also Marriage

Dixon, Richard Watson, History of the Church of England 127-8

Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (Stevenson) 124

Dol Amroth Prince of 323-4

Dol Guldur 290

Domination see Power

Dominion of Men 104, 160, 207, 232, 252; or History 207, 252

Doom of Men see Mortality

Doors of burin 167, 170, 443

Dor Gyrth i chuinar 417

Doriath 334

Dorthonion 334

The Downfall of Númenor 151, 154-7, 177, 213, 232, 279-80, 347, 360, 378; Fall of Númenor 130; Akallabêth 279, 347, 360; link between The Silmarillion and the Third Age 130; essential background to later stories 151, 161, 189; central theme a Ban 154; originally unrelated legends brought into mythology 347

Dragon School, Oxford 129

The Dragon’s Visit 18, 434

Dragons 18, 26, 27, 30, 42, 134, 177, 214, 221, 345, 389, 434, 435; lecture on 27, 435; in northern imagination 134; and LR 177; and C.S. Lewis 389; Tolkien susceptible as a dragon to flattery 30; ‘green great dragon’ 214, 221

Drake, H.L. 83, 439

Dublin 181, 219

Dublin Review 97, 112, 195, 320, 439

Dundas-Grant James 341, 451

Dúnedain see Men

Dunning, T.P. (Tom) 430, 453

Dunsany, Lord 26; Chu-Bu and Sheemish 375, 418, 453

Dúrin 177, 287, 346, 347, 426

Dutch language 263, 429; translation of LR 248-51, 305, 447

Dutton, Geoff 351, 451

Duty 240-1

Dwarf, dwarves (words) 23-4, 31, 207, 251, 313, 314, 449; dwarrows 14, 31; Tolkien uses dwarfs himself 147, 196, 207, 314

Dwarfs, traditional 26, 31, 207, 314

Dwarves, in Tolkien’s mythology 23-4, 26, 31, 42, 147, 151, 152, 153, 158, 159, 175, 190, 196, 207, 222, 229, 248, 251, 262, 287, 307, 313, 318, 334, 335, 346, 347, 365, 382, 383, 448, 449; Hobbit begins with Grimins’ fairy-tale dwarfs 26; not traditional dwarfs 23, 31, 207, 383; Icelandic/Scandinavian names 21, 31, 175, 382, 383; creation by Aulë 287, 335, 448; history of 159; nature of 207; supplied metals to hobbits 196; mines of (in general) 229; hostility between Dwarves and Elves 152, 159; friendship of Dwarves of Moria with Elves of Eregion 152, 190; compared to Jews 229; see also Moria

Dwarvish language 175, 229; kept secret 175; ‘outer’ names not in 21, 31, 175, 382; see also Runes

Dyson, H.V.D. (Hugo) 47, 116-17, 437, 441; and the Inklings 82, 83, 161, 439; noisy 83, 128; heard The Fall of Gondolin 446

 

– E –

Eä 283, 284-5, 286

Eädwine 347

Eagle and Child (Bird and Baby) 92, 95, 102, 109, 129, 439, 441

Eagles 101, 104, 261, 270, 271, 273; dangerous ‘machine’ 271

Earendel the Wanderer see The Silmarillion

Eärendil 149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 189, 193, 221, 277, 282, 334, 345, 347, 361, 380, 381, 385-7; name in Old English 150, 385, 387; name in Quenya 150, 282, 386; beauty of word inspired poem and myth 385-6; importance of character 150

Eärendil was a Mariner (Bilbo’ s song) 277, 443

Eärendur 386

Early English Text Society 114, 436

Earp, T.W. 7, 95, 434

Earth see Arda East 144, 280, 344, 361

East Coker (Masufeld) 353

East Farthing see Shire

Fastenings 157, 241, 280

Economy, of Middle-earth 196

Ecumenicalism 394-5

Edain see Men

Eddison, E.R. 174, 258, 377, 446; The Mezentian Gate 84, 258, 439, 447; Mistress of Mistresses 258, 447; The Worm Ouroboros 84, 220, 258, 377, 439, 447; and the Inklings 84, 258, 439; Tolkien liked his works, except names 258, 377

Edell 109-10

Eden, Anthony 107, 440

Edward VIII (as Prince of Wales) 391

Edwin (The Lost Road) 347

Egypt, and Númenóreans 281; used figuratively 340

Ehrardt, Mrs E. 428-9

Eikinskjaldi 314

Elanor 106, 249, 402

Elbereth see Varda

Eldamar see Arnan

Eldar see laves

Eldarion 419

Elder Days 191, 232, 252, 316; Ancient World 31, 148, 313; Old World 220; see also First Age

Elder Edda 31, 379, 452

Eledhwen 281

Elendil 156-7, 177, 198, 206, 260, 280, 333, 347, 386, 424, 428; meaning of narne 156, 206, 347, 386; chief of the Faithful 156, 206, 347; Noachian figure 156, 206

Elgar Edward 336

Elgar, Eileen 325-33,343-4, 335-6

Eliot, T.S. 350, 353

Elizabeth II 347, 418

Elladan 193, 277, 281-2

Elrohir 193, 277, 281-2

Elrond (the Half-elven) 104, 122, 149, 152, 153, 154, 157, 158, 160, 161, 180, 190, 193, 198, 236, 241, 246, 277, 281-2, 314, 326, 329, 332, 333, 334, 346-7, 423, 448, 450; origin, meaning of name 281-2, 423, 448; Elrond in The Hobbit not originally same character as in mythology 346-7; symbolizes ancient wisdom 153; no political duty or purpose 241; if he had taken the Ring 332

Elros 154, 155, 193, 281-1, 334, 347, 448

Elton, Olives 340

Elvenhome see Aman

The Elvenking’s Gate 15, 434

Elves, Elf, Elvish (words) 31, 143, 176, 185, 251, 313

Elves, traditional 143, 176, 314

Elves, in Tolkien’s mythology 8, 31, 78, 129, 136, 143, 146-54, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 175-7, 185-6, 187-9, 190, 192, 193, 195, 197, 198, 200, 203, 204, 205, 206, 235-6, 237, 241, 251, 253, 260, 262, 267, 274, 278, 279, 281, 282, 284, 285, 286, 287, 318, 325, 345, 368, 383, 386, 387, 411, 425, 426, 431; Eldalië 85, 129; Eldar 33, 176-7, 186, 198, 243, 281, 359, 361, 410, 426; Eldar defined 176, 281; derivation of Eldar 281; Elder Children 176; Elfkin 346; Elves of Eregion 152, 190; Exiles, Exiled Elves 148, 149, 150, 151, 176-7, 386, 425; Fairies 8; First Born 147, 204, 345; High Elves 104, 149, 151, 157, 176, 180, 186, 198, 204, 281, 286, 318, 335, 347, 424, 425; High Elves defined 176, 198; Lesser Elves 176; Noldor (Gnomes, Masters of Lore) 23, 31, 77, 78, 148, 176, 190, 281, 282, 318, 425, 426, 427, 431, 435, 439; Quendi 176; Silvan (Woodland) Elves 176, 382, 425; Sindar (Grey-elves) 176, 281, 382, 411; Teleri 426; not traditional elves 31, 143, 176, 185; history of 146-57, 176-7; akin to Men 176, 205, 236; biologically one race with Men 189; Elf-Human marriage 149, 176, 188, 189, 192-3, 445; Elves represent aesthetic and creative aspects of Mankind 85, 149, 176, 189, 236; their magic is Art not Power 146, 200; primarily artists 192; fall of 146, 147-8, 204; doomed to fade 151, 176; desire to arrest change 151-2, 177, 197, 236, 267; desire for knowledge 152, 190; and sub-creation 146, 148; incarnate rational creatures 205; a race doomed not to leave the world 246; immortal not eternal 146, 189, 204, 236-7, 267, 285-6, 325; deathlessness a burden 146, 147, 236, 325; and reincarnation 147, 187-9, 236, 286; childbearing 431; not wholly good or in the right 197; hostility between Elves and Dwarves 152, 159; friendship of Elves of Eregion with Dwarves of Moria 152, 190; High Elves had no religious practices in Middle-earth 204; belief in God 243; called on Varda-Elbereth 206; monotheists 253; did not know fate at end of Arda 285, 325; departure into the West 176, 177, 198; ‘Elves’ used figuratively 78; see also Children of God, Half-elven, Mortality, Rings of Power

Elvish languages 129, 143-4, 145, 146, 175, 178, 219, 248, 282, 380, 385-6, 403, 428; Elvish roots/stems 178, 224, 277, 278, 281, 282, 303, 308, 347, 361, 380, 382-3, 384, 386, 423, 425, 426, 427; plurals 178; names and words in k rather than c 247; two related Elvish languages 26, 143, 175; Primitive/Common Elvish 278, 281, 282, 383, 386, 410; Telerin 425, 416; and Númenóreans 154; at end of Third Age more Men than Elves knew Quenya or spoke Sindarin 425; Tolkien would have liked more Elvish in LR 216; would have preferred to write LR in Elvish 219; Elvish languages represent his linguistic tastes 143, 175-6, 214, 231, 264, 380; his most absorbing interest 247; tape-records some pieces of Elvish 164; see also Tengwar Quenya (High-elven, including examples and translated names) 148, 150, 151, 156, 176, 178, 180, 189, 194, 202, 204, 206, 207, 219, 224, 265, 277-9, 281, 282, 283, 284, 303, 307-8, 343, 347, 361, 380, 381, 382-4, 385, 386, 403, 410, 422, 423, 424, 425-8, 434, 447, 448; nonsense fairy language 8, 434; and Latin 176, 343; and Finnish 176, 214; and Greek 176, 343; Elven-latin 176; archaic language of lore 176; ‘dead’ language 425; abandoned by Noldor for Sindarin 425; and Treebeard’s lament 307-8; omentielmo vs. omentielvo 447; Sindarin (Grey-elven, including examples and translated names) 152, 158, 176, 178, 199, 219, 223, 224, 247, 263, 277, 278-9, 281; 282, 283, 308, 380, 381, 382-3, 384, 392, 402, 403, 409-10, 417, 423, 424, 425-8, 448; and Welsh 219; fits ‘Celtic’ legends and stories 176; and Quenya 219, 415; living language of the Western Elves 176; Gnomish dialect 106; Woodland dialect 282, 425; ‘A Elbereth Gilthoniel’ explained 277-8; predominant nomenclature in Gondor 175, 178, 224, 384, 409, 424, 425; pronunciation in Gondor 178

Elwin 347

Elwing 150, 193, 282, 334, 448

Emma (after Austen) 83

Encounter 208, 211, 445

Endor see Middle-earth

Endor, Witch of 384

Enedwaith 224, 446

Enemy 146; see also Morgoth, Sauron

Engels, Horus 119

England 56, 65, 89, 90-1, 106, 281, 305, 410; class distinctions 69; Anglo-Saxon period 108; mythology for 144-5, 231; scope left for others to develop the mythology 145; ‘Shire’ based on rural England 235, 250; LR is English 250, 299

English and Medieval Studies Presented to J.R.R. Tolkien (ed. Davis and Wrenn) 322-3

English and Welsh 227, 228-9, 319-20, 446, 450

English Dialect Dictionary (Wright) 11

English language, modern 107, 254, 370; shame spoken so widely 65; accents 69-70, 253-4; pronunciation 72-3; and archaism 187, 225-6; grammatical question 300; learned by Tolkien at school 113; remote from his personal taste 214; and Black Speech 384; and Westron 425; see also Middle English, Old English

English literature, Tolkien not nourished by 172; did not learn at school 213; not interested in English novel 414

English Literature in the Sixteenth Century (C.S. Lewis) 125, 128

Entish language 269, 307-8

Ents 104, 160, 178, 179, 208, 211-12, 223, 231, 275, 276, 277, 334-5, 419, 445; Onodrim 178, 223-4; Shepherds of the Trees 160; origin of Ent 208, 212; origin of concept 212; and Great Birnam Wood 212; oldest of living rational creatures 160; and Dwarves 334; Entmoot 97; Tolkien did not consciously invent them 211-12, 231, 334; does not know what happened to them 104; Entwives 179, 335, 419; ‘male’ and ‘female’ attitudes to wild things 212; ‘Ent’ used figuratively 340

Eorl, House of 177, 216; oath of, used figuratively 379

Eowyn 161, 323, 324, 448

Epstein, Jacob 96

‘Erebor’ used figuratively 430

Erech 384

Ered Luin (Mountains of Lune) 196, 263, 334

Eregion 152, 190, 360

Erendis 360

Eressä see Aman

Erewhon (Butler) 88

Errantry 161-3, 309, 310, 443, 448; and oral tradition 162, 443; and Earendil was a Mariner 443

Eru 190, 194, 204, 206, 335, 345, 387; Authority 202, 203; Creator 147, 189, 203, 237, 259-60, 280, 283, 285, 286, 287; 345; Eru Ilúvatar 205; God 146, 147, 155, 156, 191, 194, 201, 204, 205, 206, 207, 235, 236, 243, 285; God the Creator 179; Ilúvatar 155, 204, 285, 287; The One 149, 155, 190, 194, 204, 235, 243, 253, 277, 280, 283, 284, 285, 287, 345; One God 189, 235, 387; Other Power 253; Teller 284; True God 206, 207, 243; Writer of the Story 253; meaning of Eru Ilúvatar 204; has no embodiment in the world 235, 237, 283; remote 204, 235, 387; reserves right to intervene 235; has sole right to divine honour 243; gave world secondary reality 259; see also Children of God, Creation

Escapism 85, 120

Esperanto 231, 446

Essays Presented to Charles Williams (ed. C.S. Lewis) 118, 209, 216, 220, 258, 297, 450

Essex 187

Eucatastrophe 100-1

Europe, and Tolkien’s mythology 144, 283, 376; elves and fairies of 176; dress of 280; tradition of men out of the sea 212, 303; and Fastitocalon 344

Everett, Caroline 257-9

Evesham 218, 377

Evil 75-6, 80, 127, 252, 280; things not evil may serve evil ends 190; no Absolute Evil 243; see also Good and Evil, Torture

Evil, in Tolkien’s mythology, arises from apparently good root 146; and power of creation 187, 190-1, 195; Shadow 207, 296; hang-over from one age to another 180; after Third Age Evil not incarnate 154, 160, 207, 252; and Orcs 355; see also Good and Evil, Morgoth, Power, Sauron

Examination Schools, Oxford 353

Exeter Book 66, 102-3

Exeter College, Oxford 12, 52, 214-15, 406, 434, 450

Exeter College Essay Club 7-8, 215, 445-6

Exodus (Old English text) 109

 

– F –

Fables 106

The Faerie Queene (Spenser) 181

Faery, faerie, fairyland 26, 135-6, 144

Fáfnir 134

Fairies 8, 176, 274

Fairy-stories 30, 144, 153, 192, 193, 252, 316, 377; adult genre 209; and children 216, 220, 232, 297, 298, 310; one of highest forms of literature 220; contain moral and religious truth 100, 144; and allegory 145; and eucatastrophe 100; and the Brothers Grimm 26; fairytale quality of Grendel 242; and Tolkien’s own works 26, 30, 31, 144, 216, 219, 232, 252, 288, 297, 298, 310; wishes to write this kind of story and no other 297; and proposed film of LR 261, 274; see also Myth, On Fairy-Stories

Faith 337-9

Faithful (of Númenor) 155, 156, 194, 198, 206

Fall, in Tolkien’s mythology 145, 195, 286-7, 387; of angels 147, 236, 286; of Aule 287; of Elves 146, 147-8, 204; of Men 147-8, 154-6, 203-5, 286, 387; of Morgoth 146, 195; of Wizards 237; and light 148; cf. Christian myth 147, 285-6

Fall, of Man 33, 48, 51, 52. 67, 88. 102, 109-10, 147, 189, 194, 203, 205, 237, 285-6, 387; cannot be any ‘story’ without a fall 147; peril of the incarnate 237

The Fall of Arthur 219

The Fall of Gondolin see The Silmarillion

Fangorn see Treebeard

Fangorn Forest 216, 419-20

Fans, mail from (in general) 98, 122, 210, 229, 248, 304, 305-6, 356, 377, 379-81, 422; Tolkien bothered by calls from 368-9, 416; his address to be kept secret 390; answering letters delayed Silmarillion 381; puzzled by fans’theories 379-80; proposed sequels to L.R 371; gift of drinking goblet 412; fans take names of characters 360; valueless criticism by 380; Tolkien Society of America 359, 360-1, 367, 368; horrors of the American scene 412

Faramir 79, 80, 104, 194, 201, 203, 213, 232, 241, 271, 323-4, 450; unexpected arrival in story 79; and vision of Great Wave 213, 232; and Denethor 241; like Tolkien 232

Farmer Giles see Giles

Farmer Giles of Ham 38-9, 40, 42, 43, 44, 58, 113, 117, 118, 119, 129, 132, 133, 135, 138, 423; origin in family game 43; Tolkien used to beat bounds of Little Kingdom 133; story located in Oxford-shire and Bucks 130; not written for children 119; for reading aloud 119; rewritten for Lovelace Society 39, 119, 133; has pleased audience 39, 44, 58; escaped grasp of Silmarillion 136, 145; blunderbuss in 133; prepared for publication 119, 129, 132, 133; illustrations 118, 130-1, 133, 280, 312; dedication 119; publication and sales 137-8, 140; sequels, similar tales 39, 40, 42, 43, 58, 113, 117, 118, 133, 136, 137, 139, 436, 442

Farnell, L.R. 7, 397, 406, 434

Farrer, Austin 124, 208, 341, 445

Farrer, Katherine 124-5, 130, 183-4, 207-8, 237, 256; 441, 445

Fascists 64

Fastitocalon 343-4

The Father Christmas letters 25, 26

Fawcett, H. l’A. 184, 444

Fëanor 148, 286, 386, 431; chief artificer of the elves 148; Sons of 148, 149, 150, 282; script see Tengwar

‘Fell Winter’ used figuratively 314

The Fellowship of the Ring see The Lord of the Rings

Ferny, Rill !04

Feudalism 69

The Fifth Book of Thucydides 356-8

Films, in general 270; of LR 257, 261, 266-7, 270-7; see also Disney

Findlay, Catharine 428

Finnish language 87, 176, 214, 345, 429; germ of The Silmarillion 87; influence on Tolkien’s invented languages 176, 214

Finnish legend see Kalevala

Fireworks 271, 390

Firor, Warfield M. 161

First Age 148, 151, 159, 175, 176, 180, 188, 213, 220, 224, 228, 303, 345, 360, 361, 407, 425; see also Elder Days

First Whisper of ‘The Wind in the Willows’ (Grahame) 90

First World War see World War I

Five Thousand, feeding of the 339

Flaming Terrapin (Campbell) 95

Flat world see Arda

Flora 106, 183, 221, 345, 381, 402-3; see also Tolkien, J.R.R.: Observation of nature, Trees

Flora, in Middle-earth 106, 206, 248, 381, 402

Flowering Rifle (Campbell) 95

For W.H.A. 378, 412

Forbidden Pool 330

Forestry Commission 420

Forgiveness 127, 234, 252, 253

Fornost 306

Forochel, Ice-bay of 199

Forodwaith 224

Forster. L.W. 303

Foster, William 372; 452

Fourth Age 419

Fox, Adam 36, 436; Old King Coel 36

Foyle’s bookshop 58, 86, 439

France 84, 89, 219, 303

Franco, Francisco 96

Free will 194-5, 277

Freedom 89, 93, 243

French language 263, 288, 340, 398, 410

The Front Gate 15, 434

Fuller, Edmund 316, 449

Furth, C.A. 15, 17-18, 19-22, 27-9, 38-9, 40-3; 25, 41, 44

Future, impenetrable 91

 

– G –

Gaelic languages see Irish languages

‘Gaffer Gamgee’ of Lamorna Cove 88, 179, 347-8, 439

Galadhrim 426

Galadriel 104, 146, 172, 180, 193, 198, 199, 203, 236, 274, 278, 288, 308, 314, 332, 333, 335, 360, 382, 386, 407, 423, 425, 426, 428, 431; meaning of name 423, 428; as old, or older than Shelob 180; last of Great among the High Elves 180; and rebellion against Valar 386, 407, 431; ban on return to the West 386, 407, 431; if she had taken the Ring 332; pardoned because refused the Ring 386, 407; committed no evil deeds 431; lament of 386; and Virgin Mary 172, 288, 407

Galathea 423

Gamgee (surname), and ‘Gaffer Gamgee’ 88, 179, 347-8; and Gamgee tissue 88, 179, 245, 348, 410; and Gamwich 179-80; Gamwichy 186

Gamgee family 180, 245, 348

Gamgee, Elanor 227

Gamgee, Hamfast (Gaffer) 83, 88, 179-80, 329, 347-8; origin of Hamfast 83; origin of Gaffer 88, 179, 347-8, 439

Gamgee, Professor 179, 245

Gamgee, Sam (correspondent) 244-5

Gamgee, Sampson 88, 179, 245, 410

Gamgee, Samwise (Sam) 69, 70, 76-7, 79, 83, 88, 101, 104, 105, 106, 107, 110, 146, 161, 179-80, 186, 191, 198, 217, 221, 227, 233, 234, 235, 239, 244-5, 259, 273, 277, 278, 288, 294, 295, 308, 321, 329-30, 331, 386, 450; origin of Samwise 83; proposed change of surname to Goodchild 83, 88; comic 88, 329; peasant 88; rustic 161, 244; Englishry 88; vulgarity 329; love for Rosie 161; devotion to Frodo 329-30, 386; treats Gollum like Caliban by Ariel 77; and Gollum’s failure to repent 110, 221, 235, 329-30; heroic character 161, 244, 329; chief hero 161; most closely drawn character 105; successor to Bilbo 105; jewel among hobbits 88; most representative hobbit 329-30; irritates some readers 329

Gamgee tissue 88, 245, 348, 410

Gandalf 24, 28, 31, 42, 79, 94, 104, 110, 119, 120, 121, 159, 180, 181, 182, 200, 201-3, 207, 217, 225, 228, 231, 232, 236-7, 243, 253, 271, 273, 276, 277, 289-90, 291, 293, 296, 307, 327, 328, 329, 332-3, 334, 346, 348, 349, 354, 365, 376, 383, 384, 390, 393, 402, 411, 413, 414, 424, 435, 442, 446, 447, 452; Olórin 259, 411, 447; White Rider 79; origin of Gandalf 31, 383; Odinic wanderer 119; was always old 182; sense of humour 271; avuncular attitude to hobbits 271; person of high and noble authority 271; angelic being 202-3, 237, 243, 354; emissary 182, 202, 237, 327, 354, 365; had been attached to Manwë 259, 447; his function especially to watch human affairs 159; opposed to Sauron 180, 202-3, 327; only wizard who fully passed tests 202; death and return from death 201-3, 237; enhanced powers 202, 203, 237; as Ringbearer 236-7, 327, 390; if he had taken the Ring 332-3; use of magic 200; and fireworks 390; and inscription on the Doors of Durin 424; and Saruman 202, 271, 277; and Shadowfax 354; and Frodo’s journey to the West 327, 328; his return to the West 236-7, 327, 354; see also Ainur, Wizards

Gard, Joyce see Reeves, Joyce

Gardeners’ Arms, Oxford 87

Gardner, Ava 353

Garm 130-1

Garrick Club 417

Gasch, Pauline see Baynes, Pauline

Gaudy Night (Sayers) 82, 439

Gebers Förlag 304

Genesis A 314

Geology, in Middle-earth 248

Geometry 377

George (Georgius, Prince, son of Giles) 43, 133

George V 391

George Allen & Unwin see under A

German, Germanic languages 37-8, 93, 178, 218, 263, 269-70, 314, 340, 358, 369, 376-7, 381, 385, 410; Early German 369; Low German 429; Old Germanic languages 12, 377; Primitive German 369, 381; Germanic philology 12, 218; German translation of The hobbit 37-8, 44, 119; see also Dutch, English, Gothic, Old English languages, Runes

German Mythology Applied (Ryan) 380

Germanic legend 144

Germany 37-8, 48, 55, 89, 90, 111; German people 65, 93, 229; ‘Germanic’ ideal 55-6

The Gest of Beren and Lúthien see The Silmarillion

Ghân-buri-Ghân 409

Ghosts 103

Giant (Farmer Giles of Ham) 131

Giant, in The lord of the Rings 42

Gielgud, John 102

Gift of Men see Mortality

Giles, Farmer 131, 423

Gil-galad 152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 190, 260, 273, 279, 280, 424, 425, 426; meaning of native 279, 426

Gilson, Robert C. 52, 343, 395, 451

Gilson, Robert Q. 8-10, 395, 429

Gimli 198, 229, 288, 381, 382; source of name 382; and his father 229; passes to Elvenhome 198

Gladden Fields 263, 381

Gladden River 381

Glasgow, University of 164, 165, 167

Glittering Caves 282, 407

Glóin 229

Glorfindel 277, 279, 423

Glórund Sets Forth to Seek Túrin 19,434

Gnome (word) 319, 449

Gnomes see Elves

Goblins see fires

God 9-10, 49, 51, 54, 66, 73, 76, 94, 99, 105, 110, 116, 126, 127, 128, 191, 234, 288, 326, 340, 393, 399-400; Creator 188, 189, 192, 399, 400; Great Author 215; Judge 234; supreme Artist and the Author of Reality 101; Writer of the Story 252; Light of 99; Will of 191; Finger of 204; belief in personal God 400

God, in Tolkien’s mythology see Eru

Gods see Ainur

Goebbels, Joseph 93

Goldberry 187, 191-2, 228, 272

Golden Hall 254, 275-6

The Golden Key (MacDonald) 351

Gollum 32 42, 70, 71, 76, 77, 81, 110, 119, 121, 124, 161, 164, 217, 221, 232, 233, 234-5, 252, 255, 286, 289, 296, 307, 313, 326, 327, 330, 334 442; Sméagol 201, 34-5, 289-2, 381; and original version of The Hobbit 121, 161, 442; and Déagol 290-2; and grandmother 293, 296; and the Stoors 289, 290; ‘Sméagol’ not fully envisaged at first 201; pitiable but ended in persistent wickedness 234; courage and endurance 234; and Frodo 234-5, 326, 330; and temptation 233-5; failure to repent 110, 221, 234-5, 252, 255, 330; treatment by Sam 77, 110, 221, 234-5, 330; like Caliban to Sam’s Ariel 77; Tolkien tape-records Gollum passages 164

Gondar, Ethiopia 409

Gondolin 21, 150, 158, 193, 346, 386, 445-6; chief Elvish stronghold 150; fall of 21, 158, 346

Gondor 79, 104, 157-8, 168, 175, 178, 185, 196, 197, 216, 217, 224, 241, 244, 248. 254, 259, 277, 281, 323-4, 334, 347, 384, 409-10, 424, 425, 428, 447; South Kingdom 281, 409; Stoningland 409; one surviving Númenórean state 323; origin of Gondor 409-10; crown 277, 281; kings 424, 425; Stewards 158, 217, 324; Great Council 324; government 104, 323-4; economy 196; history 157-8; compared to Byzantium 157; people of (Gondorians, Númenóreans) 77, 175, 197, 244, 281, 344, 409; compared to Egyptians 281; compared to Jews 281; restored kingdom like Holy Roman Empire 376; and Common Speech 175; predominantly Elvish nomenclature 175, 178, 224, 384, 409, 424, 425; Gondorian boys play at being Orcs 344; ‘Gondor’ used figutatively 223, 379

Gondwanaland 409-10

Good and Evil, on both sides in war 10, 82, 197; evil labours in vain, always preparing soil for good to sprout in 76; and Nazi Germany 93; goodness depends on values independent of a particular conflict 242-3; evil not finally resistable by incarnate creatures, however ‘good’ 252-3; see also Evil

Good and Evil, in Tolkien’s mythology, evil arises from apparently good root 146; LR not just a fight between Good and Evil 178-9, 197, 243-4, 262; see also Evil

Gordon, E.V. 41, 42, 114; Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (ed. Tolkien and Gordon) 11, 436

Gordon, George S. 20, 56-7, 435, 437

Gordon, Ida, Pearl (ed.) 36, 114, 436

Gothic language 12, 264, 357-8, 382, 447; Tolkien discovered while at school 213, 214, 345, 357, 397, 437; contributed to difficulty in winning award to Oxford 52; inscriptions in books 356-8

Goths 357

Government 63-4

Grace 75, 80, 126, 172, 326

Grace, in Arda 120, 326; at meat (Númenórean) 194, 201, 281

Grahame, Elspeth 90

Grahame, Kenneth, First Whisper of ‘The Wind in the Willows’ 90; The Wind in the Willows 63, 182

Gram 381

A Grammar of the Gothic Language (Wright) 357

The Grapes of Wrath (Steinbeck) 131

Graves, Robert 353

Great Britain see England

The Great Divorce (C.S. Lewis) 71, 80, 83, 439; Who Goes Home? (‘Hugo’s Home’) 83

Great Smials 294, 295

Great Wave 213, 232, 347, 361; see also Atlantis

Greece 64, 107; history of 343

Greek Fire 133

Greek language 107, 151, 172, 213, 231, 268-9, 283, 318, 340, 343, 380, 384, 395, 449; Greek philology 12, 397; and Quenya 176, 343

Greek mythology 144, 231

Greek tragedy 201

Green, Peter 184, 444

Green, Roger Lancelyn 388-9, 406-7, 410-11; 453

Grendel 242

Greshamm, Douglas 341, 451

Grey Havens 104, 151, 153, 157, 232, 354

Griffiths, Elaine 71, 374; read the Silmarillion 21; and publication of The Hobbit 374, 435, 452

Grimm, Jakob and Wilhelm 26, 398

Grubb family 31

The Gryphon 346, 451

Guardian angels see Angels

Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings 251, 380-1, 452

Gulliver’s Travels (Swift) 26, 158

Gunnar 452

 

– H –

‘Habit’ 30-2; 34-5, 406-7

Haecker, Theodore 419, 453

Half-elven 193, 198, 282, 346-7, 386; Pereldar 386; irrevocable choice 193, 198; see also Elf-Human marriage under Elves, Men Hall, J.R. Clark 41, 45, 436

The Hall at Bag End 15, 16, 35, 434

Halsbury, Lord 227-8, 430-1; read The Silmarillion 228, 262, 430-1, 451

Hamlet (Shakespeare) 88, 102

Hanbury, H.G. 84, 439

Harad 79, 248

Haradrim 178, 241; Southrons 157, 178; Swertings 77

Harrowdale 259

Harting, Piet 265, 447

Hastings, Peter 187-96; 201, 445

Havard, R.E. 47, 59, 103, 117, 122, 128, 256, 341, 437, 441; Honest Humphrey 109; Red Admiral 103; Useless Quack 59, 68, 71, 109

Headington see Oxford

Heath (schoolmaster) 343

Heaton Park Camp, Manchester 72, 438

Heaven 55, 239

Hebrew language 178

Hell 239

Helm’s Deep 276, 407

Hemel Hempstead 421

Henneth Annûn 79

Heppenstall, Rayner 187

Hiawatha’s Photographing (Carroll) 22

Hill, M. Joy 368-9, 371; 314

The Hill: Hobbiton across the Water (pen drawing) 15, 434

The Hill: Hobbiton-across-the-Water (watercolour) 19, 27, 122

History (in general), depresses with mass and weight of human iniquity 80; and heroic legend 144; a ‘long defeat’ 255; throws light on words and names 264; and the Dominion of Men 207, 252

History of the Church of England (Dixon) 127

History of the Eldar see The Silmarilhon

History of the Elves see The Silmarillion

History of the Gnomes see The Silmarillion

Hitler, Adolf 47, 55-6, 91, 93

The Hoard 312; Iumonna Gold Galdre Bewunden 18, 434

Hobberdy (Hobbaty, Hobberdy Dick) 406, 407

The Hobbit 14-32, 34-8, 41, 42, 44, 58, 86, 98, 101, 117, 120, 122, 123, 124, 125, 129, 131, 135, 136-7, 145, 149, 151, 152, 153, 158-9, 160, 161, 178, 187, 191, 215, 216, 218, 297-8, 309, 314, 334, 344, 346, 348, 355, 364-5, 383, 384, 385, 406-7, 434, 435, 441, 442, 450

Writing: first sentence 215, 219, 406; history of writing 14, 32, 215, 344, 348, 450; for children 21, 145, 215, 298, 346; Tolkien regrets style and tone 159, 191, 215, 218, 297-8, 310, 346; read before publication 14, 21, 36, 135, 215, 346, 374, 452

Publication: came to attention of Allen & Unwin 14, 215, 346, 374, 452; preparation for publication 14-22; illustrations and maps 14-20, 27, 434 (see also individual titles); dust-jacket 16-17; jacket blurb 20-2, 232, 435; publication date 18-19, 20; sales, income 20, 24, 36, 43, 85, 421; errata (various eds.) 28, 34, 123, 313, 435

American edition (1938): 17-20, 34, 36; payment for illustrations 20; dust-jacket 181; wins prize 36

Reprints and later editions: reprinted (1937) 19, 27; stocks burnt in air-raid 58; reprinted (1942) and Children’s Book Club ed. 58, 86; second ed. (1951), and revised ch. 5 124, 141, 142, 161, 442; Puffin Books ed. (1961), reluctance to cheapen the old Hobbit 302; Puffin Books ‘corrections’ to text 312-13; Ballantine Books ed. (1965), cover art 362-3; Unwin Books ed. (1966) 364-5, 406; extract it, School Magazine 314; music based on 350

Reviews and responses: 18, 23-5, 30, 32, 41, 98, 435; request for a sequel 23-6; not meant to have a sequel 24, 29, 38; ‘new Hobbit’ see The Lord of the Rings

Translations: German 37-8, 44, 119; Icelandic 430; Spanish 318; Swedish 249, 251, 446; hobbit must not be translated 251

Sources: Old English literature 21; Icelandic literature 21, 31, 175, 382, 383; Northern myth 22; Beowulf 30-1; George MacDonald 31, 178; epic, mythology, and fairy-story 31; warg from primitive German 381; holiday in Switzerland 309, 391-3; The Black Douglas 391; The Marvellous Land of Snergs 215; Soria Maria Castle 384

And The Silmarillion 158, 218, 232, 318; adventures on outskirts of the mythology 17; intruded into the mythology 21, 24; drawn into edge of the mythology 26; drawn into the mythology against Tolkien’s will 38; torn at random out of world in which it already existed 122; frequent allusion made in The Hobbit to the mythology 31; independently conceived, Tolkien did not know as he began that it belonged 145; taken as matter from the great cycle susceptible of treatment as a ‘fairy-story’ 159; originally unconnected, inevitably drawn into greater construction and modified it 215, 346; shadow of Silmarillion deep on later parts 136; background to The Hobbit 122, 151-2, 216

Miscellaneous: only philological remark 22, 435; presence of terrible gives it verisimilitude 24; includes Tolkien’s favourite motifs and characters 29; riddles 32, 123; and eucatastrophe 101; study of simple ordinary man against high setting 159; story and sequel about achievements of specially graced and gifted individuals 365; tone and style change in course of story 159, 298; virtually human point of view 145; Tolkien tape-records parts 164; see also Runes

‘Hobbit dinner’ 265-6

Hobbiton 31, 294, 376

Hobbits 23, 24, 26, 27, 30-1, 34, 35, 36, 38, 42, 77, 79, 83, 88, 120-1, 146, 147, 149, 155, 158, 159, 160, 179, 180, 184, 185, 186, 193, 196, 197, 200, 202, 215, 228, 232, 233, 240, 244, 246, 250, 251, 255, 262, 265, 271, 278, 280, 289-96, 299, 303, 305, 328, 329, 343, 365, 375, 376, 381, 390, 396, 404-5, 406-7, 427, 448; Halflings 308, 405; Little Folk 158; Pheriain, Pheriannath 425, 427; Shire-folk 290, 292, 293; Stoors 289-90, 296; possible sources of invention 30-1, 34-5, 406-7; word hobbit 375, 404-5; definition of hobbit in Oxford English Dictionary 404-5, 453; not pygmies 30, 34-5; not rabbits 30, 35, 406; not a Utopian vision 197; not allegorical 233; branch of the human race 158, 406; names 31, 83, 88, 196; language 31, 180, 278, 290, 299, 381, 448; appearance, stature 30, 35, 158, 365; clothes 35, 280; Tolkien’s illustrations of 35; history 158; birthday customs 289-93; marriage, kinship, inheritance 291-6; hobbit-children 179; had no worship or prayer 193; tobacco industry 79; ‘hobbitry’ 158, 184, 228; comic, amusing 26, 38; courage, heroism at a pinch 120-1, 158, 196-7; free from ambition or greed 158; unimaginative, vulgar 158, 160, 232, 240, 329, 365; sloth and stupidity of 262; slow to change 290; no bloodsports 197; in touch with nature 158, 197; exceptional hobbits 329, 365; ‘wheels of the world’ turned by the apparently small and weak 149, 160, 246; ennoblement of 215, 220, 232, 237; Tolkien is fond of hobbits 121, 329; sometimes irritated by them 329; ‘hobbit talk’ amuses him more than adventures 36; Tolkien as a hobbit 227, 265, 288-9, 315; ‘hobbit’ used figuratively 24, 78, 115, 170, 201, 247, 227, 288-9, 314, 361, 365, 390, 392, 406-7, 435

Holderness peninsula 221, 345

Holland 250, 265-6

Hollin 77

Holy Trinity church, Headington Quarry, Oxford 341

Holywell Street, Oxford see Tolkien, J.R.R.: Homes

The Homecoming of Beorthnoth, Beorthelm’s Son 165, 306, 443; no dialect tone or rural quality needed in broadcast 187; deals with heroism and chivalry 219; 350

Homer 154, 159, 172, 201

Honest to God (Robinson) 394, 452

Hooper, Walter 371, 389

Hopkins, Gerard Manley 127-8

Hornblower family 31

Hornburg 276

Houghton Mifflin 35, 217-21, 237-8, 349-52, 358; 17-18, 19-20, 21, 34, 36, 123, 181, 208, 352, 355, 363, 451

The Hound of Heaven (Thompson) 340

The House of the Wolfings (Morris) 303

Hudson, C.H. 185, 444

Hughes, Richard 23, 24, 181

Humber Garrison 345, 420

Huxley, Aldous 96

Huxley, Julian 30, 34-5, 62, 396

Hymns Ancient and Modern 103

 

– I –

Icarus 98

Icelandic languages and literature, dwarf names from 21, 31, 175, 382, 383; Old Icelandic 12, 13, 21, 31, 134; Old Norse 36, 175, 214, 269, 306, 314, 358, 369, 370, 381, 382, 436; Icelandic translation of The Hobbit 430; see also titles of works in Old Norse etc.

Ido 231, 446

Idril 193, 345, 361, 386, 445

Illustration, and fairy-stories 312

Ilúvatar see Eru

Imladris see Rivendell

Immortal lands see Aman

Immortality see Elves. Mortality

Imperialism 115

Imrahil of Dol Amroth 323-4

Incledon, Marjorie 421-2; 122, 416, 453, 441

Income tax 69, 256, 316, 340-1, 363, 416

Indick, Benjamin P. 366

Indo-European languages 267, 269-70

Indo-Iranian languages 37

Inklings (Tangye Lean) 162, 387-8

Inklings, meetings of (including generally meetings with Lewis, Williams, et al. in pubs, Magdalen College, etc.) 29, 36, 47, 59, 63, 67, 68, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 92-3, 94, 95-6, 102, 103, 105, 108, 109, 116, 117, 125, 128-9, 161, 209, 258, 320, 349, 351, 387-8, 436, 438, 439, 441, 451; origins 387-8; purpose 29, 388; club of practising poets 36; Tolkien reads The Hobbit to 36; reads LR to 71, 72, 73, 76, 79, 81, 209; reads Leaf by Niggle to 320; and criticism 125-9; planned victory celebration 94; ham-feast 161

International Congress of Linguists 164

International Fantasy Award 261, 377

Invention, LR seemed to write itself, as if the truth comes out 104, 231; stories arose as ‘given’ things 145; feeling of not inventing but reporting, wait till ‘what really happened’ came through 145, 212, 231; Ents not consciously invented 211-12, 231; Tolkien the ‘chosen instrument’ for writing LR 413; parts of his mythology seem revealed through rather than by him 189

Ireland (Eire), visits by Tolkien 140, 184, 219, 278, 289, 359; finds air wholly alien 219; fond of it and (most of) its people 289

Irish languages 26, 134, 219, 289; Gaelic 219, 385; Gaelic nasc and Black Speech nazg 385

Iron Crown 148, 149, 150

Isengard 170; used figuratively 235

Isildur 156-7, 198, 206, 384

Israel 109

Istari see Wizards

Italian language 214, 223, 288, 377, 419

Italy, Italians 66, 223, 409

Ithilien 76, 79, 97, 323

Iwerddon, King of 436

Ixion, Ixion Cycles 88

 

– J –

Jairus’s daughter 99

James, Saint, mother of 338

Japan 89, 90, 116

Jarrold and Sons 169, 183, 222, 313

Jeffery, Richard 223-4, 424-8

Jennings, Elizabeth 101, 440

Jerusalem Bible 378

Jesus Christ 97, 99, 127, 128, 237, 338-9, 340, 385, 387, 393-4; Resurrection 100-1, 286; Ascension 286; only just literary critic 128

Jews, praised 37, 410; and Nazi Germany 37-8, 93; Tolkien rejects Nazi race-doctrine 37-8; woken by Jew to go to mass 67; Númenóreans compared to 204, 281; Dwarves compared to 229; Roman Catholic disabilities compared to Jews’ 394-5; Jewish names 410

Jad, C.E.M., The Recovery of Belief 63

Johannesburg 75, 91

John the Baptist, Saint 385

John the Evangelist, Saint 397

John Inglesant (Shorthouse) 348

Jonah (trans. Tolkien) 378

Jones, John Morris see Morris Jones, John

Joseph, Saint 101

Journey, in story-telling 239-40

Judas Iscariot 338

Judith (Old English text) 314

Julius Agricola 107

 

– K –

Kalevala, and the origin of ale 87; Kirby’s translation 87, 214, 439; nearly ruined Tolkien’s Hon. Mods. 87, 214-15; Finnish legends greatly affected him 144; germ of The Silmarillion 87, 214, 345, 434; Tolkien tried to write own version of tale of Kullervo 7, 214, 434; tale of Kullervo and Tolkien’s Children of Húrin 150, 214, 345

Katerine (ed. Tolkien and d’Ardenne) 114, 124, 185, 441

Ker, Neil 405-6; A.S. Napier, 1853-1916 405-6

W.P. Ker lecture 164, 165, 167, 168, 443

Kidd, Mary Maytham, Wild Flowers of the Cape Peninsula 402, 453

Kilby, Clyde S. 363, 366, 390

King Edward’s School, Birmingham 8-9, 69, 257, 391, 398, 429, 451; games at 22, 52-3, 70, 257, 340; Tolkien’s scholarship to 218, 377, 395; studies at 213, 342-3, 395; Officers’ Training Corps 391, 452; and work for Oxford scholarship 52; dislikes new buildings 70

King Horn 361

The King Must Die (Renault) 377

The King of the Green Dozen 40, 113, 436

King’s Arms, Oxford 92

Kingfisher 319, 449

Kirby, W.H. (trans.), Kalevala 87, 214, 439

Kirith Ungol see Cirith Ungol

Knatchbull-Hugessen, E.H., Puss Cat Mew 407, 453

Knox, ‘Collie’ 65, 438

Kolb, David 352

Kortirion among the Trees 8

Kroonstad 91

Kullervo see Kalevala

 

– L –

Lake Town 15

Lakeside Road see Tolkien, J.R.R.: Homes

Lambert, J.W. 184, 444

Lambeth Palace 391

Lamorna Cove 88, 347, 439, 451

Lancashire Fusiliers 8, 9, 10 12

Land under England (O’Neill) 33, 436

Lane, Allen 313, 449

Andrew Lang lecture see On Fairy-Stories

Language 172, 212, 213-14, 231, 264, 288, 384, 397, 410; ‘native language’ not same as one first learned 319, 375; philology, in general 208, 213, 397; philological discussion about ‘holy’ words 267-70; Tolkien’s study of philology, language 11, 12, 172, 213-14, 345, 397; philology as his profession 12-13, 21-1, 172, 174-5, 219, 231, 247, 264, 269, 345, 380; beauty of words 310, 319; linguistic pattern affects Tolkien emotionally like colour or music 212; interest in languages derived from his mother 218, 377; planned book on language with C.S. Lewis 440; see also names of languages

Language and Human Nature (Tolkien and Lewis) 105, 440

Languages, invented (in general) 375; children often make up languages 143, 374; and creation of imaginary worlds 174-5; invention of names 143-4; by Swift and Dunsany 26; by Eddison 174; interdependence with legends 143-4, 231, 345, 375; Esperanto etc. deader than ancient unused languages because authors did not invent legends 231; linguistic invention as art or pastime comparatively rare 380

Languages, invented by Tolkien, began to invent as a child 143, 214, 345, 374; effectively began as undergraduate 231, 345; not a hobby 218, 219; stories provide a world for his languages 214, 219, 231, 264-5, 375, 380; his fiction fundamentally linguistic in inspiration 219, 409; his invented names and languages constructed, not random 219, 379; a name comes first and the story follows 219; derivation of invented names 380-4; some elements possibly absorbed from memories 384-5, 409; borrowing of sounds 387; invention of names, and euphony 428; see also names of languages, Dale, Gondor, Hobbits, Long Lake, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion

Lanier, Sterling 422

Last Alliance 129, 157, 179

Latin language 66, 172, 213, 214, 219, 263, 268-70, 354, 358, 361, 376, 382, 384, 393, 395, 397, 419, 425; and Quenya 176, 343

Lawlor, John 341, 451

The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun 118 441

The Lay of Beren and Lúthien see The Silmarillion

The Lay of Leithian see The Silmarillion

Lazarus 296

Leach, Lyle 424

Leaf by Niggle 81, 111, 320-2; originally The Tree 257; arose suddenly and almost complete 113, 257, 320; written just before the War 320; in Dublin Review 97, 112, 320; in Tree and Leaf 335; escaped grasp of Silmarillion 145; sources 257, 321, 450; meaning 195; allegorical 195; not an ‘allegory’ so much as ‘mythical’ 320-1; similar stories 113, 117

‘Leaf-mould’ of memories 409

Lean, Edward Tangye 162, 387-8

Learning 336-7, 370

Leeds (city) 306, 340, 345-6

Leeds, University of 13-14; 305-6, 346; English School under Gordon 56-8; students 11-13, 57, 305, 403-4; Tolkien’s interview for job 56; as Reader in English Language and Professor 11, 12-14, 56-7, 219, 345; for one year held both Leeds and Oxford chairs 56, 437

Legendarium 149, 189, 197, 214

Legends, in general 144, 193, 255, 264, 383; ignorance of 88; legends and myths largely made of ‘truth’ 147; interdependence with language 143-4, 231, 345, 375; men out of the sea 212, 303; corn and culture heroes 347; of Golden Age of the North 224; see also Myth

Legolas 180, 198, 277, 282, 382

Lembas 274-5, 288, 448

Letters to Malcobn (C.S. Lewis) 352

Lewis, C.S. 59-62, 125-9; 23, 29, 32-4, 36, 47, 52, 63, 65, 67, 68, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 92-3, 95-6, 102, 103, 105, 109, 161, 209, 256, 257, 258, 302, 341-2, 349, 350-1, 361, 362, 371, 377, 378, 387-8, 389, 416, 434, 436, 437, 438, 440

Works by: Aeneid (trans.) 93, 440; Christian Behaviour 59-62, 437-8; English Literature in the Sixteenth Century 125; Essays Presented to Charles Williams (ed.) 118, 209, 216, 220, 258, 297, 450; The Great Divorce (Who Goes Home?) 71, 80, 83, 439; Letters to Malcolm 352; Myth Became Fact 109, 440; Of Other Worlds 371; Out of the Silent Planet 29, 32-4, 36; 89, 342; 347, 361, 378, 435; Tolkien speaks favourably of OSP to Stanley Unwin 29, 32-4; Tolkien found blend of vera historia and mythos in OSP irresistible 33; Perelandra 89, 342, 361; Priscilla Tolkien preferred Perelandra to OSP 89; Poems 378; Ransom trilogy 209, 303, 342; Tolkien as model for Ransom 29, 89; Rehabilitations 389; The Pilgrim’s Regress 349; The Screwtape Letters 108, 342; Studies in Words 302; That Hideous Strength 224, 342, 361; influence of Charles Williams spoiled THS 342, 361; Lewis on committee revising Ancient and Modern Hymnal 103; planning story about descendants of Seth and Cain 105, 440

Life and character: energetic and jolly 68; getting too much publicity 68; put away three pints and said was going short for Lent 68; good deal of Ulster in him 95, 350-1; bias against Catholics 95-6; and criticism 125-9, 388; excites animosity in certain quarters 184; passion for hearing things read aloud 303; 361, 388; wrote to authors who pleased him 209; generosity and friendship 350, 362; and Owen Barfield 103; 341, 363, 451-2; and Roy Campbell 95; and the Inklings 387-8 and see Inklings; mutual influence by Lewis and Charles Williams on their writings 341-2, 349, 361; impressionable man 362; dualism of his mind and imagination 371; and Oxford Professorship of Poetry 36, 351; and Merton Professorship of English Literature 108, 117; Clarke Lecturer in Cambridge 74; Professor at Cambridge 350-1; marriage 256, 341, 349; death 341-2, 349; obituaries do not do him justice 341-2, 350-1

Friendship with Tolkien: from about 1927 to 1940 Tolkien’s closest friend 349; never called each other by Christian name 365; read Dante together 377;Tolkien refutes allegation that he criticized Lewis for loudness 128, 441; shall have to write themselves the kind of books they want to read 209, 378; agreed that Lewis was to write on space-travel and Tolkien on time-travel 29, 342, 347, 378; planned book on language together 105, 440; Lewis used names from Tolkien’s works in his own 33, 113, 151, 224, 303, 361, 378; Narnia outside Tolkien’s sympathy, as much of his work was outside Lewis’s 352; ‘We were talking of dragons, Tolkien and I’ 389; Light on C.S. Lewis 363, 451-2; Lewis encouraged Tolkien as writer 184, 303, 362, 366; Lewis reads, reviews The Hobbit 14, 18, 23, 32, 41, 124, 346, 435; hears, approves LR 34, 41, 58, 68, 71, 72, 73, 77, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 103, 122, 209, 303, 362; criticizes LR 36, 38, 169, 376; blurbs for LR 166, 181, 184; reviews LR 184, 208, 445; audience for The Silmarillion 21, 24, 130, 224, 361; his death like an axe-blow near the roots 341; lack of closeness in later years 341, 349

Lewis, W.H. 47, 67, 68, 74, 84, 92, 95, 102, 103, 117, 437, 439, 441; The Splendid Century 71, 83, 84, 92-3; and the Inklings see Inklings; enjoyed LR 122; protected brother on telephone 369; not at brother’s funeral 341; death 430

Liège, University of 124, 181, 185, 219

Life, purpose of 399-400

Life of Cato (Plutarch) 89, 439

Light, in Tolkien’s mythology 120, 121, 148, 386-7

Light as Leaf on Linden Tree 346, 420, 451

Light on C.S. Lewis (ed. Gibb) 363, 451-2

Lincoln College, Oxford 84, 439

Lincolnshire 124

Lindon 425

Lindsay, David, A Voyage to Arcturus 34, 436

The listener 322, 450

Literature, in general 50

Lithuanian language 429

Little Delving 250

Little Forest Road see Bournemouth

Little Kingdom 39, 42, 43, 113, 133, 137, 139; heart has gone out of 113

Liverpool Street Station, London 265

London 9-10, 254, 261, 320; Museum Street 164, 261, 443; Tooting a Hobbit-sounding place 245

Lonely Isle see Aman (Eressëa)

The Lonely Isle 53, 437

Long Lake, language of 175

Longbottom, used humourously 359, 361

Longbottom Leaf 266

‘Lord Nelson’ 84, 102

The Lord of the Rings 23-9, 38-9, 40-4, 47, 58, 79, 86, 94, 97, 98, 104, 105, 110, 112-14, 118, 119-23, 124, 129, 130, 131, 132, 134, 135-42, 143, 151, 153, 159-61, 163-203, 208-12, 215-17, 219-41, 243-67, 270-84, 288-90, 297-301, 303-8, 310, 313, 315, 318-19, 321-2, 323-34, 342, 346-9, 354-6, 358, 360, 364, 365-7, 371, 374, 376, 377, 379-87, 396, 409-11, 412-14, 422, 423, 431, 437, 440, 443, 444, 445, 447, 448, 451

Writing: sequel to The Hobbit wanted 23-6, 215-16; first chapter 27-9, 435; used top ideas in The Hobbit 29, 38; too much ‘hobbit talk’ 36, 38, 376; read, heard, approved by friends, family 29, 34, 36, 38, 41, 42, 44, 58, 68, 71, 72, 73, 77, 79, 80-1, 83, 91, 92, 94, 103, 105, 106-7, 110, 112-13, 119-21, 122, 124, 131, 135, 137, 140, 209, 362, 366, 376; written with Christopher Tolkien in mind 91, 94, 103, 104, 112-13, 118; Tolkien reports progress to Christopher 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76-7. 79, 80-1, 82, 83, 88, 89, 91, 92, 94, 97, 98, 101, 103-4, 105, 106-7, 113, 118, 216, 321; problems with moons synchronization 74, 80-1, 97, 258; need to know how to stew a rabbit 74; early sketches for conclusion no longer suitable 80-2, 104; reports progress to Allen & Unwin 29, 34, 36, 38-9, 40-4, 58, 86, 113-14, 118, 119-23, 124, 129; not a sequel to The Hobbit, darker, more adult 41, 42, 44, 58, 86, 120, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138; not written for children 249, 310; references to length 41-2, 44, 58, 73, 86, 90, 113, 131, 134, 136, 138, 139, 160, 165; Tolkien has epic temperament in age devoted to snappy bits 90; doubts value of LR 135; LR better than The Hobbit 40, 42, 134; best of entire cycle 159; great (though not flawless) work 164; Tolkien considered every word 42, 160; written in his life-blood 122; cannot substantially alter 122, 137, 160; linking with The Hobbit 120-2, 124, 141-2, 161, 216, 334, 346-7; would be easier to write if Silmarillion were published first 130, 161, 163; Rayner Unwin never felt lack of Silmarillion 140; labour by Tolkien of writing, typing 83, 89, 114, 132, 133, 136, 163, 164, 209, 247, 321, 344; Christopher Tolkien typed much of LR 70, 79, 86, 112, 114; rewriting and revision 41, 44, 80, 81, 82, 86, 94, 97, 114, 124, 131, 136, 141, 160, 164, 209, 321; completion anticipated 42-3, 44, 58, 86, 118, 119, 129; brought to successful conclusion 131, 134; prospective readers 120, 121-2, 138, 165; those that like this kind of thing like it very much 121-2

Collins episode: Collins offer to publish both LR and The Silmarillion 134-5; LR the continuation and completion of The Silmarillion 136-7; together the Saga of the Jewels and the Rings 138, 139; LR interdependent with Silmarillion 143-61; Tolkien extricates self from obligation to Allen & Unwin 134-41; Rayner Unwin suggests that LR be published as prestige book, Silmarillion dropped 140-1; ultimatum to Allen & Unwin 141; delays 143; Collins withdraw 161

Publication: Tolkien accepts publication of just LR 163; Rayner Unwin costs, agrees to publish in three volumes 163-5; revision for press 164, 166, 167, 168, 173, 174; preparation for publication 165-71, 173, 181-3, 184-5, 209-10, 217, 222-3; delays in sending text 165-6, 167, 185, 209; suggested title and subtitles 167, 169-70, 170-1, 443; division into two books per volume a matter of convenience 170; The Two Towers an ambiguous title 170, 173, 444; foreword 122, 124, 167, 171; epilogue 104, 179, 227, 440; index 185, 224, 247-8, 443; correcting proofs 169, 170, 173, 196, 217, 222-3; compositors’ ‘corrections’ and queries 169, 183, 222, 313; misprints in first ed. 183, 227, 451; blurbs for publicity, dust-jackets 165-6, 168-9, 181, 184; publication dates 181, 183, 207, 217, 224, 227

Maps and illustrations: maps 43, 58, 168, 170, 171, 177, 185, 208, 210, 224, 247, 358, 360; map altered to agree with text 97; maps redrawn by Christopher Tolkien 79, 86, 112, 118, 177, 185, 210, 247; Tolkien has no time or energy for illustrations 42; illustrations too expensive even if he had the skill 186; Doors of Durin drawing 167, 170, 443; Book of Mazarbul facsimiles 168, 170, 171, 186, 248, 443; red for fire-letters of Ring 171; ‘alphabets’ need blocks 185; dust-jacket designs 182-3, 186, 444-5

Appendices 79, 167, 168, 173, 177, 183-4, 185, 208, 209, 210, 222-3, 224, 227, 250, 263, 304, 305-6; delayed publication of The Return of the King 209-10, 248; problem of choosing from material already composed 174, 185; readers’ demands for information 174, 185, 210, 248; Tolkien wishes no appendices had been promised 210; ‘Tale of Aragorn and Arwen’ 161, 193; could not be worked into main narrative 237, 246; planned ‘specialist volume’ 247-8

Reception: no pigeon hole for LR 172; reviews 172, 184-5, 186, 196-7, 208, 211-12, 229-30, 232, 238-44, 253, 303, 304, 412, 444, 445; BBC radio talk by Auden 211, 229; not a trilogy 184, 221; criticisms of no religion, no women 220; different readers disliked different parts 160; vistas of legend and history part of fascination of LR 185, 210, 333, 412; illusion of ‘real’ times and places 188, 412; most readers find LR an exciting story 212; appendices pleased readers 304, 305-6; readers’ interest in nomenclature 379; read by children though not written for them 249, 310; Tolkien surprised by welcome given LR 209, 211, 227, 228, 237, 412-13; does not think started tide, but lucky to have caught it 227; LR does not belong to the author, though he takes a deep interest in its fortunes 413-14; wins International Fantasy Award 261, 377; see also Fans

Reprints and other editions: reprints, sales 186, 199, 227, 245, 256, 421; Houghton Mifflin ed. 181, 208; Ace Books ed. 355-6, 358, 364. 367; Ballantine Books revised ed. 355, 356, 358, 364, 447

Translations: difficulty of 248-9; Tolkien willing to assist if consulted 249, 263; no alterations, re-arrangements, or abridgements 249; objects to translation of nomenclature 249-51; LR is an English book by an Englishman 250, 299; index of names to indicate names suitable for translation 263-4, 380-1; Dutch 248-51, 447; Polish 299; Swedish 262-3, 304-7, 447, 448

Recordings and adaptations: Tolkien tape-records parts 164; BBC radio broadcasts 228-9, 244, 253-5, 257; Tolkien thinks books unsuitable for dramatization 228, 255; gives advice on accents 253-4; welcomes idea of animated film 257; agreed policy Art or Cash 261; criticizes film script 261, 266-7, 270-7

Considered by Tolkien in retrospect: recalls writing 215-16, 258-9, 321-2; seemed to write itself 104; ceased to invent, waited until what really happened came through 212, 231; as if written by someone else 211-12, 278, 356, 376; wrote slowly and with great care for detail 412; ‘chosen instrument’ for writing LR 413; started with a map and made the story fit 177; had calendar to keep track of characters and events 258; drawing together separate threads 258; had general idea in mind from early stage 258; rough sketches of events seldom of much use 258, 321, 325; astonished LR was ever completed 257; caught up visions of most things he most loved or hated 257; favourite passages 110-11, 221, 376; pages blotted with tears 321; finds it good ‘in parts’ 349; would have liked more Elvish in LR 216; would have preferred to write LR in ‘Elvish’ 219; modernities and silly names of hobbits a mistake 196; inconsistencies, errors, weaknesses 188, 191, 196, 279, 289, 448

Contents, author’s intentions: written to please himself 211, 412; written to amuse, excite, move reader 232-3, 414; a fairy-story for adults 209, 232-3; attempt to induce literary or secondary belief 233, 379, 412; an exciting story of the son Tolkien enjoys 267, 297; experiment in arts of long narrative 412; not a novel, but a heroic romance 414; attempt to create world in which a form of language agreeable to his personal aesthetic might seem real 264-5; largely an essay in ‘linguistic aesthetic’ 220; no ‘message’ intended 267; not an allegory 41, 121, 212, 220, 239, 246, 262; does not ‘objectify’ Tolkien’s experience of life 239; primary symbolism of the Ring, as the will to mere power 160; not an allegory of Atomic power, but of Power 246; Power and Domination not at centre 246, 262, 284; centre is not in strife and war and heroism but in freedom, peace, ordinary life and good liking 105; journey of Ringbearers heart of the tale 271; deeds of the small, humble, their ennoblement or sanctification 160, 215, 220, 232, 237, 246, 365; the Quest in 105, 191, 233-4, 238-9; LR in terms of good and evil 119-20, 121, 178-9, 197, 207, 243-4, 262; real theme is death and immortality 246, 262, 267, 284; mainly concerned with relation of Creation to making and sub-creation, and related matter of ‘mortality’ 188; fundamentally religious and catholic work 172; cut out practically all references to ‘religion’ 172, 220; theological implications in 187-95, 233-5, 355; monotheistic world of ‘natural theology’ 220; sanity and sanctity in LR; Ring verse as leit-motif of LR 153; poetry in 169, 186, 396; verses fitted in style and contents to characters and situations 396; archaism in 225-6; vocabulary 249; deliberately left some things unexplained 174, 190; Tolkien does not himself know all the answers 278; better not to state everything, more like real history 354; must concentrate on small part so much will be left out 192; frameless picture, searchlight on brief episode 412; need to omit and compress 289, 293; blends Elvish and human point of view 145; seen mainly through eyes of Hobbits 160, 200, 237, 246; love stories in 160-1, 227, 323-4; importance of seasons in 271-2; its end like the re-establishment of a Holy Roman Empire with seat in Rome 376

Sources 208, 212, 303, 418; for names etc. 379-87, 409-10, 418; main idea not a product of World War II 216; no post-war references 235; his mythology 227, 231

Lord’s Prayer 233, 252

Lórien see Lothlórien

The Lost Road 25, 105, 118, 347, 436; Tolkien and Lewis to write themselves the kind of books they want to read 209, 378; agreed that Tolkien to write on time-travel 29, 342, 347, 378; Númenor-Atlantis theme 342, 347, 378; and LR 342, 347; and The Downfall of Númenor 378

Loth, Joseph 320

Lothlórien (Lórien) 176, 203, 216, 261, 273, 274, 349, 381, 386, 419, 425; no word of it had reached Tolkien till he cane there 216; beautiful because there the trees were loved 419; Lórien as name of house 349

Louis XIV 71, 83

Lourdes 100

Love 100, 324; see also Marriage

Lovelace Society 39, 119, 133, 436

Luke, Saint 99

Lúthien (Tinúviel) 149, 150, 180, 193, 194, 204, 206, 221, 282, 334, 345, 346, 347, 386, 445, 451; a mere maiden, if an elf of royalty 149; allowed to become mortal, a direct act of God 193-4; Edith Tolkien as Lúthien 417, 420

Lycett, C.V.L. 429

Lytton, E.G.L.B., Lord 407

 

– M –

Macbeth (Shakespeare) 212

McCallum, R.B. 79, 430, 439

MacDonald, George 31, 351; and goblins 178, 185; The Golden Key 351; The Princess and the Goblin 178, 185

Machines 218, 288, 349, 401, 420; attempts to actualize desire and so create power 87-8; labour-saving machinery only creates endless and worse labour 88; mechanism and evil 110; World War II first War of the Machines 111; machine related to magic and power 145-6, 152, 165, 190, 200; and the Elves of Eregion 190; dynamiting factories and power-stations 64; ‘infernal combustion’ engine 77; see also Airplanes, Atomic bomb, Cars, Noise, Pollution

Madras, University of 199

Magdalen College, Oxford 18, 56, 63, 71, 82, 84, 92, 95, 96, 103, 108, 117, 258, 321, 341, 388, 389

Maggot, Farmer 265, 319, 449; ‘Maggot Soup’ 265

Magic, and desire for power 145-6, 152, 200; corruptible into evil 152; magia and goeteia 199, 445; in LR 199-200; basic motive is immediacy 200

Magnificat 66, 215, 446

Maiar see Ainur

Maldon 187

Mallorn 248

Mallos 248

Malory, Thomas 181

Malvegil 426

Malvern College 164, 168

Mâmuk 79

The Man in The Moon 309, 310, 448-9

Manchester Guardian 184, 186, 444

‘Mandos’ used figuratively 417, 420

Mankind, relations between men and women 48-52; proper study of Man anything but Man 64; bossing other men most improper job of any man 64; mass and weight of human iniquity 80; no genuine Uruks, folk made bad by intention of maker 90; moral and intellectual status declining 116; development of character 240; moral failure 326-7; boredom of Men with the good 344, 419; ‘male’ and ‘female’ attitudes to wild things 212

Manners 72

Manor Road see Tolkien, J.R.R.: Homes

Manwë 259, 278, 280, 282-3, 285, 335, 431, 447; Elder King 259, 277, 283; Lord of the Valar 283; meaning of name 283; high or Elder King of Arda 283; lieutenant of One in Eä 285

Mardil 386

The Mariner’s Wife 360

Marriage, advice to Michael Tolkien 48-52; and Christian Behaviour (C.S. Lewis) 59-62, 437-8; Elf-Human see Elves or Men

Mars (god) 269

Marshall, Dora 209

The Marvellous Land of Snergs (Wyke-Smith) 215

Mary, Virgin 49, 172, 288, 340, 354, 385, 407; Assumption 286

Mary I (Bloody Mary) 354

Mary, Princess Royal 391

Masefield, John 39-40; East Coker 353

Mass production see Standardization

Materialism 110

Mathew, Gervasc 115

Maxwell, A.H. 55, 437

Medea (Barfield) 103

Mediterranean 280, 376

Meiggs, Russell 18, 20, 434, 443

Melko, Melkor see Morgoth

Memory 85, 409

Men, in Tolkien’s mythology 147-8, 149, 150-1, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 159, 160, 176, 179, 189, 194, 195, 196, 197, 200, 202, 203-5, 228, 235-6, 244, 260, 267, 274, 280, 282, 284, 285, 286, 325, 345, 383, 386, 387, 411, 419, 431; Big Folk 158; Dúnedain 282; Edain 282, 386; Followers 147, 176; Northmen 381; Second Race of the Children 189; Successors 345; Three Houses 149, 150, 204, 282; akin to Elves 176, 205, 236; biologically one race with Elves 189; Elves and Men different aspects of the Humane 236; art and poetry of Man dependent on EIven blood 149; Elf-Human marriage 149, 176, 188, 189, 192-3, 445; entering into Men of Elven-strain part of Divine Plan for ennoblement of Human Race 194; destined to replace Elves 194; fall of 147-8, 154-6, 203-5, 286, 387; ‘Men’ used figuratively 78; see also Children of God, Dominion of Men, Gondor, Half-elven, Mortality, Númenóreans, Rohirrim

Meneldil 386

Meneldur 360

Meneltarma (Pillar of Heaven) 194, 204, 206

Mercury (planet) 220

Mercy 243, 252, 253, 326, 446

Mere Christianity (C.S. Lewis) 437

Merlin (name) 182

Merton College, Oxford 133, 140, 369, 389, 418; College meetings 116, 201; College housing 116, 119, 140, 344, 441, 442; Tolkien admitted to 116; lunches, dines at 116-17, 353; room at 116, 181-2, 373; inspects College estates 124; a residential Emeritus Fellow 415-16, 421-2, 429

Merton Professorship of English Language and Literature 108, 114, 116, 117, 216

Merton Professorship of English Literature 108, 117

Merton Street, Oxford see Tolkien, J.R.R.: Homes

Meskys, Edmund 422-3

Mesopotamia 384

Metals, in Middle-earth 196

The Mezentian Gate (Eddison) 84, 258, 439, 447

Micara, Cardinal 223

Michel Delving, used humourously 361

Middle-earth 148, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 176-7, 180, 182, 186, 193, 194, 196, 197, 198, 202, 203, 205, 206, 220, 224, 236, 237, 239, 244, 272, 277, 283, 328, 360, 368, 374, 375-6, 384, 386, 410, 411, 424, 431, 434; Endor, Endoré, Ennor 224, 383-4; origin of Middle-earth 186, 220, 239, 283, 375-6; North-west of 148, 154; actual Old World of our planet in imaginary period 220, 239, 244, 283, 375-6; familiarity of 239

Middle English language and literature (in general) 11, 12, 36, 74, 213, 218, 225; 268, 283, 302, 317, 322, 352, 364, 436; used in Tolkien’s mythology 220, 239, 283, 361

A Middle English Vocabulary 11

Midlands see West Midlands

A Midsummer Night’s Dream (Shakespeare) 143, 300

Milford-on-Sea 429, 432

Millennium 110

Miller (Farmer Giles of Ham) 131

Milton, John 344

Milton (Blake) 90

Mimesis (Auerbach) 238-9, 241-2

Minas Ithil 76, 323, 444

Minas Morgul 76, 79, 80, 323, 444

Minas Tirith 104, 158, 170, 173, 203, 254, 258, 290, 334, 376, 425; meaning of name 158; and Common Speech 254; population at end of Third Age 425; ‘Minas Tirith’ used figuratively 379

Minchin, H. Cotton 247-8

Mindolluin 206

Ministry of Information 93

Miracles 99-100, 101, 235

Miramar Hotel, Bournemouth 335-6, 431, 432

Míriel 286

Mirkwood 158, 176, 369-70, 420; Eryn Lasgalen 382; Great Wood 158; Greenwood the Great 158, 420; sources of Mirkwood 369-70

Mirkwoord 15, 17, 19, 434

Mr. Bliss 15, 25, 28-9, 39, 42

Mistress of Mistresses (Eddison) 258, 447

Misty Mountains 152, 180, 271, 391; Hithaeglin 180

The Misty Mountains Looking West 15, 434

Mitchison, Naorni 133-4, 173-81, 196-280, 217, 228-9, 300; read page-proofs of LR 173; blurb for LR 181; review of The Fellowship of the Ring 196, 445

Mithril coat 104

Mitre Hotel, Oxford 68, 74, 103, 108, 438

Mohammedans 60

Möllendorf, Willamowitz 343

Monarchy 63-4

Moon, in Tolkien’s mythology 148, 425; Isil 425; Ithil 425; Light of Sun and Moop 148

Moorman, F.W. 56, 437

Morality 326, 399-400

Morannon 97, 178, 303, 382; Black Gate 104, 178; Gates of the Land of Shadow 73; Gates of Mordor 71, 72, 76, 79; sources for approaches to 303

Mordor 71, 76, 77, 81, 83, 104, 106, 153, 154, 157, 158, 175, 178, 228, 234, 241, 259, 307, 321, 330, 344, 382; Black Land 152, 178; Land of Shadow 73; why placed in east 307; ‘Mordor’ used figuratively 82, 88, 165, 166, 235, 300; see also Morannon

Morgan, Francis 7, 52, 213, 340, 354, 395, 416-17, 434, 450; and Tolkien’s romance with Edith Bratt 52-3, 437; death 416

Morgoth 78, 85, 155-6, 190, 194, 195, 202, 243, 282, 283, 285, 287, 334, 382, 386, 387; Beginner of Evil 146; Melko 446; Melkor 147, 259, 283, 284, 285, 446, 447; Dark Lord 187, 190, 195, 205; Dark Power 176, 178, 180; Devil 376; Diabolus 191, 195, 283; Enemy 146, 148, 149, 150, 151, 267; Prime Dark Lord 190, 198, 199, 204, 205; Rebel 190, 259; Shadow 191, 451; eldest of the Valar 205; and power of creation 178, 195; fall of 146; 195, 286-7; power of Evil still visibly incarnate 148; thrust into the Void, never to reappear in incarnate form 150; ‘Morgoth’ used figuratively 417

Moria 177, 178, 190, 334, 346, 382, 424; meaning, source of name 178, 382-3, 384; Mines of Moria 129, 152, 159, 216, 443; and Moriah 383; Bridge of Khazad-dûm 202

Morris, William 7; The House of the Wolfings 303; The Roots of the Mountains 303

Morris-Jones, John, A Welsh Grammar 320

Mortality, in Tolkien’s mythology, Elves and Men represent problem of Death 236; Men doomed to leave the world, Elves doomed not to leave it 147, 246; mortal or immortal nature coult not be altered except by the One 151, 194, 204, 411; death and the nature of Man 205, 237, 285; men must accept death 145, 154-6, 205, 286; a good man dies of free will 205, 286; death is not a punishment 205, 286; death as doom or gift of God to Men 147, 151, 155, 189, 205, 267, 285, 286; death is freedom from the circles of the world 147, 286, 325; longevity 151, 154, 193, 204, 206, 307; natural mortal lifespan cannot be increased 155; mortals allowed to go to Elven-home eventually die 198-9, 411; real theme of LR is death and immortality 246, 262, 267, 284; see also Elves, Half-elvcn

Morthond 178

Morwen (mother of Théoden) 447

Motor-cars see Cars

Mount Doom 104, 152-4, 325, 330; Cracks of Doom) 325, 331; Mountain of Fire 153; Sammath Naur 331; ‘Sammath Naur’ used figuratively 252

The Mountain-path 15, 434

Mountains of Lune see Ered Luin

Muir, Edwin 184, 108, 229-30, 444, 445

Murasaki, Shikibu, The Tale of Genji 139

Murdoch, Iris 353

Mure, Geoffrey 181-2

Murray, James 133, 171, 336, 450

Murray, K. 84

Murray, Robert 171-3, 200-7, 267-70

Murray, Rosfrith 336, 430, 453

Music, in Middle-eatth 196

Music of the Ainur see The Silmarillion

Myth 144, 147, 153, 224, 231, 279, 282, 345, 347, 361; of Eden 109-10; myth and fairy-story must contain moral and religious truth 144; legends and myths largely made of ‘truth’ 147; Tolkien not ‘learned’ in matters of myth 144; expresses himself in tales and myths 420-1; LR exhibits ‘myth’ passing into history 207; mythology for England, see England; see also Fairy-story, Legends

Myth Became Fact (C.S. Lewis) 109, 440

Mythopoeia 64, 438

The Nameless Land 317, 449

 

– N –

Nandungorthin 180

Napier, A.S. 405-6, 434

Nargothrond 282

Narnia 352

Narog 282

Narsil 424, 425

Narya see Rings of Power

Nasturtians 183

National Research Development Corp. 217

National University of Ireland 300, 448

Natural History Museum see University Museum, Oxford

Nauglamir 334

Nazgûl see Ringwraiths

Neagle, Anna 83

Neave, Jane 308, 309-11, 315-18, 319-22; 308-9, 449, 452; suggests book with Tom Bombadil 308; taught Tolkien geometry 377

Necromancer see Sauron

Neldoreth 334

Nenya see Rings of Power

Netherlands See Holland

New College, Oxford 432

New English Dictionary see Oxford English Dictionary

New Republic 232

The New Shadow. 344, 419

New Statesman 296-9; 212, 445

New Testament see Bible

New Theatre, Oxford 102

New York Herald Tribune 36

New York Times Book Review 208, 211, 217-8, 238, 445

New Yorker 367, 368

New Zealand Honours Examinations 41, 42, 43

Newspapers, standards of 68, 368, 372

Nibelung legends, Norse versions 306, 314, 315, 319

Nibelungen Ring 306

Nichol Smith, David 71, 436, 438

Niggle 111, 113, 114, 128, 321, 352

Niggle’s Parish 111

Nimrodel 423

Níniel 150

Niphredil (nifredil) 106, 248, 402

Noble, and simple 220

Nobottle 360

Noise 77, 82, 164-5, 344-5

Noldor see Elves

North, northern atmosphere in The hobbit 21; Hitler ruined the noble northern spirit 55-6; Chesterton knew nothing about the ‘North’ 92; appeal to Tolkien of atmosphere of North-west 144, 212-13, 376

North Kingdom see Arnor

North Sea 347

Northey, A.P. 354

Northfolk 187

Northmoor Road see Tolkien, J.R.R.: Homes

Norwood, Cyril 359, 451

The Notion Club Papers 105, 118, 440, 441

Novial 231, 446

Nowell Smith family 162, 443

Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford 395

Númenor (Númenóre) 151, 154-7, 160, 175, 186, 193, 194, 197, 198, 204, 205, 206, 224, 260, 279, 280, 303, 307, 322, 333, 347, 359, 360, 361, 386, 443, 445, 448; meaning of name 151, 224, 303, 361; Atlantis isle 151, 175; Land of the Star 204; Númenór-Atlantis 186, 206, 342; Westernesse 151, 186, 204, 303, 361; ban on 204; corruption by Sauron 205; rebellion of 194; downfall of 154, 186, 198, 260, 333, 360, 386; version of Atlantis myth 197-8, 303, 347; 361; originally unrelated to Silmarillion mythology 347; see also Atlantis. The Downfall of Númenor The Lost Road, Númenóreans

Númenórean language see Adûnaic

Númenóreans 151, 154-7, 193-4, 198, 204-7, 229, 243, 253, 279, 280, 282, 286, 307, 323, 324, 384, 386, 445; evil Númenóreans, Sauronians 206; Kings of Men 156, 198, 204; history and fall 154-7, 204-6, 279; longevity 151, 154, 193, 204, 206, 307; long life aids achievements in art and wisdom 154; longing for immortality 154-5, 205; knowledge of heredity 307; tradition of men out of the sea 155, 303; used ‘spells’ in making swords 445; religion 193-4, 204, 206, 243, 253, 279, 281, 387; compared to Jews 204; religion introduced by Sauron 155-6, 194, 205, 206; calendar 229; see also Gondor

Numerals 422-3

Nunn, A.C. 289-96; 448

Nursery rhyme books 123

 

– O –

Oakenshield, Thorin see Thorin Oakenshield

Observer 30-2; 34-5, 184, 229, 406-7, 444, 445

Odin 119

O’Donnell Lecture in Celtic Studies 217, 228-9, 446

Oedipus 150

Of Other Worlds (C.S. Lewis) 371

Offa of Angel 109

Ohlmarks, Ake 263, 304-7, 447, 448; Tolkien criticizes his translation of LR 304-5; objects to biographical note 305-7

Oikoumen 186, 197, 239, 283

Oiolosse see Anion Uilos

Old English (Anglo-Saxon) language and literature 12, 13, 21, 28, 32, 36, 74, 102-3, 106, 117, 213, 214, 218, 248, 269-70, 314, 343-4, 370, 385, 389, 411, 436; quotations in 66, 67, 72, 82, 102, 264, 312, 343; remoteness of 172; difficulty of 340; Anglo-Saxon verse 27, 343-4, 348, 435; poem in honour of Auden 378-9, 412; Old Mercian 65; used in Tolkien’s mythology 83, 150, 175, 177-8, 208, 212, 220, 224, 248, 250, 283, 290, 369-70, 381-2, 385-7, 448

Old Forest 287; 419

Old King Coel (Adam Fox) 36

Old Man Willow see Willow

Old Norse see Icelandic

Old Testament see Bible

Old Toby 266

The Old Vicarage. Grantchester (Brooke) 110, 440

Oliphaunt 77, 79; Mâmuk 79

Oliphant 77, 343

On Fairy-Stories 100-1, 110, 118, 188, 209, 216, 220, 232, 297, 310, 312, 335, 350, 351, 449, 450; see also Tree and Leaf

One Ring see Rings of Power

O’Neill, Joseph, Land under England 33, 436

Onions, C.T. 353

Orange Free State 86, 219

The Orators (Auden) 212, 445

Oratory School, Berkshire 22, 435

Orbit 381

Orcs 26, 83, 85, 151, 159, 177-8, 185, 187, 190-1, 195, 197, 241, 244, 251, 254, 262, 274, 287, 323, 344, 355, 383, 451; Goblins 31, 151, 178, 185; derivation of orcs 177-8; created, made, or corrupted 151, 178, 190, 191, 195, 287, 451; fundamentally rational incarnate creatures 190; appearance 274; whether Orcs have souls or spirits 195; whether Tolkien’s notion of orcs is heretical 355; orc-cults 344, 419; ‘Orcs’ used figuratively 64, 78, 82, 111, 246; ‘Urukhai’ used figuratively 78, 90

Orodruin see Mount Doom

Oromë 281, 335, 451; Béma 451

Orpheus 193

Orthanc 173, 276, 277, 444; Orthanc-stone 217

Ossen Drijver, Mrs E.C. 303

‘Ossianic’ style 225

Ossiriand 334; Seven Rivers of Ossir 334

Otmoor, Battle of 43

Ouboter, C. 265, 267

Out of the Silent Planet see Lewis, C.S.

Ovid 214

Oxford 69, 80, 92, 95, 107, 112, 209, 217, 219, 230, 235, 316, 346, 353, 361, 363, 376, 390, 393, 398, 405, 412, 422, 430, 432, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 446; Banbury Road 92; Beaumont Street 96; Headington 305, 306, 344, 406; Headley Way 345; St Giles’ 91; Turl Street 84, 439; proposed ‘relief road’ through Christ Church meadow 235, 446; see also Tolkien, J.R.R.: Homes and names of Oxford pubs, shops, etc.

Oxford, University of 12-13, 300-1; Oxford accent 69; see also names of Oxford colleges

Tolkien as undergraduate 7-8, 12, 53, 56, 214-15, 345, 393, 397, 398, 405-6; Stapeldon Exhibitioner at Exeter College 12, 52, 397, 406; takes Classical Honour Moderations 12, 53, 87, 214, 397, 437, 439; unofficially studied other languages 345, 397; studies philology 11, 12, 397; transfers to English School 7-8, 12, 397, 405-6; graduates with First Class in English 8, 12, 53; awarded Skeat Prize 320, 450

Tolkien at, 1919-25: tutor 12; examiner in Finals Schools 12

Tolkien as professor: 12-14, 54, 103, 108, 114, 116, 117, 131, 135, 165, 166, 216, 238, 248, 263, 300, 336-7, 353, 370, 396, 398, 412; Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon 12-14, 305; Merton Professorship of English Language and literature 108, 114, 116, 117, 216, 337; Leverholme Research Fellowship 15, 18-19, 29, 36, 38, 434, 435; business of teaching, delivering lectures, attendance at meetings 131; lecturing and teaching 47, 54, 67, 73, 74, 76, 79, 82, 83, 97, 102, 103, 108, 111, 164, 165; 216, 336-7, 396, 403-4, 411; setting or marking exams 54, 68, 74, 83, 86, 114, 117, 166, 167, 168, 196, 437; Committee on Emergency Exams 103; chairman of English examiners 162, 165, 166, 167, 168; examining theses 165, 229; supervises students from Canada and Belgium 36; and Board of Faculty of English 300-1; virtual head of English department with outbreak of war 44; increased workload 45, 58, 117; organized English syllabus for naval and air cadets 54, 59, 71, 83, 85, 86, 94, 112, 437, 439; devised and reformed syllabi 336, 370; and vested interests 336; in 1945 scrapped old lectures 216; comment on B.Phil. 370; sceptical about ‘research’ in language-literature schools 370; granted ‘sabbatical’ leave 132, 135; heavy duties in last few years in office 238; senior professor 238; worked two years beyond usual retirement 256; year’s leave to complete neglected ‘learned works’ 278; retires 300-1; valedictory 396, 452; in proper Oxford tradition professor not a title of

address 230; Oxford reactions to his writings 18, 24-5, 238; bust of Tolkien in English Faculty Library 369; see also Merton College, Pembroke College

Oxford Dante Society 377

Oxford English Dictionary (New English Dictionary) 12, 133, 138, 171, 283, 336, 345, 404-5, 406, 434, 437, 445, 449, 450, 453; Tolkien employed by 12, 345; definition of hobbit in 404-5, 406, 453; Shorter Oxford English Dictionary 376

Oxford English Monographs (ed. Tolkien) 36, 165, 436

Oxford Magazine 20, 95; published Tolkien’s poems 18, 113, 162, 178, 192, 308, 434, 445

Oxford Mail 185

Oxford Playhouse 79, 94, 102, 439

Oxford Times 185, 444

Oxford United 345

Oxford University Press 56, 216, 220, 297, 396

Oxfordshire 130-1

 

– P –

Pacifism 179

Pain 126-7

Pakenham, Frank 73, 438

Palandri 110, 199, 217, 332, 427

Pan (god) 307

Pantheon Books 351

Papen, Franz von 89, 439

Paracelsus 318, 449

Paradise see Aman, Eden

Parish (Leaf by Niggle) 321

Parke, Mrs 401, 453

Parker’s bookshop, Oxford 25, 435

Parson (Farmer Giles of Ham) 131

Patriotism 65

Paul, Saint 339, 394

Paynim 361

Payton, W.H. 429

Pearl (anon.) 317-18

Pearl (ed. I. Gordon) 36, 114, 436

Pearl (trans. Tolkien) 94, 97, 114, 301, 316-18, 322, 352, 355, 363, 364, 440, 449

Pelargir 376

Pelennor, Battle of the 258, 272

Pembroke College, Oxford 24; Tolkien dines at 69, 79, 83, 84; meeting at 74; criticism of 108, 116-17

Pengolod 130, 442

Penguin Books 313

Perelandra see Lewis, C.S.

Peter, Saint 203, 339, 450

‘Peterborough’ 68

Philology see Language

Pickwick Papers (Dickens) 349

Picture Post 91

The Pied Piper (Browning) 311, 449

The Pilgrim’s Regress (C.S. Lewis) 349

Pipe-weed 79, 121, 266

Pity 191, 193, 234, 252, 253, 326, 330, 446

Pius X 339, 450

Pius XII 84

Place Names of Gloucestershire (A. Smith) 410

Plimmer, Charlotte and Denis 372-8

Plotz, Dick 359-62

Plutarch, Life of Cato 89, 439

Pocock, Guy 449

Poema Morale 397

Poems (C.S. Lewis) 378

Poetic Diction (Barfield) 22, 435

Poetry, in general 213, 317; by Tolkien see Tolkien, J.R.R.: Poetry

Poland, Poles 68, 93,

Polish language 67-8; translation of LR 299

Pollution 165, 409, 412

Poole see Tolkien, J.R.R.: Homes

Poptawski 67-8, 438

Porter (Leaf by Niggle) 321

Putter, Beatrix, The “Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck 251; The Tale of Mrs Tiggywinkle 251

Powell, Frederick Yorke 397

Power, ominous and sinister word except as applied to the gods 152; attempts to defeat evil power by power 121; desire for 145-6; and domination 152, 237, 243, 246; rights and wrongs of power and control 179; powerful must have, depend upon subjects 279; see also Rings of Power

Prancing Pony 95

Prefatory Remarks on Prose Translation of Beowulf (introd. Tolkien) 36, 43-6, 436

Prehistory 105, 282, 283

Pre-Raphaelites 417

Primary World 189

Primer of the Gothic Language (Wright) 357, 397

The Princess and the Goblin (MacDonald) 178, 185

Propaganda 89, 93

Proudfoot family 31

Pterodactyl 277, 282

Puffin Books 302, 312-13

Pusey House, Master of 370

Pusey Street see Tolkien, J.R.R.: Homes

Puss Cat Mew (Knatchbull-Hugessen) 407, 453

Pygmies 30, 35, 233

 

– Q –

Quendi see Elves

Quenta Silmarillion see The Silmarillion

Quenya see Elvish

The Quest of Erebor 334, 450

 

– R –

Racism 37-8, 73, 93, 375

Rackham, Arthur 261, 312

Radagast 231, 266, 271; see also Wizards

Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford 101

Radio see British Broadcasting Corp., Wireless

Ragnarök 96, 149

Raleigh, Walter 22, 56, 95, 435

Ramsden, Walter 83, 84, 439

Rang, Mr 379-87

Ransome, Arthur 28, 435

Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon see Oxford University: Tolkien as Professor

Reade, Vincent 78, 439

Reason 101, 148, 246

Recordings see Elvish languages, The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings

The Recovery of Belief (Joad) 63

Red Book of Westmarch 300, 442

Red Lion, Salisbury 432

Red Sea 109

Rednal 54, 354

Reeves, Joyce (Joyce Gard) 308-9; 448

Reformation 339

The Region of the Summer Stars (Williams) 349, 361

Rehabilitations (C.S. Lewis) 389

Reincarnation 189; see also Elves

Religion, and Tolkien see Tolkien, J.R.R.: Religion

Religion, in Tolkien’s mythology, monotheism 193-4, 204, 220, 235, 243, 253, 387; religious practices 194, 201, 204, 205, 206, 281, 445; no temples or organized worship 193, 206, 281; worship of Morgoth, Satanist religion 155-6, 194, 204, 205, 206, 344; worship on Meneltarma 194, 204, 206; hallow on Mindolluin 206; Third Age not a Christian world 220; see also Eru

Remington, Barbara (artist) 362-3

Renault, Mary, The Bull from the Sea 377; The King Must Die 377

The Reporter 350

Research 370

The Return of the King see The Lord of the Rings

Reynolds, R.W. 342-3, 451

Rez, Gil de 391

Rhodes House, Oxford 84

Rhys, John, Celtic Britain 410

Rice-Oxley, Leonard 79, 84, 439

Richardson, Maurice 212, 445

Riddles 32, 123

Riders of Rohan see Rohirrim

Ridley, M.R. 59, 412, 453

Rigoletto (Verdi) 223

Ringbearers 235, 271, 275, 308

Rings of Power 138, 139, 152-4, 180, 188, 384; history of 152-4; Ring verse 153; One Ring 104, 120, 121, 122, 142, 152-4, 155, 157, 159, 160, 161, 170, 171, 177, 178, 191, 192, 216, 234, 241, 251-2, 260, 273, 277, 279-80, 289, 290, 306, 325-6, 328, 330-3, 346, 382, 407, 422, 446; Ruling Ring 152, 444-5; symbolism of 160; power to control wearers of lesser Rings 152, 177; passing of power into object a common motive in myth 153, 279; Sauron’s power but also weakness 153; effect on wearer, other than Sauron 154, 155, 191, 192, 233-4, 251-2, 325-6, 328, 330-3; and Nibelungen Ring, both round 306; and allegory 121; ‘Ring’ used figuratively 78, 94, 121, 165, 246; in The Hobbit 120, 121, 122, 142, 159, 161, 216, 289, 346, 442; changed in LR 120, 122; obvious link for sequel 216, 346; Three Rings 152, 157, 177, 186, 235, 236, 332; Narya 186, 236-7, 327, 444; Ring of Fire, the Kindler 390; Nenya 186, 445; Vilya 186, 445; Nine Rings, held by Sauron 331

The Rings of Power 130, 151-4, 177

Ringwraiths 42, 157, 159, 267, 273, 286, 330-2, 382; Black Riders 272, 273; Nazgûl 79, 104, 178, 206, 330-2, 382, 444; wicked kings, evil Númenóreans, Sauronians 206; no great physical power but inspire unreasoning fear 272; Lord of the Nazgûl 203, 448; Witch-king 272, 273, 277, 282; his pterodactylic steed 282; reduced to impotence when defeated 331; ‘Nazgûl-birds’ used figuratively 115

Rivendell 35, 152, 153, 157, 179, 272-3, 328, 329, 376, 391, 425, 450; Imladris 152, 153; enchanted sanctuary 153; represents Lore 153; scene of reflection not action 153; place visited on way to all deeds or ‘adventures’ 153; Rivendell, Imladris as house names 349; Rivendell as herd prefix 422

Rivendell 19, 27, 34

The Road Goes Ever On (Swann and Tolkien) 389, 427

Roads Go Ever On and On (Bilbo’s walking song) 239

Roberts, Mrs 162

Robinson, J.A.T., Honest to God 394, 452

Robinson, Robert 229

Rogers, Eric 300

Rohan 79, 178, 382, 383; Mark 178, 381, 383; derivation of Rohan 178, 382; possible source of name 383; Great Mound of Rohan 106; ‘Rohan’ used figuratively 379

Rohirrim 158, 174, 175, 178, 211, 244, 247, 250, 254, 276, 280-1, 376, 381, 382; Eorlingas 178, 381, 382; Horse-lords 216; Horsemen of the North 158; Riders of Rohan 104, 158; Riders of the

Mark 178; derivation of Rohirrim 178, 382; ‘Homeric’ horsemen 159; language of 175, 250, 254, 381; monotheists 194; clothes 280-1

Rollright Stoma 130

Roman empire 89, 219

Romance (genre), in general 82, 120

Romance languages 213-14, 270

Romance legend 144

Rome 83, 376

Rómendacil 425

Ronald, Amy 252-3, 255, 396-7, 397-8, 401-3, 405

Roos, Yorkshire 221, 345, 420

The Roots of the Mountains (Morris) 303

Rorke, P. 407

Roth, Cecil 67, 410

Rotterdam 265

Royal Air Force 72, 78, 105, 108, 112, 115

Royal Navy 109, 112

‘Ruffians’ used figuratively 235

Rugby football 22, 70, 340

Rugeley Camp, Staffordshire 8

Runes 77, 223, 324-5; transcriptions of 441, 442; Angerthas (dwarf-runes) 132, 222-3, 248; certar 223; cirth 324-5; runes and The hobbit 16, 17, 21, 27, 31-2, 124-5, 406, 441; Hobbit runes not same as in LR but similar to Anglo-Saxon runes 21, 31-1; Book of Mazarbul runes 168, 171, 248; Germanic runes 324-5

Rundstedt, Gerd von 114

Russia see Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Russian language 67, 173, 340

Rütten & Loening Verlag 37-8

Ryan, J.S., German Mythology Applied 380

 

– S –

Sackville family 31

Sackville, Camellia 295

Sackville-Baggins, Lobelia 229, 294

Sackville-Baggins, Lotho 200, 294

Sackville-Baggins, Otho 294, 295-6

Sacrifice 202, 233, 237, 252, 327, 400

Sadler, Sir Michael 58

St Aloysius’, Oxford 7, 67

St Andrews, University of 118, 216, 220, 310, 343, 450

St Catherine’s Society, Oxford 84, 439

St Gregory’s, Oxford 99, 101, 439

St Osburg, convent of 112

Saints, in general 64, 110; see also names of saints

Saki (H.H. Munro) 308, 448

Salisbury, Wiltshire 356, 432

Salmon, Michael 418

Salt, L.E. 83, 439

Salu, Mary 73, 438, 449

Salus, Peter H. 367, 368

Salvation 234

Sammath Naur see Mount Doom

Sandfield Road, Oxford see Tolkien, J.R.R.: Homes

Sandhurst, Royal Military College 54

Sands, L.K. 343

Sandyman, Ted 200

Sangahyando 425

Saracens 361

Sarehole (Mill) 230, 235, 390, 452

Sarn Gebir 76

Saruman 180, 197, 202, 217, 231, 237, 243, 271, 276-7, 280, 376; angelic being 243; reasons for fall 237; power of his voice 276-7; ‘Sarumanism’ used figuratively 197; Sharkey 200; ‘Sharkey’ used figuratively 235; see also Wizards

Satan 243, 286; see also Devil

Saurat, Denis, L’Atlantide et le règne des géants 198

Sauron 26, 104, 129, 151-7, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 188, 190, 194, 197, 201, 202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 236, 237, 243-4, 259, 260, 272, 277, 279-80, 281, 284, 285, 286, 307, 327, 330, 331, 332, 333, 380, 386, 419, 420, 447; Dark Lord 151, 153, 157, 159, 216, 332; Dark Throne 159; Enemy 146, 199, 200, 202, 273; Ring-maker 201, 446; Sauron Redivivus 158; Shadow 151, 158; derivation of Sauron 380; history 151-7; and Morgoth 151, 155-6, 176, 180, 190, 194, 202, 205, 243, 259, 285, 447; angelic being 205, 243, 259; incarnate forms 190, 332; rebuilding of body after defeat 157, 260, 280; could not rebuild after destruction of Ring 260; incarnation of Evil 151, 154, 160, 190, 207, 252; represents wholly evil will 243; stages of fall 151, 190, 243-4; desired to be god-king 155, 243-4; taken prisoner to Númenor 205, 279; defeated by Gil-galad and Elendil 280; Gandalf and Aragorn’s opposite 180; no mortal with Ring could have withstood him 332; Necromancer (Sauron in The Hobbit) 24, 26, 42, 129, 152, 158, 159, 164, 216, 346, 441; function of in Hobbit 346; no connection with Ring, stood only for ever-recurrent evil 216; ‘Sauron’ used figuratively 78; see also Ainur, Evil, Rings of Power

Sayer, George 164, 168, 341

Sayers, Dorothy L., Busman’s Honeymoon 82; Gaudy Night 82

Scandinavian languages 214, 429

Scandinavian legend 144

Schiro, Herbert 262

School Magazine 314

Schuchart, Max 263, 447

Scilly Isles 353

Scotland 42, 106, 219, 336

The Scotsman 372, 452

Scott, Nan C. 358

The Screwtape Letters (C.S. Lewis) 108, 342

Sea 104, 176, 180, 198, 237, 281, 328; Great Sea of the West 386; passage over the Sea 104, 105,

176, 198, 237, 281, 327-9

The Sea-Bell 312, 378-9

Second Age 150-7, 159, 177, 188, 190, 199, 213, 220, 224, 228, 243, 283, 303, 361, 425; history of 150-7

Second World War see World War II

Secondary world 87

A Secret Vice 374

Selby, Mr 135-6

Serbian language 173

Severn, David see Unwin, David

Sex 48-52, 60-2, 285

Shadow see Evil, Morgoth, Sauron

Shadowfax 354; name of hydrofoil 349

Shakespeare, A. 7, 434

Shakespeare, William 201, 320; Hamlet 88, 102; Macbeth 212; A Midsummer Night’s Dream

143, 300; The Tempest 77; folly of reading Shakespeare except as concomitant of seeing plays 88; and fairies 143; and debasement of elves 185; Tolkien disliked reading at school 213

Sharkey see Saruman

Shaw, George Bernard, Arms and the Man 94

Sheaf (Shield Sheafing) 347

Shelley, Norman 228

Shelob 81, 82, 180, 217; Shelob’s lair 235, 330

Shenandoah 378-9, 412

Sheering, Zillah 356-8

The Shire 104, 105, 158, 175, 186, 196, 230, 235, 240-1, 246, 250, 271, 280, 283, 290-4, 299, 315, 328, 358, 360-1; in what is now called Europe 283; based on rural England 235, 250; Warwickshire village of period of the Diamond Jubilee 230, 235, 288; place-names devised according to English (Midlands) 360; originally royal demesne 158; ordered, civilized, if simple and rural 158; half republic, half aristocracy 241; economy of 196; scouring of 232, 235; East-Farthing 296; ‘Shire’ used figuratively 115, 201, 288

Shorthouse, Joseph Henry, John Inglesant 348

Shotover 306

Sidmouth 408

Siegfried 353

Sigurd the Volsung 150, 353, 452; late Norse versions of story 134

Silberhorn 392

The Silmarillion writings (mythology, legends) 21, 24, 25-6, 31, 33, 77, 85, 113, 114, 129, 130, 134-41, 143-5, 146-57, 159, 161, 163-4, 174, 176, 180, 185, 188-95, 197, 202, 203, 205, 214-15, 218, 221, 224, 227-8, 231-2, 235-8, 252, 259-60, 262, 283, 284-7, 303, 307, 318, 333, 342, 345-6, 347, 355, 359-60, 361, 366, 368, 374, 380, 381, 383, 384, 385-7, 404, 408, 411, 425, 430-1, 442, 443; as published (ed. Christopher Tolkien) 448; Music of the Ainur 146, 345; The Fall of Gondolin 21, 130, 150, 215, 221, 345, 361, 386, 445-6; Earendil the Wanderer 150; The Tale of Lúthien Tinúviel and Beren 345; The Lay of Leithian (The Gest of Beren and Lúthien, The Lay of Beren and Lúthien, Story of Beren and Lúthien the Elfmaiden) 25-6, 27, 130, 149; 346; Children of Húrin 130, 150, 345, 346, 434; History of the Eldar 174; History of the Elves 146;

Silmarillion proper 146, 176; The History of the Gnomes 77, 78, 439; Quenta Silmarillion 25-6,

27, 216; summary 146-50; matter not strictly part of The Silmarillion 360; illustrations 17, 19, 25, 434-5

Writing: c. 1914 begun 130; languages and legends coincide, take shape 143-4, 214, 219, 221,

231, 345, 375; Tolkien transformed feelings and experience into mythology 78, 85; retelling of Kullervo story the germ of his own legends 87, 345; story of Kullervo inspired Children of Húrin 345, 434; written in army huts, dugouts, grimy canteens 77, 78, 231; written on sick leave or in hospital 85, 215, 221, 231, 345, 366; story of Beren and Lúthien chief part of the mythology 149, 211, 420; source of Beren and Uthien story 221, 345, 420; wrote Music of the Ainur in Oxford 345; attempt in Leeds to deal with matter in high and serious style, much in verse 346; legends largely composed before 1935 384; by 1937 ‘matter of the Elder Days’ in coherent form 346; work between 1936 and 1953 (on Quenta Silmarillion) 216; Tolkien preoccupied with construction of mythology 26, 38, 261, 346; the Silmarils are in his heart 26; mythology influenced, captured most of his other writings 38, 136-7, 145, 346; names not ‘eye-splitting’ or Celtic 26; names coherent, consistent 26, 143-4; legends told from Elvish point of view 147, 160, 237, 285; ‘new’, not directly derived from other myths and legends, but contain ancient widespread motives or elements 147; stories precede attempt to ‘explain’ the mythology 260; Tolkien’s sense of recording, not inventing stories 145, 189; manuscripts lent, offered to, read by family and friends 21, 24, 129, 130, 136, 228, 262, 361, 420, 430-1, 451

Attempts to publish: rejected by Allen & Unwin 25-6, 113, 135, 136, 215, 231-2, 237, 303, 346, 374; Tolkien glad Silmarillion not rejected with scorn 26; publication would make, would have made writing LR easier 130, 137, 161, 163, 174, 228; demands that Allen & Unwin publish both Silmarillion and LR 134-41; Collins accepts, rejects both books 134-5, 139-40, 143, 161; Silmarillion part of Saga of the Jewels and the Rings 138, 139; interdependent with LR 143-61

Work after The Lord of the Rings: The Silmarillion wanted by Allen & Unwin after success of LR 174, 217, 220, 224, 228, 232, 237-8, 296, 303, 333, 373; delays 228, 229, 238, 252, 256, 261, 296, 301, 302, 303, 317, 322, 333, 342, 355, 359-60, 363, 367, 372, 401, 403, 404, 408, 418, 424, 430-1; trying to make publishable 252; needs copies made of all the copyable material 262; progressing with help of secretary 301; needs to rework Silmarillion to agree with LR 264, 333, 360, 403, 404; needs some shape or frame 333, 360; in a confused state owing to alteration and enlargement at different dates 333, 359, 366, 374, 404; needs help of friend and adviser 366, 430-1; Tolkien fears it will not have the appeal of LR 228, 238, 303, 333; to visit background of LR is to destroy the magic 333; estimates completion 360, 408 see also The Downfall of Númenor, England (mythology for), The Rings of Power

Silmarils 26, 148-50, 282, 334, 386, 425; Jewels 139, 148, 150; Primeval Jewels 148; Three Jewels 138, 303; meaning 148; history 148-50; are in Tolkien’s heart 26

Silvertine (Celebdil) 392

Simbelmynë see Symbelmynë

Sindar see Elves

Sindarin see Elvish

Singing, in one’s bath 102

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (anon.) 128, 228, 317-18, 441

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (ed. Tolkien and Gordon) 11

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (trans. Tolkien) 183, 301, 302, 316-18, 322, 333, 342, 348, 352, 355, 363, 364, 444

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (W.P. Ker Memorial Lecture) 164, 165, 167, 168, 443

Sisam, Kenneth 7, 11, 56, 353, 406, 434, 437

Sitwell, Edith 261

Skeet Prize 320, 450

Skegness fisherman 108-9, 440

Skibniewska, Maria 299

Slavonic languages 173, 428

Sloth 55, 340

Smaug 14, 27, 31, 32, 35, 134, 364; origin of name 31; conversation with Bilbo indebted to Fáfnir 134

Sméagol see Gollum

Smial 292

Smith, A.H., Place Names of Gloucestershire 410

Smith, Geoffrey Bache, 8-10; 429

Smith of Wootton Major 351, 355, 370-1, 388-9; read at Blackfriars 370-1; title meant to suggest Wodehouse or Boy’s Own Paper 370; not intended for children 388-9; an old man’s book 389; Alf based on chef at Merton College 389

Snow Hill 70

Socialism 110

Somme, Battle of the 9-10, 53, 221, 303

Song of the Sybil (trans. Auden and Taylor) 379, 452

Sons of Fëanor see Fëanor (Sons of)

Soria Moria Castle 384

South Africa 68, 69, 73, 75, 90, 95, 321, 377, 438, 446; Tolkien’s memories of 68, 82, 85, 213, 219; longs to see again 92, 90; Mother hated, father liked 90; South African shares, patrimony 53, 437; racism in 73

Southern Star 266

Southfolk 187

Southrons see Haradrim

Spanish Civil War 95-6

Spanish language 21, 96, 213-4, 288, 318, 376; translation of The Hobbit 318

Sparta 107

Het Spectrum 265, 447

Spenser, Edmund 30, 143; The Faerie Queene 181

Spiders 217

Spiders, in Middle-earth 79, 180, 217

The Splendid Century (W.H. Lewis) 71, 83, 84, 93

Sportsmanship 93

Spring, Howard 184, 444

Stalin, Josef 64, 65, 66, 91, 307

Standardization, replacing variety 65, 89

Standerton, Transvaal 92, 112

Steinbeck, John, The Grapes of Wrath 131

Stenton, F.M., Anglo-Saxon England 108

Stevenson, Robert Louis, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde 124

Stewards see. Gondor

Stoors see Hobbits

The Story of Kullervo 7, 345, 434

Story-telling, in general 78, 100-1, 110, 285; and the journey 239-40

Straight, Michael 232-7

Straight road 156, 198, 410-11

Strider see Aragorn

Studies in Words (C.S. Lewis) 302

Sub-creation 145-6, 187-9, 190, 194-5, 210, 231, 232, 235; may be used wrongly 145-6, 194-5; in Tolkien’s mythology used to make visible the effects of sin or misused free will 195; and light 148; and Creation 188-9, 195; a kind of vast game 210

Suet see Suovctaurilius

Suffield family 54, 218, 377

Summer Diversions 39-40

Sun; in Tolkien’s mythology 148, 425; Anar 425; Light of Sun and Moron 148

Sunday Times 184, 415, 444

Suovetaurilius (Suet) 43, 133

Swann, Donald 389-90, 443; The Road Goes Ever On 389, 427

Swedish language 263; translation of The Hobbit 249, 251, 446; translation of LR 262-3, 304-7, 447, 448

Swertings see Haradrim

Swift, Jonathan, Gulliver’s Travels 26, 158

Switzerland, holiday by Tolkien 308-9, 391-3; longs to see again 123; source for incidents in The Hobbit 309, 391-2; source for Silvertine in LR 392

Sylvie and Bruno (Carroll) 22

Symbelmynë (Evermind) 106, 248

Szentmihályi, Peter Szaboo 414

 

– T –

The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen see The Lord of the Rings: Appendices

The Tale of Genji (Murasaki) 139

The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck (Potter) 251

The Tale of Lúthien Tinúviel and Beren see The Silmarillion

The Tale of Mrs Tiggywinkle (Potter) 251

Taliessin through Logres (Williams) 349, 361

Tangye Lean, Edward see Lean, Edward Tangye

Taniquetil see Amon Uilos

Taniquetil 19, 434

Tar-Atanamir 279, 448

Tar-Calion see Ar-Pharazôn

Tasarinan 334

The Task (Cowper) 72

Tay 219

Tayar, Graham 409-10

Taylor Institution, Oxford 109

T.C.B.S. (Tea Club and Barrovian Society) 8-10, 429

Technology see Machines

Teheran Conference 65, 438

Teleri see Elves

Telerin see Elvish

Telperion 426

The Tempest (Shakespeare) 77

Temptation 233-5, 252

Tengwar 223; Fëanorean (Elvish) alphabet, script 32, 132, 223, 344, 423, 442; tehtar 132; numerals 422-3; examples 132, 223, 224; invented alphabets 345-6

Thain 294, 295

Thame 39

Thangorodrim 180

That Hideous Strength see Lewis, C.S.

Thengel 254

Théoden 79, 104, 202; 225, 254, 276, 381, 409, 447

Thingol 282, 334, 346, 451; Elu Thingol 425

Third Age 154, 157-60, 175, 177, 178, 180, 183, 186, 199, 220, 224, 228, 230, 243, 280, 283, 289, 333, 425; history of 157-60; Twilight Age, Medium Aevum 154; not a Christian world 220

Thomas, Nicholas 390

Thompson, Mr 230-2

Thompson, Francis, The Hound of Heaven 340

Thompson, L.L.H. 7, 434

Thorin Oakenshield 31, 314, 334, 383, 406; name 314, 383

Thorondor 427

Thranduil 425

Thucydides, Fifth Book 356-8

Thror’s Map 14-15, 215

Through the Looking-glass (Carroll) 22, 94

Thurston. Meriel 422, 423

Tidwald 187

Tighfield 180, 444

Tiller, Terence 253-5

Time and Tide 206, 348, 445

The Time Machine (Wells) 121

Time-Life International 390

The Times (London) 23, 24-5, 41, 353, 415, 430, 435

Times Literary Supplement 18, 23, 41, 322, 435, 450

Tiw 269

To Nevill Coghill from Friends (ed. Lawlor and Auden) 359

Tobacco 266; smoking 288, 372; snuff 47; see also Pipe-weed

Tol Eressëa see Aman

Tolhurst, Denis 340, 401, 408, 430, 431, 431, 450

Tolhurst, Jocelyn 430

Tolhurst, Martin 432

Tolkien family 218, 377; surname 37-8, 218, 245, 357, 377, 410, 428-9, 446

Tolkien, Adam 430

Tolkien, Arthur 75, 397-8, 416, 438; grew to like South Africa 90; death 75, 377, 438

Tolkien, Baillie 430

Tolkien, Christopher 63-85, 86-112, 115-17, 169, 213, 245, 261, 264-5, 302, 397, 401, 403-4, 408-9, 420-1, 429-30, 440; 74, 78, 133, 247, 341, 415, 440, 453; special gift to his father in time of sorrow and mental suffering 76; named for Christopher Wiseman 395; health 28, 42, 435; at Dragon School 129; at Oratory school 22, 42; at Trinity College, Oxford 86, 117, 440; war service 63, 67, 70-1, 72-3, 75, 78, 82, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91, 105, 106-7, 111, 112, 115, 117, 321, 438. 439; a philologist like his father 247; University lecturer at Oxford 264; lecture on ‘Barbarians and Citizens’ 264-5, 447; arranges for his father to become resident Fellow at Merton 422; part of original audience for The Hobbit 21, 58; set to find errors in The Hobbit 28; approves LR 34, 58, 92, 105, 106, 110-11, 112, 122; likes ‘hobbit talk’ 36; LR written with him in mind 91, 103, 104, 112-13, 118; accredited student of hobbit-lore 247; has read The Silmarillion 130, 361, 451; see also the Lord of the Rings

Tolkien, Edith (Bratt) 7-8; 8, 23, 52-3, 54, 71, 79, 83, 163, 173, 316, 368, 373, 408, 415-17, 420-1, 434, 438; romance, marriage 7, 11, 52-3, 420-1, 437; children, birth of 11, 53, 76, 430; goes to theatre 79, 83, 94; musician 350; as Lúthien 417, 420; source of story in Silmarillion 420, 421; knew earliest forms of story 420; health 11, 44, 45, 166, 278, 296, 315, 316, 367, 401, 404, 409, 412; death 415-17, 420-1; grave 420

Tolkien, Faith 223, 245, 261; 369

Tolkien, Hilary 122, 395, 417, 452

Tolkien, John Benjamin 398

Tolkien, John Francis Reuel 161; 11, 53, 74, 133, 430; part of original audience for The Hobbit 21, 58; at Dragon School 129; approved LR 42, 44, 58; study in Italy for priesthood 44, 436; accompanied father to investiture 417

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Life and character: autobiographical accounts 12-13, 52-3, 212-16, 217-21, 288-9, 395; in fact a hobbit in all but size 288; Christian names 357, 397-8; form of address 120, 365-6, 397-8, 418, 434, 437, 452; appearance 74, 373; clothes 70, 108, 289; handwriting 222, 247, 311, 325, 336, 344, 358, 377, 397; letter-writing 336; writes in books 357-8; simple sense of humour 289; swift speech 372; does not remember dates 56; pessimism 401-1; romance, marriage 7, 11, 52-3, 420-1, 437; bereavement on death of wife 415-17, 420-1; children, birth of 11, 53, 76, 430; domestic duties 11, 58, 69, 73, 79, 80, 83, 86, 107, 108, 109, 114, 119; rides bicycle 69, 83, 86-7, 99, 101, 108-9; interviews 372-3; refuses to be photographed 372-3, 390; not a critic 126; employment see Leeds University, New Zealand Honours Examinations, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University, University College Dublin, Wales (University of); awarded D.Litt., Liège 181;

awarded D.Litt., Dublin 181, 219; receives C.B.E. 417-18; see also especially World War I, World War II

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Artistic abilities: 14-20, 28-9, 35, 42-3, 167, 186, 364-5; the author cannot draw 15; casual and careless pastime products 19; easier to write a story than draw 29; can only draw imperfectly what he can, and not what he sees 186; pattern-designing 342

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Food and drink: 69, 70, 74, 87, 102, 108, 265, 288-9, 314, 396-7, 401, 405, 408, 429, 430

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Gardening: 54, 71, 73, 74, 79, 83, 102, 107, 402-3, 436

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Health: 14, 22, 26, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 117, 132, 135, 138, 163, 166, 173, 196, 227, 229, 256, 297, 299, 316, 325, 334, 335, 340, 367, 372, 391, 395, 397, 401, 409, 416, 424, 429, 436; not being able to use pen or pencil as defeating as loss of her beak would be to a hen 335

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Homes: nomadic series of arrivals at houses or lodgings 430; Pusey Street (Alfred Street), Oxford 95; No. 22 Northmoor Road, Oxford 340, 440; No. 20 Northmoor Road, Oxford 45, 321, 344, 436, 441; Manor Road, Oxford 119, 321-2, 344, 441, 442; Holywell, Oxford 138, 140, 164, 344, 442; Sandfield Road, Oxford 166, 167, 261, 306, 344-5, 367, 368, 373, 391, 395; garage not really a study, works in ‘bedsitter’ 373; Lakeside Road, Poole (Bournemouth) 390, 391, 396-7, 405, 415, 416; problems of move, putting library in order 390, 395-6, 397; Merton Street, Oxford 415-17, 421-2

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Income: 24, 94, 208, 256, 336, 363-4, 416, 437; South African shares 53, 437; need to supplement income by examining, correcting papers, etc. 24, 36, 42, 163, 215, 436; pension 163, 256, 300, 316, 363; from writing 20, 43, 85, 186, 232, 245, 256, 300, 302, 315-16, 322, 363-4, 367; taxes, duties 256, 316, 340-1. 363, 404, 416, 453; made over greater part of literary income to his children 404, 453

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Music: loves music, but has no aptitude for it 173, 218; dislikes Jive, Boogie-Woogie 89, 111; inspired a composer 350; music gives him great pleasure and sometimes inspiration 350; complains about Beatle Group 345; heard Rigoletto 223

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Observations of nature, weather: 47, 68, 69, 73, 77, 79, 81, 84, 87, 90-1, 92, 94, 102, 106, 107, 108-9, 288, 302, 314, 319, 321, 381, 408, 417; see also Trees

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Poetry: 53, 160, 169, 186, 213, 322, 345, 347, 396; alliterative verse 219, 248, 379, 452; see also titles of individual poems

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Political opinions: 63-4, 215, 235, 244, 246; leans to Anarchy or ‘unconstitutional’ Monarchy 63; not a reformer nor an ’embalmer’ 197; not a ‘democrat’ except all equal before the Great Author 215; not a ‘democrat’ because humility and equality are corrupted 246; not a ‘socialist’, averse to ‘planning’ 235; opposes worshippers of State-God 244

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Projected writings: 81, 105, 113, 381, 403, 404, 409, 420-1, 440; see also Farmer Giles of Ham (sequels)

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Reading (in general): 7, 33, 34, 82, 144, 172, 214, 215, 225, 249, 258, 303, 353, 377, 402; cannot bear funny books 120; rarely reads a book twice 249; freshness of first reading 249; tries to read a lot of books, seldom likes modern books 377; personal library 406; books on African exploration 30; botany books 402; brought up in the classics 172; not much to like in English literature 172; fairy tales, myths, legends 30, 144; fantasy 377; read a good deal about Mesopotamia 384; science-fiction 33-4,377

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Religion: 9-10, 48-52, 55, 66, 74, 75-6, 79, 80, 99-102, 172, 188-95, 286, 288, 337-40, 341, 354, 393-5; professes Roman Catholic faith 172, 255, 288, 339; owes faith to his mother 54, 172, 340, 353-4, 473; regrets lapses 340; Church once felt like a refuge, now often feels like a trap 393; served Mass at Oratory as a boy 395; attends, feelings about Communion, Eucharist, Mass 7, 53-4, 66, 67, 84, 115, 288, 323, 338-40, 341, 450; confession 67, 392; ‘praises’ in Latin 66; prayer (in general) 401; comments on sermons 75, 80, 99-100; Quarant’Ore 99, 440; takes St John the Evangelist as his patron 397

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Theatre: cannot bear funny plays 120; used to like ‘acting’ 390; impersonates Chaucer 39-40; goes to theatre 88, 94, 102

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel ; Writer: 80, 85, 194-5, 219, 440; procrastinator 18; stole time from professional work for writing stories 24, 238, 301; usually composes with difficulty and endless rewriting 113; a niggler, pedant 313, 372; notorious beginner and non-finisher 257; possessed on occasion with a furor scribendi 126; desire for recognition 122, 128, 211, 311; cannot write in any other manner 311; fear of exposing works to world 26, 172, 366; clearly visualizes scenery and ‘natural’ objects, not artefacts 280

Tolkien, Mabel 54, 218, 397-8, 437, 438, 452; had cross put on husband’s grave 75; hated South Africa 90; spoke of its racism 73; suffered for her Catholicism 54, 172, 340, 353-4, 437; death 54, 340, 353-4, 377, 416, 434, 437; and Tolkien’s interest in language 214, 218, 377; his earliest teacher 218, 377

Tolkien, Michael George Reuel 335-6, 352, 363-4, 369-71; 340, 370; first heard of LR when thirteen 306; student at St. Andrews 340, 343, 45; graduate student at Oxford 370

Tolkien, Michael Hilary Reuel 22-3, 46-56, 322-3, 336-42, 353-4, 391-6, 403, 404, 415-17; 11, 22, 42, 79, 133, 164, 443; part of original audience for The Hobbit 21, 58; at Dragon School 129; at Oxford University 46, 79, 86, 439; approved LR 58; war service 46, 47, 54, 86, 439; and vision of Great Wave 213, 232, 445; and writing letters 336; sagging faith 337; visits Switzerland 391

Tolkien, Priscilla Mary Reuel 341, 431-2; 23, 24, 71, 79, 83, 89, 99, 101, 129, 133, 165, 353, 417, 430, 435, 438; reading 89, 92; goes to theatre 79, 83, 94; accompanied father to Italy 223; accompanied father to investiture 417

Tolkien, Rachel 430

Tolkien, Simon 306

Tolkien in Oxford 389-90

Tolkien on Tolkien 221

Tolkien Society of America 359-62; 359, 360-1, 367, 368

Took family 24, 31, 293, 294-5, 448; office of Thain 295

Took, Belladonna 294

Took, Ferumbras 295

Took, Fortinbras II 294, 448

Took, Gerontius 295

Took, Lalia 294-5, 448

Took, Pearl 295

Took, Peregrin (Pippin) 214, 276, 295, 334, 376, 413, 447; 448; meaning of Peregrin 224

Topolski, Feliks 130

Torthelm 187

Torture 233-4, 252, 253, 326-7; and disruption of personality, compared to Mordor and the Ring 234

Tramp like St Joseph 101

Tree and Leaf 335, 342; Tolkien would have preferred reprint of Monsters and the Critics, On Fairy-Stories, Beorthnoth 349-50; art in American edition 351-2

The Tree of Antalion 342, 451

Treebeard 164, 187, 190, 211, 223, 307-8, 334

Trees 63, 73, 77, 96, 102, 107, 220, 275, 288, 321, 408, 419-20; and Leaf by Niggle 321, 450; art in American Tree and Leaf 352; Tolkien in love with trees 220; finds mistreatment of them hard to bear 220, 321, 420; every tree has its enemy, few have an advocate 321; in all his works takes the part of trees as against their enemies 419; has more than one version of a mythical ‘tree’ 342; see also Mallorn, The Tree of Amalion, Two Trees, White Tree, Willow (Old Man)

Trend, Burke 353

Trinity, Blessed 146

Trinity College, Oxford 46, 86, 117, 124, 131, 208, 445

Trollope, Anthony 61

Trolls, in legend 314

Trolls, in Tolkien’s mythology 30, 119, 187, 190, 191, 251, 406; Stone-trolls 191; mere ‘counterfeits’, return to stone when not in the dark 191; troll mere modern equivalent of the correct term 251; Tolkien not convinced that trolls have ‘souls’ 191

The Trolls 16

Trotter see Aragorn

Trought, V. 429

Troy 376

Truth, eucatastrophe a sudden glimpse of Truth 100; Allegory and Story meet in Truth 121; myth and fairy-story must contain moral and religious truth 144; legends and myths largely made of ‘truth’ 147; one object of Tolkien’s fiction the elucidation of truth 194; fairy-story has own mode of reflecting ‘truth’ 233; see also Invention

Truth 184, 444

The Truth about Publishing (S. Unwin) 348

Tuor 193, 194, 282, 361, 386; and ‘immortality’ 193

Turgon 193, 386

Túrin Turambar 150, 434

Turville-Petre, Gabriel 67, 182, 438

Turville-Petre, Merlin Oswald 182

The Two Towers see The Lord of the Rings

Two Trees 148, 387, 427

Tyndall, Denis 342-3

Typewriter, Hammond model 86, 439; Tolkien dreams of electric model with Fëanorian script 344

The Ugly Duckling (Andersen) 232

 

– U –

Ulmo 386

Ulster 95, 350

Umbar 205

Ungoliante 180

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 47, 63, 89, 111, 115; Russian revolution 307; Samoyedes 64

United States of America, Americans 89, 115, 238, 261, 355, 356, 362, 364; American illustration 17; sanitation, morale-pep, feminism and mass production 65; preconceptions about British 69; accents 69-70; servicemen 69-70, 87, 95, 439; imperialism 115; different mental climate and soil, polluted and impoverished 412; lunatic destruction of the physical lands which Americans inhabit 412; U.S. copyright see Copyright

University College Dublin 219

University College, Oxford 91, 162, 387-8

University Museum, Oxford 27, 435

University Parks, Oxford 115

Unwin, Camilla 399-400

Unwin, David (David Severn) 112, 113, 117

Unwin, Harold ‘Chris’ 112, 440

Unwin, Merlin 181-2

Unwin, Rayner 161-71, 173, 181-2, 184-5, 208, 209-10, 229-30, 249-51, 256-7, 260-1, 262-4, 265-7, 301-2, 309, 312-15, 342, 349, 355-6, 362-3, 364-5, 379, 391, 411, 417-18; 25, 112, 117, 123, 124, 163, 170, 335, 361, 441, 443, 451; original reader of The hobbit 23-4, 131, 135, 215, 346; reads, criticizes, approves LR 29, 34, 36, 38, 119-22, 124, 131, 135, 137, 140; naval cadet at Oxford 85-6, 112; at Trinity College, Oxford 131; recommends publication of LR 140; LR would not have been published without him 215, 256; becomes head of Allen & Unwin 411; helps arrange fest-schrift for Tolkien 322-3; Tolkien likes very much 135; asks him to drop Professor 365; asks him to use his Christian name 418; thanks him for kindnesses, friendship 379; thanks him for arrangements when Tolkien received C.B.E. 417-18; see also The Lord of the Rings

Unwin, Stanley 23-7, 29, 32-5, 36-7, 41, 43-6, 58, 85-6, 112-14, 117-23, 124, 135-9, 140-1, 142, 322, 335; 14, 21, 27, 28, 123, 139, 140, 141, 261, 316, 346, 411, 435, 441, 442; Tolkien gives him manuscripts to consider 25-6; congratulates hint on knighthood 117; agrees to drop courtesy titles 120; has friendly personal relations with but does not much like him 135; the one most often to make Tolkien apprehensive 348; The Truth about Publishing 348; see also The Lord of the Rings

Uppsala 306

‘Urukhai’ used figuratively 78, 90

Utumno, fortress of the Devil 376

 

– V –

Valandil 386

Vale of Anduin 381

Valedictory Address 396, 452

Valimar see Aman

Valinor see Aman

Varda 206, 278, 282-3; Elbereth 193, 206, 278, 282-3, 288; Queen of the Blessed Realm 206; Fanuilos 278; meaning of names 278, 282-3

Vendryes, Joseph 25

Venice 223

Venus (planet) 385

Verdi, Giuseppe, Rigoletto 223

Vergil 201; Aeneid 93, 435, 440

Victoria (Queen) 230, 235, 393

Viga-Glúms Saga (ed. G. Turville-Petre) 36, 436

Vigfusson, Gudbrandur 397

Viking Club, Leeds 13

Villalba Rubio, José 96

Vilya see Rings of Power

Virgin Mary see Mary, Virgin

Void 150, 155

Volapük 231, 446

Volsungakvida En Nyja 379, 452

Völsungs 379

Völuspá 379, 383, 452

Voorhoeve en Dietrich 265, 267

The Voyage of Earendel the Evening Star 8, 385, 434

A Voyage to Arcturus (Lindsay) 34, 436

Vulgar and Common Errors (Browne) 319, 449

 

– W –

Wainriders 248

Waldman, Milton 134-5, 139-90, 143-61; see also The Lord of the Rings: Collins episode

Waldron, Molly 228

Wales 130, 219, 289, 319-20; never walked in Wales in his youth 307; Welsh people 450

Wales, University of, Cardiff 67, 114; examination papers 68, 71, 438

Walloping Window-blind 104

Walton, William 95, 440

The Wanderer (Old English text) 212, 445

War 46, 73, 75-6, 78; one war enough for any man 54; sympathy for the plain soldier 54-5; martial glory and true glory 79; in real life good and bad on both sides 82, 90; and feeling of Delenda est Carthago 89; wars are always lost, and The War always goes on 116; ‘victors’ never can enjoy ‘victory’ 235; see also Spanish Civil War, World War I, World War II

Wargs see Wolves

Warlock, Peter 96

Warwick 8

Warwickshire 230, 235

Wayland Smith 307

Weathertop 273, 331; name used figuratively 430

Webster, Deborah 288-9

Wells, H.G., The Time Machine 121

A Welsh Grammar (Morris-Jones) 320

Welsh language 12, 26, 134, 178, 214, 218-19, 289, 320, 345, 426, 450; English attitude to 426;

British-Welsh 176; Welsh scholarship and philology a faction-fight 320; language of heaven 320, 450; and Welsh rabbit 320; Tolkien did not learn any Welsh until an undergraduate 213; saw Welsh names on coal-trucks 213; abiding linguistic-aesthetic satisfaction with 213; and Sindarin 176, 219

Welsh Marches 218, 307

Welsh Review 118

Wesleyan Methodist Conference 395

West, peoples opposed to Sauron 179, 413; see also Aman

West Midlands, Tolkien and his family West-Midlanders 54, 108, 213, 218; and Battle of Maldon 213

Westernesse see Númenor

Westron see Common Speech

The Whale (Old English text) 343-4

White, William Luther 387-8

White Council 122

White Horse (pub), Oxford 67, 74

White Tree 206, 217

Who is Who 305

The Wild 31

Wild Flowers of the Cape Peninsula (Kidd) 401, 453

Wilderland 290, 296

Wilderland 14-15

Wilhelm II, Kaiser 55

Wilkinson, C.H. 119, 441

Willesden 63

William (troll) 187, 191

William, Charles 65, 67, 71, 72, 74, 84, 92-3, 94, 95, 102, 103, 105-6, 118, 122, 209, 339, 341, 342, 349, 361-2, 438; All Hallows Eve 349; The Region of the Summer Stars 349, 361; Taliessin through Logres 349, 361; and the Inklings see Inklings; heard, approved LR 71, 73, 79, 81, 84, 122; influence on C.S. Lewis 342, 349, 361; influence lessened ties between Tolkien and Lewis 341, 349; death 115; Tolkien grew to admire and love him 115; he and Williams enjoyed each other’s company but differed in thought 209, 349, 361-2; does not think they influenced each other 209; disliked his Arthurian-Byzantine mythology 349

Williams, Michal 115

Willow, Old Man 192; Willowman 228

Wilson, John 217

Wilson, Mrs M. 249

The Wind in the Willows (Grahame) 63, 90, 182

Wireless 72

The Wise 158, 160, 190

Wiseman, Christopher L. 8-10, 343, 395, 429, 432, 451

Wiseman, Frederick Luke 395

Witch-king see Ringwraiths

Wizards 159, 180, 190, 192, 202, 203, 207, 231, 237, 248, 262, 277, 282, 284, 287, 290, 448; emissaries 180, 182, 192, 202, 207, 237, 282, 332; Istari 180, 202, 207, 282, 287; angelic beings 159, 202, 237; appearance 159, 180, 182, 202; incarnate, so could suffer 159, 202, 237; could err 202, 237, 287; Gandalf alone fully passed the test 202; sent to encourage enemies of evil 159, 180, 202, 207, 237; a mystery 190; not allegorical of five senses 262; names conferred by Elves 282; two unnamed wizards 231, 248, 277, 280, 448; meaning of wizard 159, 180, 207; see also Ainur, Gandalf, Radagast, Saruman

Wodehouse, P.G. 370

Wolves 274; Wargs 381; ‘White Wolves’ used figuratively 314

Women, relations with men 48-52; Tolkien thinks woman registrar improper 62; ‘male’ and ‘female’ attitudes to wild things 212

Women, in The Lord of the Rings 220

Woody End 239

Woorroo (Gard) 309, 448

Worcester College, Oxford 119, 441

Worcestershire 54, 218, 377

Wordsworth, William 95, 353

World see Arda, Middle-earth

World Science Fiction Convention 261

World War I, Tolkien in University Officers’ Training Corps 7; pitched into it what full of stuff to write 46; despite scorn, completed Oxford degree before enlisting 53; was very inefficient and unmilitary 54; with Lancashire Fusiliers 8-10, 12, 37, 53; at Rugeley Camp, Staffordshire 8; with Humber Garrison 221, 345, 420; in hospital, on sick leave 83, 215, 221, 231, 345, 366; death of friends 9-10; remembers wartime France, would visit again if he could 111; Northern France after the Somme, and LR 303; Tolkien’s feelings about the war generated Morgoth and the History of the Gnomes 78, 85; conditions at the front 10, 72, 77, 78, 111, 231; U-Boat campaign and starvation-year 53; Battle of Cambrai 53; Battle of the Somme 9, 53, 221, 303; Maginot Line 395

World War II 44, 47, 55, 58, 59, 63, 65-6, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 76, 78, 83-4, 86, 87, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 102, 105, 109, 111, 112, 115-16, 257, 303, 320, 361, 436, 438, 439; war news 47, 65, 66, 73, 77, 83, 84, 89, 93, 97, 111, 115-16, 437, 439; air raid sirens 47, 74; blackout 67, 92; censorship of mail 65, 67, 71, 72; shortages 69, 71, 74, 86, 92, 95, 103; ‘corduroy panzers’ 96; war in Pacific 115; atomic bomb 116, 303; War of the Machines 111; cryptographical department of Foreign Office 42, 436; Tolkien permanently reserved 55; air raid warden 58, 63, 67, 71, 74, 81, 82, 115, 437, 438; virtual head of English department at Oxford with outbreak of war 44; increased workload 45, 58, 117; organized English syllabus for naval and air cadets at Oxford 54, 59, 71, 83, 85, 86, 94, 112, 437, 439; concern, sympathy for sons 46, 54-5, 71, 72, 73, 76, 77, 78, 86, 90, 105, 112, 115; evacuee family billeted with Tolkiens 46; keeps hens 67, 73, 74, 82, 87, 102, 438; stock of Hobbit burnt 58; hatred of war in the air 105, 115; rejects propaganda 93; rejects justification for genocide 93; criticizes gloating over defeated 111; wonders and fears what peace will bring 48, 89, 91; and LR 216, 235

The Worm Ouroboros (Eddison) 84, 220, 258, 377, 439, 447

Wormings 137

Wormtongue 201

Worskett, Col. 333-5

Wrenn, CL 43, 46, 161, 238; succeeded Tolkien as Professor of Anglo-Saxon 117, 238, 443; English and Medieval Studies Presented to J.R.R. Tolkien (ed. Davis and Wrenn) 322-3

Wright, E.M. 11; 74, 438

Wright, Joseph 11, 22, 336, 397, 438; English Dialed Dictionary 11; A Grammar of the Gothic Language 357; Primer of the Gothic Language 357, 397

‘Wrigley’, Mr 418

Wyke-Smith, E.A., The Marvellous Land of Snergs 215

Wyld, H.C.K. 108, 114

 

– X –

Xerxes 64

 

– Y –

Yavanna 285, 335

Yiddish language 410

Young, Brigham 51

Youth, modern 393

 

– Z –

Zimmerman, Morton Grady 266-7, 270-7

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